Abstract

The refractive index distribution of cells and tissues governs their interaction with light and can report on morphological modifications associated with disease. Through intensity-based measurements, refractive index information can be extracted only via scattering models that approximate light propagation. As a result, current knowledge of refractive index distributions across various tissues and cell types remains limited. Here we use quantitative phase imaging and the statistical dispersion relation (SDR) to extract information about the refractive index variance in a variety of specimens. Due to the phase-resolved measurement in three-dimensions, our approach yields refractive index results without prior knowledge about the tissue thickness. With the recent progress in quantitative phase imaging systems, we anticipate that using SDR will become routine in assessing tissue optical properties.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

M. Shan, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, “Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2490–2492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2009 (3)

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Backman, V.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Balla, A.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloom, S. L.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
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Braun, P. V.

Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budka, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, D. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
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Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
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Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chikoidze, E.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Collier, T.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Culver, J. P.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dehghani, H.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demichele, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dhar, A.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dichtl, S.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Do Rschel, K.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Espinoza, J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fercher, A. F.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friebel, M.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Glatstein, E.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Graf, R. N.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillaud, M.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartman, D. J.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, K. S.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

Kandel, M. E.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keefe, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kogel, C.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konecky, S. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaFace, J.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanning, R.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, T.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibowitz, B.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Liu, Y.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lovat, L. B.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, X. H.

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Macaulay, C.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macias, V.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majeed, H.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Metz, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihi, A.

Miles, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millet, L.

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moritz, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu Ller, G.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munger, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nastasa, V.

Nines, R.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Novelli, M. R.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
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V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
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Park, Y.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
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Pathak, S.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
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Paulsen, K. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
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Perelman, L. T.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
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K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
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V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
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S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
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Pham, T.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
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Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
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Pogue, B. W.

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
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B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
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Popescu, G.

M. Shan, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, “Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2490–2492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
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T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
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H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
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Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
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Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Scattering-phase theorem,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1215–1217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
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Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

Preusser, M.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pyhtila, J. W.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, D. J.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robl, B.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

Roggan, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnall, M. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, M.

Shapshay, S. M.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
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Sheetse, E. E.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Soho, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solonenko, M.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, X.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sperr, W.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sridharan, S.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, V. E.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoner, G. D.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Svaasand, L.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tangella, K.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tchou, J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uttam, S.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wax, A.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, R.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T. C.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caries Res. (1)

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (16)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neoplasia (1)

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE Press, 2007), Vol. 642.

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-HillNew York, 2011).

Supplementary Material (6)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (755 KB)      SLIM images of a neuron, with the color bar indicates phase in radians
» Visualization 2: MP4 (487 KB)      The phase second order derivative along x of the data in Video 1. The color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/µm)^2, as explained in the Fig. 2c caption.
» Visualization 3: MP4 (6152 KB)      SLIM images of a colon biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians
» Visualization 4: MP4 (6141 KB)      The phase second order derivative along x of the data in Video 3. The color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/µm)^2, as explained in the Fig. 3c caption.
» Visualization 5: MP4 (7400 KB)      SLIM images of a papillary thyroid cancer biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians
» Visualization 6: MP4 (6595 KB)      The phase second order derivative along x of the data in Video 5. The color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/µm)^2, as explained in the Fig. 3c caption.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scattering geometry, Ui, ki are the incident field and wavevector. (b) Momentum conservation: ki and ks are the incident and scattered wave vector, ��kx and ��kz are the variance of the components of the transverse wave vector, θ is the scattering angle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SLIM image of a neuron, with the color bar indicates phase in radians (Visualization 1). (b) Map of ϕ x , with the color bar indicates phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of | ϕ x | 2 , with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 2). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SLIM image of a colon biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians (Visualization 3). (b) Map of ϕ x , with the color bar indicating phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of | ϕ x | 2 , with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 4). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(h) SLIM images of different colon biopsies, with the color bar indicating phase in radians. (i) the refractive index variance ��n for (a)-(h).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SLIM image of a papillary thyroid cancer biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians (Visualization 5). (b) Map of ϕ x , with the color bar indicating phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of | ϕ x | 2 , with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 6). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)-(h) SLIM images of different papillary thyroid cancer biopsies, with the color bar indicates phase in radians. (i) the refractive index variance ��n for (a)-(h)

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 2 = n 0 2 β 0 2 ( 1+ σ n 2 n 0 2 )
Γ 01 ( r )= U 0 ( r,t ) U 1 ( r,t+τ )| τ=0 =| Γ 01 ( r ) | e iϕ( r )
k 2 = k 2 | U( k ) | 2 d 3 k | U( k ) | 2 d 3 k = ( k x 2 + k y 2 + k z 2 ) | U( k ) | 2 d 3 k | U( k ) | 2 d 3 k .
| U( k,ω ) | 2 d 3 k=8 π 3 | U( r,ω ) | 2 d 3 r.
k x U( k,ω ) 1 i U( r,ω ) x
k x 2 = | U( r,ω ) x | 2 d 3 r | U( r,ω ) | 2 d 3 r .
U( r,ω )=A( ω )exp[ iϕ( r ) ],
k x 2 = | ϕ( r,ω ) x | 2 d 3 r .
σ n 2 = 1 β 0 2 | ϕ | 2

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