Abstract

The temporal evolution of electron density of air plasma filament induced by femtosecond laser pulse has been studied experimentally by a single shot electromagnetic induction method. Based on the detection of transient magnetic field around the electrified filament by an induction coil, the current in filament as well as electron density is estimated from the time dependent electromotive force signal. The experimental results indicate that our method significantly reduced the self-oscillation and interference signal, which are difficult to avoid in previous standard electrical diagnostic of filament, meanwhile the reliable temporal evolution of the electron density of filament is obtained.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [PubMed]
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2016 (3)

P. Ding, E. Oliva, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Lasing dynamics of neutral nitrogen molecules in femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043824 (2016).

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

G. Point, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Plasma dynamics of a laser filamentation-guided spark,” Phys. Plasmas 23, 73 (2016).

2015 (4)

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

2013 (5)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N{sub 2},” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 466 (2013).

S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6829–6835 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Measuring easily electron plasma densities in gases produced by ultrashort lasers and filaments,” Opt. Express 19(18), 16866–16871 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Papeer, C. Mitchell, J. Penano, Y. Ehrlich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 47 (2011).

Z. Sun, J. Chen, and W. Rudolph, “Determination of the transient electron temperature in a femtosecond-laser-induced air plasma filament,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(4 Pt 2), 046408 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

A. R. Valenzuela, B. Yellampalle, G. Rodriguez, K. Y. Kim, and M. J. Schmitt, “In-line holographic imaging and electron density extraction of ultrafast ionized air filaments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1988–1997 (2008).

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 73–879 (2008).

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine structure of a laser-plasma filament in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 155002 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[PubMed]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3 Pt 2), 036406 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

2003 (4)

A. L. Gaeta, “Optics. Collapsing Light Really Shines,” Science 301(5629), 54–55 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

S. A. Hosseini, B. Ferland, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of filament length generated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse using electromagnetic radiation detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 583–586 (2003).

2002 (2)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).

A. Proulx, A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Fast pulsed electric field created from the self-generated filament of a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 174, 305–309 (2000).

1999 (3)

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).

1997 (1)

R. Piejak, V. Godyak, and B. Alexandrovich, “The electric field and current density in a low-pressure inductive discharge measured with different B-dot probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3416–3421 (1997).

1995 (1)

1974 (1)

Abdollahpour, D.

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

Aleksandrov, N.

S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6829–6835 (2011).
[PubMed]

Alexandrovich, B.

R. Piejak, V. Godyak, and B. Alexandrovich, “The electric field and current density in a low-pressure inductive discharge measured with different B-dot probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3416–3421 (1997).

André, Y. B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

Andreeva, V. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

Arantchouk, L.

G. Point, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Plasma dynamics of a laser filamentation-guided spark,” Phys. Plasmas 23, 73 (2016).

Babushkin, I.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ball, L. M.

Baronavski, A. P.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3 Pt 2), 036406 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

Bergé, L.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bernhardt, J.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

Bodrov, S.

S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6829–6835 (2011).
[PubMed]

Botton, M.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N{sub 2},” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 466 (2013).

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

Braun, A.

Bukin, V.

Carbonnel, J.

G. Point, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Plasma dynamics of a laser filamentation-guided spark,” Phys. Plasmas 23, 73 (2016).

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Châteauneuf, M.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 73–879 (2008).

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

Chen, J.

Z. Sun, J. Chen, and W. Rudolph, “Determination of the transient electron temperature in a femtosecond-laser-induced air plasma filament,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(4 Pt 2), 046408 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, L. M.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, S. Y.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chien, C. Y.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Chin, S. L.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3 Pt 2), 036406 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, B. Ferland, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of filament length generated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse using electromagnetic radiation detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 583–586 (2003).

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

A. Proulx, A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Fast pulsed electric field created from the self-generated filament of a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 174, 305–309 (2000).

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Comtois, D.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[PubMed]

Daigle, J. F.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

Daout, B.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Deng, Y.

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

Desparois, A.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Ding, P.

P. Ding, E. Oliva, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Lasing dynamics of neutral nitrogen molecules in femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043824 (2016).

