Abstract

Multi-view three-dimensional (3-D) displays using directional beam splitter array were proposed to achieve a perfect 3-D perception with low cross-talk. The multi-direction collimated light may project different images to different viewing zones to form the multi-view autostereoscopic display. Furthermore, a high resolution 3-D display can be realized with a sequential beam splitter array and a sequential liquid crystal display. By optimization, the cross-talk of the directional beam splitter backlight system was lowered to 5% to improve the perception of the 3-D displays.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

Y. Pan and A. Steed, “Effects of 3D perspective on head gaze estimation with a multi-view autostereoscopic display,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 86, 138–148 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Kwon and H. J. Choi, “A time-sequential mutli-view autostereoscopic display without resolution loss using a multi-directional backlight unit and an LCD panel,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82881Y (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Mphepo, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, and J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal(MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Research 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. H. Chen, Y. P. Huang, S. C. Chuang, C. L. Wu, H. P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C. T. Hsieh, and S. C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D display,” Computer 8(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

L. Lipton and M. Feldman, “A new autostereoscopic display technology: the synthaGram,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 229–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Pastoor and M. Wöpking, “3-D displays: A review of current technologies,” Displays 17(2), 100–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

Akio, T.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brug, J.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, W. C.

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, Y. P. Huang, S. C. Chuang, C. L. Wu, H. P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C. T. Hsieh, and S. C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. P.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, and J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal(MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Research 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chien, K. W.

K. W. Chien and H. P. D. Shieh, “Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 3106–3110 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Chien and H. P. D. Shieh, “53.2: 3D mobile display based on sequentially switching backlight with focusing foil,” SID Symp. Digest35(1), 1434–1437 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. J.

H. Kwon and H. J. Choi, “A time-sequential mutli-view autostereoscopic display without resolution loss using a multi-directional backlight unit and an LCD panel,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82881Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. C.

de Boer, D. K. G.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “28.1: Invited Paper: multi-view 3D displays,” SID Symp. Digest38(1), 1154–1157 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Zwart, S. T.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “28.1: Invited Paper: multi-view 3D displays,” SID Symp. Digest38(1), 1154–1157 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D display,” Computer 8(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ezra, D.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldman, M.

L. Lipton and M. Feldman, “A new autostereoscopic display technology: the synthaGram,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 229–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrold, J.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

He, G.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, G. F.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hiddink, M. G. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “28.1: Invited Paper: multi-view 3D displays,” SID Symp. Digest38(1), 1154–1157 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holliman, N. S.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. T.

Hsu, C. Y.

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. C.

Hsu, Y. T.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. F.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, and J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal(MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Research 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. P.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, and J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal(MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Research 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Mphepo, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, Y. P. Huang, S. C. Chuang, C. L. Wu, H. P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C. T. Hsieh, and S. C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y. M.

Y. M. Ji and J. H. Park, “Dual layered display that presents auto-stereoscopic 3D images to multiple viewers in arbitrary positions,” SID Symp. Digest80(4), 1079–1082 (2016).

John, C. S.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Jones, G. R.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kamei, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kenji, N.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Kollin, J. S.

K. Perlin, S. Paxia, and J. S. Kollin, “An autostereoscopic display,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2000), pp. 319–326.

Krijn, M. P. C. M.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “28.1: Invited Paper: multi-view 3D displays,” SID Symp. Digest38(1), 1154–1157 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kwon, H.

H. Kwon and H. J. Choi, “A time-sequential mutli-view autostereoscopic display without resolution loss using a multi-directional backlight unit and an LCD panel,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82881Y (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. C.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lien, A.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, F. C.

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lipton, L.

L. Lipton and M. Feldman, “A new autostereoscopic display technology: the synthaGram,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 229–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lo, C. C.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

Y. J. Wang, S. H. Ouyang, W. C. Chao, J. G. Lu, and H. P. D. Shieh, “High directional backlight using an integrated light guide plate,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1567–1575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

Lu, J.-G.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michael, S.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Miyashita, T.

K. Toyooka, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “13.2: The 3D display using field‐sequential LCD with light direction controlling back‐light,” SID Symp. Digest32(1), 174–177 (2001).
[Crossref]

Moseley, R. R.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mphepo, W.

W. Mphepo, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mphepö, W.

Nago, N.

Nakanuma, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ni, S. B.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

Ni, S.-B.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, S. H.

