Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a nondestructive and contamination-free method for azimuth angle orientation of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and its application for fiber side-polishing. This technique is based on the interference pattern analysis of the light forward-scattered from the PCF that is side illuminated by a laser beam. The scattering pattern is analyzed by introducing a characteristic value which is the sum over the intensities of the upper-half or lower-half regions of the scattering pattern. The characteristic value correlates closely with the azimuth angle of PCF, which enables characterizing the azimuth angle through scattering pattern analysis. Three kinds of PCFs are studied for the determination of their azimuth angles, and an angular accuracy better than 0.5° is obtained. This method is subsequently applied to orient the angular azimuth in side-polishing of the PCF, and the accuracy of polishing angle is about 0.5°. This technique is nondestructive, contamination-free, easy to implement, and able to serve for in-line angular orientation during the fabrication of PCF-based optical devices and manipulation of the PCF.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (2)

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (1)

Z. Pan, S. Li, and J. Zhong, “Digital holographic microtomography for geometric parameter measurement of optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 035801 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

S. D. Lim, S. G. Lee, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Determination of crystallographic axes of photonic crystal fiber by transversal scanning method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102503 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, D. J. Kan, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Withford, “Transverse coupling to the core of a photonic crystal fiber: the photo-inscription of gratings,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7876–7887 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gorski and W. Osten, “Tomographic imaging of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1977–1979 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ren, P. Shum, J. Hu, X. Yu, and Y. Gong, “Fabrication of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3059–3061 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

1974 (1)

Ahmadi, V.

Asatryan, A. A.

Aspiotis, N.

Atkin, D. M.

Badenes, G.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baghdasaryan, T.

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baumgartl, M.

Berghmans, F.

Birks, T. A.

Botten, L. C.

Brueck, S. R. J.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, Z.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Wang, H. A. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Q. Qiu, J. Zhang, Z. W. Tian, J. H. Yu, J. Y. Tang, Y. H. Luo, H. Y. Guan, Z. Chen, and H. H. Lu, “Side polished fiber with coated graphene sheet and its control characteristic of violet light,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 2088–2094 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cook, K.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Couny, F.

Cui, Y.

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, N.

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

Domachuk, P.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B.

Eom, J. B.

Euser, T. G.

Fan, S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, J.

Farr, L.

Finazzi, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frosz, M. H.

Gan, Z.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geernaert, T.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ghezelsefloo, M.

Gong, Y.

Gorski, W.

Gu, M.

Guan, H.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, H. Y.

Han, Y.

Hansen, K.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, X.

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Healy, N.

Hewak, D. W.

Holdsworth, J.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, V. K. S.

Hu, D. J. J.

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Huang, C. C.

Huang, H.

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jing, G.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kan, D. J.

Kang, M. S.

Karimi, M.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, K. T.

Knight, J. C.

Laegsgaard, J.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K.

S. D. Lim, S. G. Lee, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Determination of crystallographic axes of photonic crystal fiber by transversal scanning method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. M.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. B.

S. D. Lim, S. G. Lee, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Determination of crystallographic axes of photonic crystal fiber by transversal scanning method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. G.

S. D. Lim, S. G. Lee, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Determination of crystallographic axes of photonic crystal fiber by transversal scanning method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Levi, O.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, S.

Z. Pan, S. Li, and J. Zhong, “Digital holographic microtomography for geometric parameter measurement of optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 035801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, G.

Lim, J. L.

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. D.

S. D. Lim, S. G. Lee, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Determination of crystallographic axes of photonic crystal fiber by transversal scanning method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Liu, H. A.

Liu, W.

Long, S.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).

Lousse, V.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H. H.

Luo, Y.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
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Luo, Y. H.

Ma, Y.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
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Mangan, B. J.

Marshall, G. D.

Milenko, K.

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
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Moon, D. S.

Nguyen, H.

Ortaç, B.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Osten, W.

Paek, U. C.

Paek, U.-C.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, S. Li, and J. Zhong, “Digital holographic microtomography for geometric parameter measurement of optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 035801 (2013).
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Peacock, A. C.

Peng, J.

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
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Peng, S.

Pinto, A. M. R.

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).

Pruneri, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
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Ren, G.

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P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
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Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Scharrer, M.

Shen, L.

Shum, P.

Shum, P. P.

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sørensen, H. R.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
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Steel, M.

Stefani, A.

Stevenson, M.

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
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Straub, M.

Stutzki, F.

Sumetsky, M.

Tang, J.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
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Tang, J. Y.

Thienpont, H.

Tian, Z.

Tian, Z. W.

Tünnermann, A.

Varming, P.

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
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Wahba, H. H.

H. H. Wahba, “Reconstruction of 3D refractive index profiles of PM PANDA optical fiber using digital holographic method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(5), 520–526 (2014).
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Wang, X.

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
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Wang, Y.

Y. T. Wang, H. A. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Q. Qiu, J. Zhang, Z. W. Tian, J. H. Yu, J. Y. Tang, Y. H. Luo, H. Y. Guan, Z. Chen, and H. H. Lu, “Side polished fiber with coated graphene sheet and its control characteristic of violet light,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 2088–2094 (2016).
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D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
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Wang, Y. T.

Watkins, L. S.

Wei, Q.

Withford, M. J.

Wolinski, T.

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
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Wong, G. K.

Xia, K.

Xiao, Y.

Xie, J.

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

Yang, G.-H.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J. H.

Yu, X.

Zang, L. Y.

Zang, Z.

Zeng, Y.