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dong, Q. L.

Du, D.

Duan, Z.

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

Dubois, J.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 73–879 (2008).

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

Ehrlich, Y.

J. Papeer, C. Mitchell, J. Penano, Y. Ehrlich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 47 (2011).

Eisenmann, S.

S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine structure of a laser-plasma filament in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 155002 (2007).
[PubMed]

Esaulkov, M. N.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Feng, L. B.

Ferland, B.

S. A. Hosseini, B. Ferland, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of filament length generated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse using electromagnetic radiation detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 583–586 (2003).

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

Fontaine, B. L.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).

Franco, M. A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

Fujii, T.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, “Optics. Collapsing Light Really Shines,” Science 301(5629), 54–55 (2003).
[PubMed]

Garnov, S.

Ge, X.

Ge, X. L.

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Girardi, P. G.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).

Godyak, V.

R. Piejak, V. Godyak, and B. Alexandrovich, “The electric field and current density in a low-pressure inductive discharge measured with different B-dot probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3416–3421 (1997).

González de Alaiza Martínez, P.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

Gordon, D.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N{sub 2},” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 466 (2013).

Grounds, P. W.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).

Han, H. N.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

Han, Y. J.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hao, Z.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Hao, Z. Q.

He, S. K.

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

Henin, S.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Herrmann, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

S. A. Hosseini, B. Ferland, and S. L. Chin, “Measurement of filament length generated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse using electromagnetic radiation detection,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 583–586 (2003).

Hou, L.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

Houard, A.

G. Point, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Plasma dynamics of a laser filamentation-guided spark,” Phys. Plasmas 23, 73 (2016).

P. Ding, E. Oliva, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Lasing dynamics of neutral nitrogen molecules in femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043824 (2016).

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hu, Y.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jhajj, N.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

Jiang, Z.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Johnston, T. W.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Ju, J.

Kalkner, W.

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

Kasparian, J.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 73–879 (2008).

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Kim, K. Y.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

A. R. Valenzuela, B. Yellampalle, G. Rodriguez, K. Y. Kim, and M. J. Schmitt, “In-line holographic imaging and electron density extraction of ultrafast ionized air filaments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1988–1997 (2008).

Klingbeil, L.

Kochetov, I.

S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
[PubMed]

Köhler, C.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

Ladouceur, H. D.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).

Lambert, G.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lascoux, N.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Lassonde, P.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Légaré, F.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, F.

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

Li, R.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

Li, Y. T.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liang, W. X.

Liao, G. Q.

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

Liu, W.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3 Pt 2), 036406 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

Liu, X.

Liu, X. L.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

P. Ding, E. Oliva, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Lasing dynamics of neutral nitrogen molecules in femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043824 (2016).

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lohrmann, D.

H. D. Ladouceur, A. P. Baronavski, D. Lohrmann, P. W. Grounds, and P. G. Girardi, “Electrical conductivity of a femtosecond laser generated plasma channel in air,” Opt. Commun. 189, 107–111 (2001).

Lotti, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lu, X.

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

Ma, J. L.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
[PubMed]

Makarov, V. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

Mediano, A.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mercure, H. P.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Milchberg, H. M.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

Milián, C.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mitchell, C.

J. Papeer, C. Mitchell, J. Penano, Y. Ehrlich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 47 (2011).

Mora, N.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Morandotti, R.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Murzanev, A.

S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6829–6835 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

G. Point, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Plasma dynamics of a laser filamentation-guided spark,” Phys. Plasmas 23, 73 (2016).

P. Ding, E. Oliva, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Lasing dynamics of neutral nitrogen molecules in femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043824 (2016).

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

Nakaema, W. M.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Oh, T. I.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

Oliva, E.

P. Ding, E. Oliva, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, and Y. Liu, “Lasing dynamics of neutral nitrogen molecules in femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043824 (2016).

Ozaki, T.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Panov, N. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[PubMed]

Paolone, M.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Papazoglou, D. G.

Papeer, J.

