Abstract

High-sensitivity optical sensors based on the cascaded reflective MZIs and the microring resonators are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The free spectral ranges of the microring and the reflective MZI are designed to be similar in order to produce Vernier effect. A high sensitivity of 1892dB/RIU of the optical sensor was achieved for the intensity interrogation. The measurement average power shows 13 dB increment comparing to that of the traditional two cascaded microring resonators. It’s meaningful for the realization of the low-cost portable systems and application in biochemical sensing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. N. Klimov, S. Mittal, M. Berger, and Z. Ahmed, “On-chip silicon waveguide Bragg grating photonic temperature sensor,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3934–3936 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).
  6. X. Jiang, Y. Chen, F. Yu, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “High-sensitivity optical biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator using Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6363–6366 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Wang and D. Dai, “Highly sensitive Si nanowire-based optical sensor using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled microring,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4229–4231 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. A. Ylein, “universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonactors and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 12–15 (2000).
  14. P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Charnes, E. L. Frome, and P. L. Yu, “The equivalence of generalized least squares and maximum likelihood estimates in the exponential family,” J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 71(353), 169–171 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Song, L. Wang, L. Jin, X. Xia, Q. Kou, S. Bouchoule, and J. J. He, “Intensity-Interrogated Sensor Based on Cascaded Fabry–Perot Laser and Microring, Resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2901–2906 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

H. T. Kim and M. Yu, “Cascaded ring resonator-based temperature sensor with simultaneously enhanced sensitivity and range,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9501–9510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).

2015 (4)

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. N. Klimov, S. Mittal, M. Berger, and Z. Ahmed, “On-chip silicon waveguide Bragg grating photonic temperature sensor,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3934–3936 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, F. Yu, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “High-sensitivity optical biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator using Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6363–6366 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2000 (2)

A. Ylein, “universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonactors and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 12–15 (2000).

P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

A. Charnes, E. L. Frome, and P. L. Yu, “The equivalence of generalized least squares and maximum likelihood estimates in the exponential family,” J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 71(353), 169–171 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, Z.

Alsop, A. T.

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, R. C.

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, M.

Bian, J.

W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).

Bouchoule, S.

Burlingame, R. W.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Charnes, A.

A. Charnes, E. L. Frome, and P. L. Yu, “The equivalence of generalized least squares and maximum likelihood estimates in the exponential family,” J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 71(353), 169–171 (1976).
[Crossref]

Chawla, K.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, F. Yu, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “High-sensitivity optical biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator using Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6363–6366 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, D.

Detz, H.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Estrada, I. A.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Frome, E. L.

A. Charnes, E. L. Frome, and P. L. Yu, “The equivalence of generalized least squares and maximum likelihood estimates in the exponential family,” J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 71(353), 169–171 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gleeson, M. A.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Gorshkov, B. G.

P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grove, T.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Gunn, L. C.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

He, J. J.

Iqbal, M.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Jin, L.

Johnson, M. D.

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. T.

Klimov, N. N.

Kong, W.

W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).

Kou, Q.

Lang, T.

W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).

Li, M.

Mittal, S.

Nikitin, P. I.

P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reininger, P.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ristanic, D.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogov, S. I.

P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schrenk, W.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, B.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Song, L. Wang, L. Jin, X. Xia, Q. Kou, S. Bouchoule, and J. J. He, “Intensity-Interrogated Sensor Based on Cascaded Fabry–Perot Laser and Microring, Resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2901–2906 (2012).
[Crossref]

Southern, S. O.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, F. Yu, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “High-sensitivity optical biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator using Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6363–6366 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vertin, N. R.

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wade, J. H.

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A. P.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang and D. Dai, “Highly sensitive Si nanowire-based optical sensor using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled microring,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4229–4231 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Xia, X.

Yang, C.

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Ylein, A.

A. Ylein, “universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonactors and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 12–15 (2000).

Yu, F.

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, F. Yu, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “High-sensitivity optical biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator using Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6363–6366 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

Yu, P. L.

A. Charnes, E. L. Frome, and P. L. Yu, “The equivalence of generalized least squares and maximum likelihood estimates in the exponential family,” J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 71(353), 169–171 (1976).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).

Zou, J.

ACS Cent Sci (1)

J. H. Wade, A. T. Alsop, N. R. Vertin, H. Yang, M. D. Johnson, and R. C. Bailey, “Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays,” ACS Cent Sci 1(7), 374–382 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Ylein, “universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonactors and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 12–15 (2000).

J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. (1)

A. Charnes, E. L. Frome, and P. L. Yu, “The equivalence of generalized least squares and maximum likelihood estimates in the exponential family,” J. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 71(353), 169–171 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. I. Nikitin, B. G. Gorshkov, M. V. Valeiko, and S. I. Rogov, “Spectral-phase interference method for detecting biochemical reactions on a surface,” J. Quantum Electron. 30(12), 1099–1104 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. (1)

W. Yu, T. Lang, J. Bian, and W. Kong, “Label-free fiber optic biosensor based on thin-core modal interferometer,” J. Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 228, 322–329 (2016).

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Chen, F. Yu, C. Yang, J. Song, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “Label-free biosensing using cascaded double-microring resonators integrated with microfluidic channels,” Opt. Commun. 344, 129–133 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. A. Estrada, R. W. Burlingame, A. P. Wang, K. Chawla, T. Grove, J. Wang, S. O. Southern, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and M. A. Gleeson, “Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Proc. SPIE 9490, 94900E (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Cai, M. A. Stott, D. Ozcelik, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “On-chip Wavelength Multiplexing Detection of Cancer DNA Biomarkers in Blood Serum,” in C. CLEO: Science and Innovations (2016), paper SW4G.5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic image of the cascaded microring and MZIs. (a). the whole structure; (b). the microring resonator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a). Simulated transmission spectra from the drop port (solid line) and from the through port (dashed line) of a microring. (b). Transmission spectra of the RMM with the effective index changing from 1.830 to 1.831. (c). Simulated wavelength shifts versus refractive index change. (d). Simulated output power versus the effective refractive index changing from 1.830 to 1.8325.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical microscope image of the microring. (b) SEM image of the input grating coupler. (c) SEM image of the direction coupler.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectrum of resonance single ring and output spectrum of fiber coupler.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission spectra for different NaCl solutions. (a). distilled water (b). 1% NaCl solution (c). 1.4% NaCl solution (d). 1.8% NaCl solution.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a). Measured wavelength shift versus refractive index change of NaCl solutions with different concentrations and fitting curve. (b). Measured power ratio versus refractive index change of NaCl solutions with different concentrations and fitting curve.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The performance of our proposed sensor

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T 1 = t 1 t 2 exp ( j 2 ( β α R ) π r ) 1 t 1 t 2 exp ( j 2 ( β α R ) π r ) exp ( 2 j ( β α L ) L )
T 2 = R 4 cos 2 π h n 1 λ
A = F S R 1 | F S R 1 F S R 2 |

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