Abstract

The detection of cloud and aerosols using a modified retrieval algorithm solely for a ground-based micropulse lidar (MPL) is presented, based on one-year data at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) site (35.57°N, 104.08°E, 1965.8 m), northwest of China, from March 2011 to February 2012. The work not only identifies atmosphere particle layers by means of the range-dependent thresholds based on elastic scattering ratio and depolarization ratio, but also discriminates the detected layers by combining empirical thresholds of the atmosphere’s thermodynamics states and scattering properties and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analyses. Two cases were first presented in detail that demonstrated that the modified algorithm can capture atmosphere layers well. The cloud macro-physical properties including cloud base height (CBH), cloud geometrical thickness (CGT), and cloud fraction (CF) were then analyzed in terms of their monthly and seasonal variations. It is shown that the maximum/minimum CBHs were found in summer (4.66 ± 1.95km)/autumn (3.34 ± 1.84km). The CGT in winter (1.05 ± 0.43km) is slightly greater than in summer (0.99 ± 0.44km). CF varies significantly throughout year, with the maximum value in autumn (0.68), and a minimum (0.58) in winter, which is dominated by single-layered clouds (81%). The vertical distribution of CF shows a bimodal distribution, with a lower peak between 1 and 4km and a higher one between 6and 9km. The seasonal and vertical variations in CF are important for the local radiative energy budget.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

8 December 2017: Typographical corrections were made to the author listing, Eq. (4), the body text, and the reference listing.


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2017 (6)

U. Lohmann and B. Gasparini, “A cirrus cloud climate dial?” Science 357(6348), 248–249 (2017).
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C. F. Zhao, L. P. Liu, Q. Q. Wang, Y. M. Qiu, Y. Wang, and X. L. Wu, “MMCR-based characteristic properties of non-precipitating cloud liquid droplets at Naqu site over Tibetan Plateau in July 2014,” Atmos. Res. 190, 68–76 (2017).
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J. M. Li, Q. Y. Lv, M. Zhang, T. H. Wang, K. Kawamoto, S. Y. Chen, and B. D. Zhang, “Effects of atmospheric dynamics and aerosols on the fraction of supercooled water clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1847–1863 (2017).
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H. Baars, P. Seifert, R. Engelmann, and U. Wandinger, “Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(9), 3175–3201 (2017).
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J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
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J. Q. Zhang, X. A. Xia, and H. B. Chen, “A Comparison of Cloud Layers from Ground and Satellite Active Remote Sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 34(3), 347–359 (2017).
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2016 (5)

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. M. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(9), 5891–5903 (2016).
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T. M. Chen, J. P. Guo, Z. Q. Li, C. F. Zhao, H. Liu, M. Cribb, F. Wang, and J. He, “A CloudSat Perspective on the Cloud Climatology and Its Association with Aerosol Perturbations in the Vertical over Eastern China,” J. Atmos. Sci. 73(9), 3599–3616 (2016).
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J. R. Lewis, J. R. Campbell, E. J. Welton, S. A. Stewart, and P. C. Haftings, “Overview of MPLNET, Version 3, Cloud Detection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 33(10), 2113–2134 (2016).
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J. R. Campbell, S. Lolli, J. R. Lewis, Y. Gu, and E. J. Welton, “Daytime Cirrus Cloud Top-of-the-Atmosphere Radiative Forcing Properties at a Midlatitude Site and Their Global Consequences,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 55(8), 1667–1679 (2016).
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Q. Bourgeois, A. M. L. Ekman, M. R. Igel, and R. Krejci, “Ubiquity and impact of thin mid-level clouds in the tropics,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12432 (2016).
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2015 (7)

C. F. Zhao and T. J. Garrett, “Effects of Arctic haze on surface cloud radiative forcing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 557–564 (2015).
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T. Luo, Z. E. Wang, D. M. Zhang, X. H. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. M. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoe, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velazquez-Blazquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G.-J. van Zadelhoff, “THE EARTHCARE SATELLITE The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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J. P. Huang, J. J. Liu, B. Chen, and S. L. Nasiri, “Detection of anthropogenic dust using CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11653–11665 (2015).
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J. J. Liu, Z. Q. Li, Y. F. Zheng, and M. Cribb, “Cloud-base distribution and cirrus properties based on micropulse lidar measurements at a site in southeastern China,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 32(7), 991–1004 (2015).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. M. Comstock, “Automated Retrieval of Cloud and Aerosol Properties from the ARM Raman Lidar. Part I: Feature Detection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32(11), 1977–1998 (2015).
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T. J. Thorsen and Q. Fu, “Automated Retrieval of Cloud and Aerosol Properties from the ARM Raman Lidar. Part II: Extinction,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32(11), 1999–2023 (2015).
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2014 (5)