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan and A. Steed, “Effects of 3D perspective on head gaze estimation with a multi-view autostereoscopic display,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 86, 138–148 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Y. M. Ji and J. H. Park, “Dual layered display that presents auto-stereoscopic 3D images to multiple viewers in arbitrary positions,” SID Symp. Digest80(4), 1079–1082 (2016).

Pastoor, S.

S. Pastoor and M. Wöpking, “3-D displays: A review of current technologies,” Displays 17(2), 100–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

Paxia, S.

K. Perlin, S. Paxia, and J. S. Kollin, “An autostereoscopic display,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2000), pp. 319–326.

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perlin, K.

K. Perlin, S. Paxia, and J. S. Kollin, “An autostereoscopic display,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2000), pp. 319–326.

Ping Chen, C.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robert, B.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Shen, T. C.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, and J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal(MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Research 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P. D.

Y. J. Wang, S. H. Ouyang, W. C. Chao, J. G. Lu, and H. P. D. Shieh, “High directional backlight using an integrated light guide plate,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1567–1575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Mphepo, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, Y. P. Huang, S. C. Chuang, C. L. Wu, H. P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C. T. Hsieh, and S. C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. W. Chien and H. P. D. Shieh, “Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 3106–3110 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Chien and H. P. D. Shieh, “53.2: 3D mobile display based on sequentially switching backlight with focusing foil,” SID Symp. Digest35(1), 1434–1437 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, X.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steed, A.

Y. Pan and A. Steed, “Effects of 3D perspective on head gaze estimation with a multi-view autostereoscopic display,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 86, 138–148 (2016).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. Y.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tan, J.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

Tanabe, T.

Y. Yoshihara, H. Ujike, and T. Tanabe, “3D cross-talk of stereoscopic (3D) display using patterned retarder and corresponding glasses,” Proc. IDW15, 1135–1138 (2008).

Tetsuo, F.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Ting, C. H.

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, K.

K. Toyooka, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “13.2: The 3D display using field‐sequential LCD with light direction controlling back‐light,” SID Symp. Digest32(1), 174–177 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tran, T.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, H. W.

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

K. Toyooka, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “13.2: The 3D display using field‐sequential LCD with light direction controlling back‐light,” SID Symp. Digest32(1), 174–177 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ujike, H.

Y. Yoshihara, H. Ujike, and T. Tanabe, “3D cross-talk of stereoscopic (3D) display using patterned retarder and corresponding glasses,” Proc. IDW15, 1135–1138 (2008).

Vo, S.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. J.

Y. J. Wang, S. H. Ouyang, W. C. Chao, J. G. Lu, and H. P. D. Shieh, “High directional backlight using an integrated light guide plate,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1567–1575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

Wang, Y.-J.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Willemsen, O. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “28.1: Invited Paper: multi-view 3D displays,” SID Symp. Digest38(1), 1154–1157 (2007).
[Crossref]

William, B.

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Woodgate, G. J.

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wöpking, M.

S. Pastoor and M. Wöpking, “3-D displays: A review of current technologies,” Displays 17(2), 100–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. L.

Wu, D. Q.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.-Q.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. H.

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshihara, Y.

Y. Yoshihara, H. Ujike, and T. Tanabe, “3D cross-talk of stereoscopic (3D) display using patterned retarder and corresponding glasses,” Proc. IDW15, 1135–1138 (2008).

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhen, T.

Y. Zhu and T. Zhen, “3D multi-view autostereoscopic display and its key technologie,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Information Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 31–35.
[Crossref]

Zhong, E. W.

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

Zhong, E.-W.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. L.

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

Zhu, J.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu and T. Zhen, “3D multi-view autostereoscopic display and its key technologie,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Information Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 31–35.
[Crossref]

3D Research (1)

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, T. C. Shen, and J. F. Huang, “Autostereoscopic 3D display with scanning multi-electrode driven liquid crystal(MeD-LC) lens,” 3D Research 1(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.-L. Zhu, S.-B. Ni, Y. Song, E.-W. Zhong, Y.-J. Wang, C. Ping Chen, Z. Ye, G. He, D.-Q. Wu, X.-L. Song, J.-G. Lu, and Y. Su, “Improved Kerr constant and response time of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a reactive diluents,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D display,” Computer 8(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

S. Pastoor and M. Wöpking, “3-D displays: A review of current technologies,” Displays 17(2), 100–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. (1)