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, J.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
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Y. T. Wang, H. A. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Q. Qiu, J. Zhang, Z. W. Tian, J. H. Yu, J. Y. Tang, Y. H. Luo, H. Y. Guan, Z. Chen, and H. H. Lu, “Side polished fiber with coated graphene sheet and its control characteristic of violet light,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 2088–2094 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Q. Wei, Y. Ma, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Tang, J. Yu, J. Fang, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Side-polished-fiber based optical coupler assisted with a fused nano silica film,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1598–1605 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhong, J.

Z. Pan, S. Li, and J. Zhong, “Digital holographic microtomography for geometric parameter measurement of optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 035801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Y.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

D. J. J. Hu, J. L. Lim, Y. Cui, K. Milenko, Y. Wang, P. P. Shum, and T. Wolinski, “Fabrication and characterization of a highly temperature sensitive device based on nematic liquid crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1248–1255 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Luo, J. Xie, H. Huang, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Z. Chen, X. Wang, J. Peng, and N. Dai, “Azimuth angle orientation of a microstructured optical fiber using its side image characteristics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1837–1840 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Sens. (2)

A. M. R. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 598178 (2012).

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers,” J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. D. Lim, S. G. Lee, K. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Determination of crystallographic axes of photonic crystal fiber by transversal scanning method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Open Opt. J. (1)

J. Holdsworth, K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Rotationally variant grating writing in photonic crystal fibres,” Open Opt. J. 3(1), 19–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. R. Sørensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270(2), 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Pan, S. Li, and J. Zhong, “Digital holographic microtomography for geometric parameter measurement of optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 52(3), 035801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Y. Luo, C. Chen, K. Xia, S. Peng, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Xiao, and Z. Chen, “Tungsten disulfide (WS2) based all-fiber-optic humidity sensor,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8956–8966 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, Y. Han, H. Huang, H. Li, V. K. S. Hsiao, W. Liu, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, Y. Zhong, Z. Zang, and Z. Chen, “All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5950–5961 (2014).
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A. Stefani, M. H. Frosz, T. G. Euser, G. K. Wong, and P. S. J. Russell, “Real-time Doppler-assisted tomography of microstructured fibers by side-scattering,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25570–25579 (2014).
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H. Lu, Z. Tian, H. Yu, B. Yang, G. Jing, G. Liao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, J. Tang, Y. Luo, and Z. Chen, “Optical fiber with nanostructured cladding of TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembled onto a side polished fiber and its temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32502–32508 (2014).
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G. D. Marshall, D. J. Kan, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Withford, “Transverse coupling to the core of a photonic crystal fiber: the photo-inscription of gratings,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7876–7887 (2007).
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H. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, B. Eggleton, M. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and M. Sumetsky, “A new slant on photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1528–1539 (2004).
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T. Baghdasaryan, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Geometrical study of a hexagonal lattice photonic crystal fiber for efficient femtosecond laser grating inscription,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7705–7716 (2011).
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Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

H. H. Wahba, “Reconstruction of 3D refractive index profiles of PM PANDA optical fiber using digital holographic method,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(5), 520–526 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (8)

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 812–814 (2002).
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G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, “Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(3), 158–160 (2003).
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H. Kim, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, and K. T. Kim, “Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1194–1196 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. He, Z. Chen, J. Yu, Y. Zeng, Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Tang, and H. Lu, “Numerical analysis of optical propagation characteristics of side-polished photonics crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 46(10), 1261–1268 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, S. Long, Z. Gan, Y. Luo, Y. Ma, H. Guan, J. Tang, H. Lu, J. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhong, and Z. Chen, “Optimization of polishing parameters for optical coupler based on side-polished photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 49(2), 81 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Definition of the azimuth angles of the (a) ESM, (b) LMA, and (c) HLM fibers, and SEM images of the (d) ESM, (e) LMA, and (f) HLM fibers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for nondestructive determination of azimuth angle of the PCF. (b) Two-dimensional schematic of setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scattering patterns and the corresponding cross section images of the ESM fiber at azimuth angles of (a) 0°, (b) 30°, (c) 60°.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scattering pattern of the ESM fiber. (a) Scattering pattern for an azimuth angle of 60°, showing the upper and lower-half regions. Characteristic value as a function of azimuth angle for the (b) upper-half region and (c) lower-half region of the scattering pattern.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Scattering pattern analysis of the ESM fiber. Intensity versus azimuth angle for (a) the upper-half region and (b) the lower-half region of the scattering pattern. (c) The measured azimuth angle deviations with respect to the ГК directions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Scattering pattern analysis of the LMA fiber. (a) The scattering pattern for an azimuth angle of 60°, where the upper and lower-half regions are indicated. (b) Characteristic value versus azimuth angle for the (b) upper-half region and (c) lower-half region.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Scattering pattern analysis of the LMA fiber. Intensity as a function of azimuth angle for (a) the upper-half region and (b) the lower-half region of the scattering pattern. (c) The measured azimuth angle deviations with respect to the ГК directions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scattering pattern of the HLM fiber. (a) The scattering pattern for an azimuth angle of 180°, which is divided into the upper and lower-half regions. Characteristic value as a function of azimuth angle for (b) the upper-half region and (c) the lower-half region.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Scattering pattern analysis of the HLM fiber. Intensity versus azimuth angle for (a) the upper-half region and (b) the lower-half region of the scattering pattern. (c) The measured azimuth angle deviations with respect to the ГК directions.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Simulation results of the ESM fiber for scattered fields in the (a) upper-half region and (b) lower-half region. (c) The azimuth angle deviations with respect to the ГК directions.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Cross-section view of the side-polished ESM fibers with polishing directions perpendicular to (a) the ГM and (b) ГК directions.

Equations (1)

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C V = i = 1 , j = 1 M , N p ( i , j )

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