C. F. Zhao, Y. Z. Wang, Q. Q. Wang, Z. Q. Li, Z. E. Wang, and D. Liu, “A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(11), 6788–6802 (2014).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, A. Kennedy, P. Minnis, and R. Wood, “A 19-Month Record of Marine Aerosol- Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived from DOE ARM Mobile Facility Deployment at the Azores. Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties,” J. Clim. 27(10), 3665–3682 (2014).
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D. D. Turner and U. Lohnert, “Information Content and Uncertainties in Thermodynamic Profiles and Liquid Cloud Properties Retrieved from the Ground-Based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 53(3), 752–771 (2014).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, X. Chen, M. P. Jensen, and M. Dunn, “Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals with a perturbation method,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5375–5385 (2014).
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A. D. Kennedy, X. Q. Dong, and B. K. Xi, “Cloud fraction at the ARM SGP site Instrument and sampling considerations from 14 years of ARSCL,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 115(1-2), 91–105 (2014).
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2013 (8)

C. J. Stubenrauch, W. B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. Di Girolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B. C. Maddux, W. P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen, J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao, “Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94(7), 1031–1049 (2013).
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S. C. Xie, X. H. Liu, C. F. Zhao, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization,” J. Clim. 26(16), 5981–5999 (2013).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, and J. M. Comstock, “Cloud effects on radiative heating rate profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train radar/lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5637–5654 (2013>).
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T. J. Garrett and C. Zhao, “Ground-based remote sensing of thin clouds in the Arctic,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6 (5), 1227–1243 (2013).
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T. Zhou, J. Huang, Z. Huang, J. Liu, W. Wang, and L. Lin, “The depolarization-attenuated backscatter relationship for dust plumes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15195–15204 (2013).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, J. M. Comstock, C. Sivaraman, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, and D. D. Turner, “Macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9209–9220 (2013).
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R. Tapakis and A. G. Charalambides, “Equipment and methodologies for cloud detection and classification: A review,” Sol. Energy 95, 392–430 (2013).
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W. C. Wang, J. P. Huang, T. Zhou, J. R. Bi, L. Lin, Y. H. Chen, Z. W. Huang, and J. Su, “Estimation of radiative effect of a heavy dust storm over northwest China using Fu-Liou model and ground measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 122, 114–126(2013).
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2012 (3)

G. L. Stephens, J. L. Li, M. Wild, C. A. Clayson, N. Loeb, S. Kato, T. L’Ecuyer, P. W. Stackhouse, M. Lebsock, and T. Andrews, “An update on Earth’s energy balance in light of the latest global observations,” Nat. Geosci. 5(10), 691–696 (2012).
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D. Huang, C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, “An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(6), 1409–1424 (2012).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delanoe, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Connor, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, “Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D10206(2012).
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2011 (4)

T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, and J. Comstock, “Comparison of the CALIPSO satellite and ground-based observations of cirrus clouds at the ARM TWP sites,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D21), D21203 (2011).
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Y. Liu, J. Huang, G. Shi, T. Takamura, P. Khatri, J. Bi, J. Shi, T. Wang, X. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effect determined from sky-radiometer over Loess Plateau of Northwest China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(22), 11455–11463 (2011).
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D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J. J. Morcrette, B. K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J. N. Thepaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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M. D. Shupe, V. P. Walden, E. Eloranta, T. Uttal, J. R. Campbell, S. M. Starkweather, and M. Shiobara, “Clouds at Arctic Atmospheric Observatories. Part I: Occurrence and Macrophysical Properties,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 50(3), 626–644 (2011).
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2010 (6)

B. K. Xi, X. Q. Dong, P. Minnis, and M. M. Khaiyer, “A 10 year climatology of cloud fraction and vertical distribution derived from both surface and GOES observations over the DOE ARM SPG site,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D12), D12124 (2010).
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B. Chen, J. Huang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, Z. Liu, D. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Detection of dust aerosol by combining CALIPSO active lidar and passive IIR measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4241–4251 (2010).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, K. Crosby, C. N. Long, R. S. Stone, and M. D. Shupe, “A 10 year climatology of Arctic cloud fraction and radiative forcing at Barrow, Alaska,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D17), D17212 (2010).
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Z. W. Huang, J. P. Huang, J. R. Bi, G. Y. Wang, W. C. Wang, Q. A. Fu, Z. Q. Li, S. C. Tsay, and J. S. Shi, “Dust aerosol vertical structure measurements using three MPL lidars during 2008 China-US joint dust field experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115, D00K15 (2010).