Y. Pan and A. Steed, “Effects of 3D perspective on head gaze estimation with a multi-view autostereoscopic display,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 86, 138–148 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

W. Mphepo, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, F. C. Lin, Y. T. Hsu, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “A Field Sequential Color LCD Based on Color Fields Arrangement for Color Breakup and Flicker Reduction,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(1), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

S. B. Ni, H. J. Li, S. Li, J. L. Zhu, J. Tan, X. Y. Sun, C. P. Chen, G. F. He, D. Q. Wu, K. C. Lee, C. C. Lo, A. Lien, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Low-voltage blue-phase liquid crystal with polyaniline-functionalized graphene nanosheets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(9), 1730–1735 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (4)

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Kwon and H. J. Choi, “A time-sequential mutli-view autostereoscopic display without resolution loss using a multi-directional backlight unit and an LCD panel,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82881Y (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Lipton and M. Feldman, “A new autostereoscopic display technology: the synthaGram,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 229–235 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. J. Woodgate, D. Ezra, J. Harrold, N. S. Holliman, G. R. Jones, and R. R. Moseley, “Observer-tracking autostereoscopic 3D display systems,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 187–198 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (13)

K. W. Chien and H. P. D. Shieh, “53.2: 3D mobile display based on sequentially switching backlight with focusing foil,” SID Symp. Digest35(1), 1434–1437 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. J. Wang, S. B. Ni, J. L. Zhu, E. W. Zhong, and J. G. Lu, “Research for low dynamic cross-talk of scanning liquid crystal prism type 3D display,” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1192–1194 (2013).

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. de Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, D. K. G. de Boer, and M. P. C. M. Krijn, “28.1: Invited Paper: multi-view 3D displays,” SID Symp. Digest38(1), 1154–1157 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu and T. Zhen, “3D multi-view autostereoscopic display and its key technologie,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Information Processing (IEEE, 2009), pp. 31–35.
[Crossref]

Y. M. Ji and J. H. Park, “Dual layered display that presents auto-stereoscopic 3D images to multiple viewers in arbitrary positions,” SID Symp. Digest80(4), 1079–1082 (2016).

K. Perlin, S. Paxia, and J. S. Kollin, “An autostereoscopic display,” in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2000), pp. 319–326.

I. Lux and L. Koblinger, Monte Carlo Particle Transport Methods: Neutron and Photon Calculations (Chemical Rubber Company, 1991).

Wallace and P. Thomas, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation by Milton Kerker (Academic, 1969).

H. J. Im, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. K. Hong, and H. H. Shin, “20.1: Mobile 3D displays based on a LTPS 2.4” VGA LCD panel attached with lenticular lens sheets,” SID Symp. Digest 39(1), 256–259 (2008).

C. S. John, B. Robert, S. Michael, B. William, F. Tetsuo, N. Kenji, and T. Akio, “11.5 L: Late‐News Paper: full resolution autostereoscopic 3D display for mobile applications,” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 127–130 (2009).

Y. Yoshihara, H. Ujike, and T. Tanabe, “3D cross-talk of stereoscopic (3D) display using patterned retarder and corresponding glasses,” Proc. IDW15, 1135–1138 (2008).

C. H. Ting, C. Y. Hsu, C. H. Yang, Y. P. Huang, H. W. Tsai, and C. C. Yu, “34.3: Multi‐user 3D film on directional sequential backlight system,” SID Symp. Digest42(1), 460–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Toyooka, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “13.2: The 3D display using field‐sequential LCD with light direction controlling back‐light,” SID Symp. Digest32(1), 174–177 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The (a) top view and (b) front view structure of the collimated backlight, (c) angular distributions of the collimated backlight.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of 3-D display with directional collimated beam splitter, (b) spatial multi-view 3-D display, and (c) time sequential 3-D display
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The cross-section of the 5th horizontal row.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The theory of the angle calculation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The luminance distribution of the spatial 9*9 view 3-D display system
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) 2-view prototype, (b)luminance distributions of both simulation and experiment 2-view 3-D display and two light spots from the 2-view prototype, (c) the profile of beam splitters array under scanning electron microscope (SEM), and (d) comparison between ideal and real profile of micro structure.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Luminance spatial distribution
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Luminance distribution for full color system
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The profile of pyramid micro-prism in beam splitter array
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The luminance distribution of time sequential 2*2 view 3-D display

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Angle parameters of the 5th row

Equations (1)

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Cross talk = 1 00 % * I min / ( I max + I min )

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