Abstract

A wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) is a small mobile device used for long-term brain monitoring systems. Applications of these systems include fatigue monitoring, mental/emotional monitoring, and brain–computer interfaces. However, the usage of wireless wearable EEG systems is limited due to the risks posed by the wireless RF communication radiation in a long-term exposure to the human brain. A novel microwave radiation-free system was developed by integrating visible light communication technology into a wearable EEG device. In this work, we investigated the system’s performance in transmitting EEG data at different illuminance level and proposed an algorithm that functions at low illuminance levels for increased transmission distance. Using a 30 Hz smartphone camera, the proposed system was able to transmit 2.4 kbps of error-free EEG data up to 4 meter, which is equal to ~300 lux using an aspheric focus lens.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Lai, “Neurological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields,” http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/sec09_2012_Evidence_%20Effects_%20%20Neurology_behavior.pdf .
  2. Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible Light Communication Using Receivers of Camera Image Sensor and Solar Cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–7 (2016).
  3. S. H. Lee, “A passive transponder for visible light identification using a solar cell,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(10), 5398–5403 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Ong and W. Y. Chung, “Long range VLC temperature monitoring system using CMOS of mobile device camera,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(6), 1508–1509 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using CMOS Camera Sensor for Visible Light Communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
    [Crossref]
  8. R. D. Roberts, “Undersampled Frequency Shift ON-OFF Keying (UFSOOK) for Camera Communications (CamCom),” in Proceedings 22nd Wireless and Opt. Comm. Conference (WOCC, 2013), pp. 645–648.
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
    [Crossref]
  10. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Thresholding schemes for visible light communications with CMOS camera using entropy-based algorithms,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25641–25646 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.
  15. G. Li, B. L. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “Smartwatch-based wearable EEG system for driver drowsiness detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7169–7180 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (6)

Z. Ong and W. Y. Chung, “Long range VLC temperature monitoring system using CMOS of mobile device camera,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(6), 1508–1509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible Light Communication Using Receivers of Camera Image Sensor and Solar Cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–7 (2016).

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Thresholding schemes for visible light communications with CMOS camera using entropy-based algorithms,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25641–25646 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

S. H. Lee, “A passive transponder for visible light identification using a solar cell,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(10), 5398–5403 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Li, B. L. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “Smartwatch-based wearable EEG system for driver drowsiness detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7169–7180 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, S.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. Y.

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible Light Communication Using Receivers of Camera Image Sensor and Solar Cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–7 (2016).

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. H.

Chow, C. W.

Chuang, C. H.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Chung, W. Y.

Z. Ong and W. Y. Chung, “Long range VLC temperature monitoring system using CMOS of mobile device camera,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(6), 1508–1509 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Li, B. L. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “Smartwatch-based wearable EEG system for driver drowsiness detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7169–7180 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Goto, Y.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hsiung, T. Y.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Hsu, C. W.

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible Light Communication Using Receivers of Camera Image Sensor and Solar Cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–7 (2016).

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, K. Liang, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Hsu, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Comparison of thresholding schemes for visible light communication using mobile-phone image sensor,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1973–1978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamakura, K.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawahito, S.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ko, L. W.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Komagata, H.

Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
[Crossref]

Lai, W. K.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Lee, B. L.

G. Li, B. L. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “Smartwatch-based wearable EEG system for driver drowsiness detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7169–7180 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, “A passive transponder for visible light identification using a solar cell,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(10), 5398–5403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, B. L. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “Smartwatch-based wearable EEG system for driver drowsiness detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7169–7180 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Liang, W. G.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Lin, C. T.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Liu, Y.

Lu, S. W.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Lu, Y. C.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Luo, P.

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Makino, H.

Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, Y.

Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
[Crossref]

Nishimori, K.

Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
[Crossref]

Okada, H.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ong, Z.

Z. Ong and W. Y. Chung, “Long range VLC temperature monitoring system using CMOS of mobile device camera,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(6), 1508–1509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roberts, R. D.

R. D. Roberts, “Undersampled Frequency Shift ON-OFF Keying (UFSOOK) for Camera Communications (CamCom),” in Proceedings 22nd Wireless and Opt. Comm. Conference (WOCC, 2013), pp. 645–648.
[Crossref]

Takai, I.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Wakatsuki, D.

Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
[Crossref]

Wu, H. H.

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

Yamazato, T.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible Light Communication Using Receivers of Camera Image Sensor and Solar Cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–7 (2016).

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Thresholding schemes for visible light communications with CMOS camera using entropy-based algorithms,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25641–25646 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yendo, T.

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

Y. Goto, I. Takai, T. Yamazato, H. Okada, T. Fujii, S. Kawahito, S. Arai, T. Yendo, and K. Kamakura, “A New Automotive VLC System Using Optical Communication Image Sensor,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1–17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, H. Y. Chen, K. Liang, C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Visible Light Communication Using Receivers of Camera Image Sensor and Solar Cell,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1–7 (2016).

IEEE Sens. J. (3)

S. H. Lee, “A passive transponder for visible light identification using a solar cell,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(10), 5398–5403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Ong and W. Y. Chung, “Long range VLC temperature monitoring system using CMOS of mobile device camera,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(6), 1508–1509 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Li, B. L. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “Smartwatch-based wearable EEG system for driver drowsiness detection,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(12), 7169–7180 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (6)

Y. Nakazawa, H. Makino, K. Nishimori, D. Wakatsuki, and H. Komagata, “Indoor positioning using a high-speed, fish-eye lens-equipped camera in visible light communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN, 2013), pp. 1–8.
[Crossref]

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using CMOS Camera Sensor for Visible Light Communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

R. D. Roberts, “Undersampled Frequency Shift ON-OFF Keying (UFSOOK) for Camera Communications (CamCom),” in Proceedings 22nd Wireless and Opt. Comm. Conference (WOCC, 2013), pp. 645–648.
[Crossref]

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift ON-OF keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP, 2014), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

L. W. Ko, W. K. Lai, W. G. Liang, C. H. Chuang, S. W. Lu, Y. C. Lu, T. Y. Hsiung, H. H. Wu, and C. T. Lin, “Single channel wireless EEG device for real-time fatigue level detection,” in Proceedings IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN, 2015), pp. 1–5.

H. Lai, “Neurological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields,” http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/sec09_2012_Evidence_%20Effects_%20%20Neurology_behavior.pdf .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Proposed system block diagram showing EEG signal acquisition, the LED as transmitter, and the smartphone as receiver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Wearable EEG measurement setup (side look) and (b) front look, with different electode placement.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Rolling shutter-OOK demodulation alghorithm (b) Example of received image before and after proposed processing algorithm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Data Packet structure with 2 possible received packet (data1 and data2 represented redundant payload).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized grayscale value of the received image at different light illuminance: (a) 259.54 lux, (b) 327.84, and (c) 464.44 lux.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 System performance in (a) different illuminance (b) comparison with theoretical data in different distance, and (c) comparison Bluetooth communication.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Smartphone Camera Parameter

Metrics