D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. M. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. Le Treut, M. P. Mccormick, G. Mégie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1230 (2010).
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Q. Yang, Q. Fu, and Y. X. Hu, “Radiative impacts of clouds in the tropical tropopause layer,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115, D00H12(2010).
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2009 (4)

J. Huang, Q. Fu, J. Su, Q. Tang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, and Q. Zhao, “Taklimakan dust aerosol radiative heating derived from CALIPSO observations using the Fu-Liou radiation model with CERES constraints,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4011–4021 (2009).
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M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, R. E. Kuehn, W. H. Hunt, B. J. Getzewich, S. A. Young, Z. Liu, and M. J. McGill, “Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 2034–2050 (2009).
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Z. Y. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO Lidar Cloud and Aerosol Discrimination: Version 2 Algorithm and Initial Assessment of Performance,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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2008 (5)

G. G. Mace and S. Benson, “The vertical structure of cloud occurrence and radiative forcing at the SGP ARM site as revealed by 8 years of continuous data,” J. Clim. 21(11), 2591–2610 (2008).
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J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
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J. R. Campbell, K. Sassen, and E. J. Welton, “Elevated cloud and aerosol layer retrievals from Micropulse Lidar Signal Profiles,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(5), 685–700 (2008).
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J. Su, J. P. Huang, Q. Fu, P. Minnis, J. M. Ge, and J. R. Bi, “Estimation of Asian dust aerosol effect on cloud radiation forcing using Fu-Liou radiative model and CERES measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(10), 2763–2771 (2008).
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S. A. Ackerman, R. E. Holz, R. Frey, E. W. Eloranta, B. C. Maddux, and M. McGill, “Cloud detection with MODIS. Part II: Validation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25(7), 1073–1086 (2008).
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2007 (6)

Q. Fu, Y. Hu, and Q. Yang, “Identifying the top of the tropical tropopause layer from vertical mass flux analysis and CALIPSO lidar cloud observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L14813(2007).
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Q. Fu, “A new parameterization of an asymmetry factor of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Atmos. Sci. 64(11), 4140–4150 (2007).
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Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. Pelon, “STRAT: An automated algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of the atmosphere from single-channel lidar data,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24(5), 761–775 (2007).
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M. D. Shupe, “A ground-based multisensor cloud phase classifier,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(22), L22809 (2007).
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C. J. Flynn, A. Mendoza, Y. Zheng, and S. Mathur, “Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2785–2790 (2007).
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P. Kollias, G. Tselioudis, and B. A. Albrecht, “Cloud climatology at the Southern Great Plains and the layer structure, drizzle, and atmospheric modes of continental stratus,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D9), D09116 (2007).
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2006 (4)

R. Wood and C. S. Bretherton, “On the relationship between stratiform low cloud cover and lower-tropospheric stability,” J. Clim. 19(24), 6425–6432 (2006).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, and P. Minnis, “A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP central facility. Part II: Cloud fraction and surface radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 19(9), 1765–1783 (2006).
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J. P. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Lin, T. H. Wang, Y. H. Yi, Y. X. Hu, S. Sun-Mack, and K. Ayers, “Possible influences of Asian dust aerosols on cloud properties and radiative forcing observed from MODIS and CERES,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(6), L06824 (2006).
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T. J. Garrett and C. Zhao, “Increased Arctic cloud longwave emissivity associated with pollution from mid-latitudes,” Nature 440(7085), 787–789 (2006).
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2005 (5)

G. L. Stephens, “Cloud feedbacks in the climate system: A critical review,” J. Clim. 18(2), 237–273 (2005).
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Z. Wang, G. M. Heymsfield, L. H. Li, and A. J. Heymsfield, “Retrieving optically thick ice cloud microphysical properties by using airborne dual-wavelength radar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D19), D19201 (2005).
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J. P. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Lin, Y. H. Yi, M. M. Khaiyer, R. F. Arduini, A. Fan, and G. G. Mace, “Advanced retrievals of multilayered cloud properties using multispectral measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D15), D15S18 (2005).
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F. L. Chang and Z. Q. Li, “A new method for detection of cirrus overlapping water clouds and determination of their optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62(11), 3993–4009 (2005).
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X. Q. Dong, P. Minnis, and B. K. Xi, “A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low-level cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties,” J. Clim. 18(9), 1391–1410 (2005).
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2003 (1)

I. M. Brooks, “Finding boundary layer top: Application of a wavelet covariance transform to lidar backscatter profiles,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20(8), 1092–1105 (2003).
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2002 (6)

J. R. Campbell, D. L. Hlavka, E. J. Welton, C. J. Flynn, D. D. Turner, J. D. Spinhirne, V. S. Scott, and I. H. Hwang, “Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: Instruments and data processing,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19 (4), 431–442 (2002).
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E. J. Welton and J. R. Campbell, “Micropulse lidar signals: Uncertainty analysis,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19(12), 2089–2094 (2002).
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Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud microphysical property retrieval using lidar and radar measurements. Part II: Midlatitude cirrus microphysical and radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(14), 2291–2302 (2002).
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Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud microphysical property retrieval using lidar and radar measurements. Part I: Algorithm description and comparison with in situ data,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 41(3), 218–229 (2002).
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B. Carlin, Q. Fu, U. Lohmann, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, and J. M. Comstock, “High-cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and solar albedo bias,” J. Clim. 15(17), 2321–2339 (2002).
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Q. Fu, M. Baker, and D. L. Hartmann, “Tropical cirrus and water vapor: an effective Earth infrared iris feedback?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2(1), 31–37 (2002).
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2001 (2)

Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cloud type and macrophysical property retrieval using multiple remote sensors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 40 (10), 1665–1682 (2001).
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E. J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, J. D. Spinhirne, and V. S. Scott, “Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micro-pulse lidar systems,” Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring 4153, 151–158 (2001).
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2000 (3)

S. A. Cohn and W. M. Angevine, “Boundary layer height and entrainment zone thickness measured by lidars and wind-profiling radars,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39(8), 1233–1247 (2000).
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Q. Fu, M. C. Cribb, H. W. Barker, S. K. Krueger, and A. Grossman, “Cloud geometry effects on atmospheric solar absorption,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57(8), 1156–1168 (2000).
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Q. Fu, B. Carlin, and G. Mace, “Cirrus horizontal inhomogeneity and OLR bias,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(20), 3341–3344 (2000).
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1995 (1)

1994 (1)

D. M. Winker and M. A. Vaughan, “Vertical distribution of clouds over Hampton, Virginia observed by lidar under the ECLIPS and FIRE ETO programs,” Atmos. Res. 34(1-4), 117–133 (1994).
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1992 (2)

S. R. Pal, W. Steinbrecht, and A. I. Carswell, “Automated method for lidar determination of cloud-base height and vertical extent,” Appl. Opt. 31(10), 1488–1494 (1992).
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K. Sassen and B. S. Cho, “Subvisual Thin Cirrus Lidar Dataset for Satellite Verification and Climatological Research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31(11), 1275–1285 (1992).
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1984 (1)

Ackerman, S.

C. J. Stubenrauch, W. B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. Di Girolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B. C. Maddux, W. P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen, J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao, “Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94(7), 1031–1049 (2013).
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Ackerman, S. A.

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D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. M. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. Le Treut, M. P. Mccormick, G. Mégie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1230 (2010).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoe, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velazquez-Blazquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G.-J. van Zadelhoff, “THE EARTHCARE SATELLITE The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, and J. Comstock, “Comparison of the CALIPSO satellite and ground-based observations of cirrus clouds at the ARM TWP sites,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D21), D21203 (2011).
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Comstock, J. M.

T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. M. Comstock, “Automated Retrieval of Cloud and Aerosol Properties from the ARM Raman Lidar. Part I: Feature Detection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32(11), 1977–1998 (2015).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, J. M. Comstock, C. Sivaraman, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, and D. D. Turner, “Macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9209–9220 (2013).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, and J. M. Comstock, “Cloud effects on radiative heating rate profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train radar/lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5637–5654 (2013>).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delanoe, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Connor, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, “Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D10206(2012).
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B. Carlin, Q. Fu, U. Lohmann, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, and J. M. Comstock, “High-cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and solar albedo bias,” J. Clim. 15(17), 2321–2339 (2002).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, K. Crosby, C. N. Long, R. S. Stone, and M. D. Shupe, “A 10 year climatology of Arctic cloud fraction and radiative forcing at Barrow, Alaska,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D17), D17212 (2010).
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D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J. J. Morcrette, B. K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J. N. Thepaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delanoe, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Connor, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, “Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D10206(2012).
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D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J. J. Morcrette, B. K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J. N. Thepaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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D. Huang, C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, “An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(6), 1409–1424 (2012).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, A. Kennedy, P. Minnis, and R. Wood, “A 19-Month Record of Marine Aerosol- Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived from DOE ARM Mobile Facility Deployment at the Azores. Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties,” J. Clim. 27(10), 3665–3682 (2014).
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A. D. Kennedy, X. Q. Dong, and B. K. Xi, “Cloud fraction at the ARM SGP site Instrument and sampling considerations from 14 years of ARSCL,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 115(1-2), 91–105 (2014).
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B. K. Xi, X. Q. Dong, P. Minnis, and M. M. Khaiyer, “A 10 year climatology of cloud fraction and vertical distribution derived from both surface and GOES observations over the DOE ARM SPG site,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D12), D12124 (2010).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, K. Crosby, C. N. Long, R. S. Stone, and M. D. Shupe, “A 10 year climatology of Arctic cloud fraction and radiative forcing at Barrow, Alaska,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D17), D17212 (2010).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, and P. Minnis, “A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP central facility. Part II: Cloud fraction and surface radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 19(9), 1765–1783 (2006).
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X. Q. Dong, P. Minnis, and B. K. Xi, “A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low-level cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties,” J. Clim. 18(9), 1391–1410 (2005).
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D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J. J. Morcrette, B. K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J. N. Thepaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
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D. Huang, C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, “An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(6), 1409–1424 (2012).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delanoe, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Connor, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, “Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D10206(2012).
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D. M. Winker, J. Pelon, J. A. Coakley, S. A. Ackerman, R. J. Charlson, P. R. Colarco, P. Flamant, Q. Fu, R. M. Hoff, C. Kittaka, T. L. Kubar, H. Le Treut, M. P. Mccormick, G. Mégie, L. Poole, K. Powell, C. Trepte, M. A. Vaughan, and B. A. Wielicki, “The CALIPSO Mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91(9), 1211–1230 (2010).
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J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, and J. M. Comstock, “Automated Retrieval of Cloud and Aerosol Properties from the ARM Raman Lidar. Part I: Feature Detection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32(11), 1977–1998 (2015).
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T. J. Thorsen and Q. Fu, “Automated Retrieval of Cloud and Aerosol Properties from the ARM Raman Lidar. Part II: Extinction,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 32(11), 1999–2023 (2015).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, J. M. Comstock, C. Sivaraman, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, and D. D. Turner, “Macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(16), 9209–9220 (2013).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, and J. M. Comstock, “Cloud effects on radiative heating rate profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train radar/lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5637–5654 (2013>).
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T. J. Thorsen, Q. Fu, and J. Comstock, “Comparison of the CALIPSO satellite and ground-based observations of cirrus clouds at the ARM TWP sites,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 116(D21), D21203 (2011).
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Q. Fu, B. Carlin, and G. Mace, “Cirrus horizontal inhomogeneity and OLR bias,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(20), 3341–3344 (2000).
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M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, R. E. Kuehn, W. H. Hunt, B. J. Getzewich, S. A. Young, Z. Liu, and M. J. McGill, “Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 2034–2050 (2009).
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A. H. Omar, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. A. Ferrare, K.-P. Lee, C. A. Hostetler, C. Kittaka, R. R. Rogers, R. E. Kuehn, and Z. Liu, “The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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D. M. Winker and M. A. Vaughan, “Vertical distribution of clouds over Hampton, Virginia observed by lidar under the ECLIPS and FIRE ETO programs,” Atmos. Res. 34(1-4), 117–133 (1994).
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Wood, R.

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C. F. Zhao, L. P. Liu, Q. Q. Wang, Y. M. Qiu, Y. Wang, and X. L. Wu, “MMCR-based characteristic properties of non-precipitating cloud liquid droplets at Naqu site over Tibetan Plateau in July 2014,” Atmos. Res. 190, 68–76 (2017).
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Xi, B. K.

X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, A. Kennedy, P. Minnis, and R. Wood, “A 19-Month Record of Marine Aerosol- Cloud-Radiation Properties Derived from DOE ARM Mobile Facility Deployment at the Azores. Part I: Cloud Fraction and Single-Layered MBL Cloud Properties,” J. Clim. 27(10), 3665–3682 (2014).
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A. D. Kennedy, X. Q. Dong, and B. K. Xi, “Cloud fraction at the ARM SGP site Instrument and sampling considerations from 14 years of ARSCL,” Theor. Appl. Climatol. 115(1-2), 91–105 (2014).
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B. K. Xi, X. Q. Dong, P. Minnis, and M. M. Khaiyer, “A 10 year climatology of cloud fraction and vertical distribution derived from both surface and GOES observations over the DOE ARM SPG site,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 115(D12), D12124 (2010).
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X. Q. Dong, B. K. Xi, and P. Minnis, “A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP central facility. Part II: Cloud fraction and surface radiative forcing,” J. Clim. 19(9), 1765–1783 (2006).
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X. Q. Dong, P. Minnis, and B. K. Xi, “A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low-level cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties,” J. Clim. 18(9), 1391–1410 (2005).
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J. Q. Zhang, X. A. Xia, and H. B. Chen, “A Comparison of Cloud Layers from Ground and Satellite Active Remote Sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 34(3), 347–359 (2017).
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Xie, H. L.

J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

D. Huang, C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, “An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(6), 1409–1424 (2012).
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Xie, S. C.

C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, X. Chen, M. P. Jensen, and M. Dunn, “Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals with a perturbation method,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5375–5385 (2014).
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S. C. Xie, X. H. Liu, C. F. Zhao, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization,” J. Clim. 26(16), 5981–5999 (2013).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delanoe, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Connor, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, “Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D10206(2012).
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Q. Fu, Y. Hu, and Q. Yang, “Identifying the top of the tropical tropopause layer from vertical mass flux analysis and CALIPSO lidar cloud observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L14813(2007).
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J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
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Yi, Y.

B. Chen, J. Huang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, Z. Liu, D. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Detection of dust aerosol by combining CALIPSO active lidar and passive IIR measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4241–4251 (2010).
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J. Huang, Q. Fu, J. Su, Q. Tang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, and Q. Zhao, “Taklimakan dust aerosol radiative heating derived from CALIPSO observations using the Fu-Liou radiation model with CERES constraints,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4011–4021 (2009).
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J. P. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Lin, T. H. Wang, Y. H. Yi, Y. X. Hu, S. Sun-Mack, and K. Ayers, “Possible influences of Asian dust aerosols on cloud properties and radiative forcing observed from MODIS and CERES,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(6), L06824 (2006).
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J. P. Huang, P. Minnis, B. Lin, Y. H. Yi, M. M. Khaiyer, R. F. Arduini, A. Fan, and G. G. Mace, “Advanced retrievals of multilayered cloud properties using multispectral measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D15), D15S18 (2005).
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J. P. Huang, B. Lin, P. Minnis, T. H. Wang, X. Wang, Y. X. Hu, Y. H. Yi, and J. K. Ayers, “Satellite-based assessment of possible dust aerosols semi-direct effect on cloud water path over East Asia,” Geophys. Res. Lett.33(19), L19802 (2006b).
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M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, D. M. Winker, C. A. Hostetler, R. E. Kuehn, W. H. Hunt, B. J. Getzewich, S. A. Young, Z. Liu, and M. J. McGill, “Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(10), 2034–2050 (2009).
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Yuan, J.

J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
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Yuan, R. M.

T. Luo, Z. E. Wang, D. M. Zhang, X. H. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. M. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
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Zeng, S.

C. J. Stubenrauch, W. B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. Di Girolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B. C. Maddux, W. P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen, J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao, “Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94(7), 1031–1049 (2013).
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Zhang, B.

Y. Liu, J. Huang, G. Shi, T. Takamura, P. Khatri, J. Bi, J. Shi, T. Wang, X. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effect determined from sky-radiometer over Loess Plateau of Northwest China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(22), 11455–11463 (2011).
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J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
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Zhang, B. D.

J. M. Li, Q. Y. Lv, M. Zhang, T. H. Wang, K. Kawamoto, S. Y. Chen, and B. D. Zhang, “Effects of atmospheric dynamics and aerosols on the fraction of supercooled water clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1847–1863 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

B. Chen, J. Huang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, Z. Liu, D. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Detection of dust aerosol by combining CALIPSO active lidar and passive IIR measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4241–4251 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. M.

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. M. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(9), 5891–5903 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Luo, Z. E. Wang, D. M. Zhang, X. H. Liu, Y. Wang, and R. M. Yuan, “Global dust distribution from improved thin dust layer detection using A-train satellite lidar observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 620–628 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Q.

J. Q. Zhang, X. A. Xia, and H. B. Chen, “A Comparison of Cloud Layers from Ground and Satellite Active Remote Sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 34(3), 347–359 (2017).
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Zhang, L.

J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
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Zhang, M.

J. M. Li, Q. Y. Lv, M. Zhang, T. H. Wang, K. Kawamoto, S. Y. Chen, and B. D. Zhang, “Effects of atmospheric dynamics and aerosols on the fraction of supercooled water clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1847–1863 (2017).
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Zhang, W.

J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Y.

S. C. Xie, X. H. Liu, C. F. Zhao, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization,” J. Clim. 26(16), 5981–5999 (2013).
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Zhao, C.

T. J. Garrett and C. Zhao, “Ground-based remote sensing of thin clouds in the Arctic,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6 (5), 1227–1243 (2013).
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D. Huang, C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, “An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(6), 1409–1424 (2012).
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T. J. Garrett and C. Zhao, “Increased Arctic cloud longwave emissivity associated with pollution from mid-latitudes,” Nature 440(7085), 787–789 (2006).
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Zhao, C. F.

C. F. Zhao, L. P. Liu, Q. Q. Wang, Y. M. Qiu, Y. Wang, and X. L. Wu, “MMCR-based characteristic properties of non-precipitating cloud liquid droplets at Naqu site over Tibetan Plateau in July 2014,” Atmos. Res. 190, 68–76 (2017).
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T. M. Chen, J. P. Guo, Z. Q. Li, C. F. Zhao, H. Liu, M. Cribb, F. Wang, and J. He, “A CloudSat Perspective on the Cloud Climatology and Its Association with Aerosol Perturbations in the Vertical over Eastern China,” J. Atmos. Sci. 73(9), 3599–3616 (2016).
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C. F. Zhao and T. J. Garrett, “Effects of Arctic haze on surface cloud radiative forcing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(2), 557–564 (2015).
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C. F. Zhao, Y. Z. Wang, Q. Q. Wang, Z. Q. Li, Z. E. Wang, and D. Liu, “A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(11), 6788–6802 (2014).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, X. Chen, M. P. Jensen, and M. Dunn, “Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals with a perturbation method,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119(9), 5375–5385 (2014).
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S. C. Xie, X. H. Liu, C. F. Zhao, and Y. Y. Zhang, “Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization,” J. Clim. 26(16), 5981–5999 (2013).
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C. F. Zhao, S. C. Xie, S. A. Klein, A. Protat, M. D. Shupe, S. A. McFarlane, J. M. Comstock, J. Delanoe, M. Deng, M. Dunn, R. J. Hogan, D. Huang, M. P. Jensen, G. G. Mace, R. McCoy, E. J. O’Connor, D. D. Turner, and Z. Wang, “Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM ground-based measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 117, D10206(2012).
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Zhao, G.

C. J. Stubenrauch, W. B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. Di Girolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B. C. Maddux, W. P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen, J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao, “Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94(7), 1031–1049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

J. Huang, Q. Fu, J. Su, Q. Tang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, and Q. Zhao, “Taklimakan dust aerosol radiative heating derived from CALIPSO observations using the Fu-Liou radiation model with CERES constraints,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4011–4021 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Zheng, Y. F.

J. J. Liu, Z. Q. Li, Y. F. Zheng, and M. Cribb, “Cloud-base distribution and cirrus properties based on micropulse lidar measurements at a site in southeastern China,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 32(7), 991–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.

J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wang, J. P. Huang, T. Zhou, J. R. Bi, L. Lin, Y. H. Chen, Z. W. Huang, and J. Su, “Estimation of radiative effect of a heavy dust storm over northwest China using Fu-Liou model and ground measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 122, 114–126(2013).
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T. Zhou, J. Huang, Z. Huang, J. Liu, W. Wang, and L. Lin, “The depolarization-attenuated backscatter relationship for dust plumes,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15195–15204 (2013).
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Zhu, Z. E.

J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zuo, H.

J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zuo, J.

J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Atmos. Sci. (3)

J. J. Liu, Z. Q. Li, Y. F. Zheng, and M. Cribb, “Cloud-base distribution and cirrus properties based on micropulse lidar measurements at a site in southeastern China,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 32(7), 991–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zuo, J. Bi, J. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Chang, Z. Huang, S. Yang, B. Zhang, G. Wang, G. Feng, J. Yuan, L. Zhang, H. Zuo, S. Wang, C. Fu, and C. Jifan, “An Overview of the Semi-arid Climate and Environment Research Observatory over the Loess Plateau,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 25(6), 906–921 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Q. Zhang, X. A. Xia, and H. B. Chen, “A Comparison of Cloud Layers from Ground and Satellite Active Remote Sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 34(3), 347–359 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (9)

B. Chen, J. Huang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, Z. Liu, D. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Detection of dust aerosol by combining CALIPSO active lidar and passive IIR measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(9), 4241–4251 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. Huang, G. Shi, T. Takamura, P. Khatri, J. Bi, J. Shi, T. Wang, X. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effect determined from sky-radiometer over Loess Plateau of Northwest China,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(22), 11455–11463 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ge, Z. E. Zhu, C. Zheng, H. L. Xie, T. Zhou, J. P. Huang, and Q. Fu, “An improved hydrometeor detection method for millimeter-wavelength cloud radar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(14), 9035–9047 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Li, Q. Y. Lv, M. Zhang, T. H. Wang, K. Kawamoto, S. Y. Chen, and B. D. Zhang, “Effects of atmospheric dynamics and aerosols on the fraction of supercooled water clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1847–1863 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Luo, Z. Wang, D. M. Zhang, and B. Chen, “Marine boundary layer structure as observed by A-train satellites,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(9), 5891–5903 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Huang, J. J. Liu, B. Chen, and S. L. Nasiri, “Detection of anthropogenic dust using CALIPSO lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11653–11665 (2015).
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Q. Fu, M. Baker, and D. L. Hartmann, “Tropical cirrus and water vapor: an effective Earth infrared iris feedback?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2(1), 31–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, Q. Fu, J. Su, Q. Tang, P. Minnis, Y. Hu, Y. Yi, and Q. Zhao, “Taklimakan dust aerosol radiative heating derived from CALIPSO observations using the Fu-Liou radiation model with CERES constraints,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4011–4021 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Su, J. P. Huang, Q. Fu, P. Minnis, J. M. Ge, and J. R. Bi, “Estimation of Asian dust aerosol effect on cloud radiation forcing using Fu-Liou radiative model and CERES measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(10), 2763–2771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (3)

T. J. Garrett and C. Zhao, “Ground-based remote sensing of thin clouds in the Arctic,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6 (5), 1227–1243 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, “An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implications for model evaluation studies,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(6), 1409–1424 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, P. Seifert, R. Engelmann, and U. Wandinger, “Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(9), 3175–3201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Res. (2)

D. M. Winker and M. A. Vaughan, “Vertical distribution of clouds over Hampton, Virginia observed by lidar under the ECLIPS and FIRE ETO programs,” Atmos. Res. 34(1-4), 117–133 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. F. Zhao, L. P. Liu, Q. Q. Wang, Y. M. Qiu, Y. Wang, and X. L. Wu, “MMCR-based characteristic properties of non-precipitating cloud liquid droplets at Naqu site over Tibetan Plateau in July 2014,” Atmos. Res. 190, 68–76 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (3)

C. J. Stubenrauch, W. B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. Di Girolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B. C. Maddux, W. P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen, J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao, “Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94(7), 1031–1049 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Geographical coverage of East Asia (10–55° N, 70–140° E). The red pentagram shows the location of SACOL site in Northwest China.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diagram showing the processes in the modified layer detection and classification algorithm for MPL.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scattering ratio, (b) linear depolarization ratio, (c) particle layers where each color represents a different combination of the two ratios: scattering ratio (SR, purple), depolarization ratio (Dep, green) and both ratios (All, blue), (d) particle layer types which show liquid cloud (blue), ice cloud (black) and aerosol (gray), (e) particle layer types with CWT, the colors indicate the same meaning as (d). The date is for March 7, 2011 at SACOL.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The same as Fig. 3., but for June 04, 2011 at SACOL.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Diurnal variation in accumulated cloud pixels (absolute amount) observed by the MPL for (a) the result without CWT,(b) the result with CWT and (c) the difference between the both results at SCOL from March 2011 to February 2012.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The seasonal vertical distribution of difference between the results without/with CWT relative to the profiles available (solid lines, relative amount) and while the reference “0” line (the dashed line).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 “Avi prf” (black line) presents the total number of profiles available relative to expected total number of profiles in each month; “Cld prf” (blue line) presents the total number of cloud profiles relative to the total number of profiles available, namely cloud fraction (CF); “Tans prf” (red line) presents the number of fully transparent profiles relative to the total number of cloud profiles.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Monthly mean CBH for (a) all day, (b) day, and (c) night from March 2011 to February 2012 at SACOL. Box and whisker plots include the median (red line in the box), 25th and 75th percentiles (bottom and top of the box), 5th and 95th percentiles (bottom and top of the whisker), the mean (multiplication sign) and annual means (black lines).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Vertical variation in the frequency of CBH occurrence during (a) spring, (b) summer, (c) autumn, (d) winter from March 2011 to February 2012 at SACOL site. Black lines are for the cloud during the all day, red lines are for day and blue lines are for night. CBHs were averaged over 0.18 km in the vertical direction.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The same as Fig. 8, bur for CGT for transparent profiles only.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The frequency distribution of CGT at 0.2 km intervals in seasonal variation during (a) spring (black line), (b) summer (blue line), (c) autumn (red line), (d) winter (purple line) from March 2011 to February 2012 at SACOL site for transparent profiles only.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Monthly variation in frequency of number of cloud layers in the transparent profiles such as single-layer (blue), two layers (red), three layers (green), four layers (orange) and more than four layers (magenta) for the all day (A), day (D) and night (N) at SACOL.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Vertical variation of the CF (solid lines, down axis of (a)-(d)) and accumulated transparent (cloud + clear-sky) pixels N (dashed lines, top axis of (a)-(d)) in the transparent area and the CF in transparent profiles ((e)-(h)).

Equations (16)

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P ( r ) = C E r 2 O ( r ) [ β m ( r ) + β p ( r ) ] e 2 0 r α m ( r ) d r e 2 0 r α p ( r ) d r
P ( r ) = 2 P c r ( r ) + P c o ( r )
β m ( r ) = N ( r ) d σ R a d Ω π
S R E ( r ) = C E 2 P c r ( r ) + P c o ( r ) E r 2 O ( r ) N ( z ) e 2 0 r α m ( r ) d r e 2 0 r α p ( r ) d r
C E = 1 / ( C d σ R a d Ω π )
SR E m ( r ) = A ( r ) ( 2 P c r m ( r ) + P c o m ( r ) )
δ M P L ( r ) = P c r ( r ) / O c r ( r ) P c o ( r ) / O c o ( r ) = P c r _ o ( r ) P c o _ o ( r )
δ ( r ) = δ M P L ( r ) δ M P L ( r ) + 1 = P c r _ o ( r ) P c o _ o ( r ) + P c r _ o ( r )
δ m ( r ) = P c r _ o m ( r ) P c o _ o m ( r ) + P c r _ o m ( r )
SNR ( r ) = P ( r ) σ ( r )
SNR ( r ) = N P ( r ) N P ( r ) + P b k g N
σ ( r ) = P ( r ) S N R ( r ) = P ( r ) N + P b k g
σ m ( r ) = P m ( r ) N + P b k g
σ SR E m ( r ) = A ( r ) 4 σ P c r m 2 ( r ) + σ P c o m 2 ( r )
σ δ m ( r ) = δ m ( r ) σ P c r _ o m 2 ( r ) + σ P c o _ o m 2 ( r ) [ P c o _ o m ( r ) + P c r _ o m ( r ) ] 2 + σ P c r _ o m 2 ( r ) [ P c r _ o m ( r ) ] 2
τ ( r ) = R m ( r ) + C * σ R m ( r )

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