J. Papeer, D. Gordon, P. Sprangle, M. Botton, and A. Zigler, “Temporal evolution of femtosecond laser induced plasma filament in air and N{sub 2},” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 466 (2013).

J. Papeer, C. Mitchell, J. Penano, Y. Ehrlich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 47 (2011).

Pavanello, D.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Payeur, S.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 73–879 (2008).

Peccianti, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Penano, J.

J. Papeer, C. Mitchell, J. Penano, Y. Ehrlich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 47 (2011).

Pépin, H.

B. L. Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, and H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1615–1621 (1999).

Petit, S.

A. Proulx, A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Fast pulsed electric field created from the self-generated filament of a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 174, 305–309 (2000).

Petit, Y.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Piejak, R.

R. Piejak, V. Godyak, and B. Alexandrovich, “The electric field and current density in a low-pressure inductive discharge measured with different B-dot probes,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3416–3421 (1997).

Point, G.

G. Point, L. Arantchouk, J. Carbonnel, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Houard, “Plasma dynamics of a laser filamentation-guided spark,” Phys. Plasmas 23, 73 (2016).

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).

Prade, B. S.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
[PubMed]

Proulx, A.

A. Proulx, A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Fast pulsed electric field created from the self-generated filament of a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 174, 305–309 (2000).

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S. Eisenmann, A. Pukhov, and A. Zigler, “Fine structure of a laser-plasma filament in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(15), 155002 (2007).
[PubMed]

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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Rachidi, F.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Razzari, L.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Rethmeier, K.

Rodriguez, G.

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Romero, C.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Rosenthal, E. W.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

Roy, G.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).

Rubinstein, A.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Rubinstein, M.

C. Romero, A. Mediano, A. Rubinstein, F. Rachidi, M. Rubinstein, M. Paolone, N. Mora, D. Pavanello, P. Zweiacker, and B. Daout, “Measurement of lightning currents using a combination of Rogowski coils and B-Dot sensors,” Journal of Lightning Research 4, 71–77 (2012).

Rudolph, W.

Z. Sun, J. Chen, and W. Rudolph, “Determination of the transient electron temperature in a femtosecond-laser-induced air plasma filament,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(4 Pt 2), 046408 (2011).
[PubMed]

Salamé, R.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).

Schillinger, H.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).

Schmidt, B. E.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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Schmitt, M. J.

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

Shalaby, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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Sheng, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
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Shipilo, D. E.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
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Shkurinov, A. P.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
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Simard, P. T.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3 Pt 2), 036406 (2006).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
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V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad Terahertz Spectrum Generation from an Air-Based Filament Plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
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J. Papeer, C. Mitchell, J. Penano, Y. Ehrlich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 47 (2011).

Squier, J.

Stelmaszczyk, K.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queißer, and R. Salamé, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45, 254–270 (2011).

Stepanov, A.

S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
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S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6829–6835 (2011).
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Sun, H.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, J. Chen, and W. Rudolph, “Determination of the transient electron temperature in a femtosecond-laser-induced air plasma filament,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(4 Pt 2), 046408 (2011).
[PubMed]

Suntsov, S.

Talebpour, A.

A. Proulx, A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, “Fast pulsed electric field created from the self-generated filament of a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 174, 305–309 (2000).

Teng, H.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
[PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

Théberge, F.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3 Pt 2), 036406 (2006).
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S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in opticalmedia,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 863–905 (2005).

Tikhonchuk, V.

Y. Liu, P. Ding, G. Lambert, A. Houard, V. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Recollision-Induced Superradiance of Ionized Nitrogen Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133203 (2015).
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S. Bodrov, N. Aleksandrov, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, I. Kochetov, and A. Stepanov, “Effect of an electric field on air filament decay at the trail of an intense femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(5), 053101 (2013).
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S. Bodrov, V. Bukin, M. Tsarev, A. Murzanev, S. Garnov, N. Aleksandrov, and A. Stepanov, “Plasma filament investigation by transverse optical interferometry and terahertz scattering,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6829–6835 (2011).
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Tzortzakis, S.

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, “Measuring easily electron plasma densities in gases produced by ultrashort lasers and filaments,” Opt. Express 19(18), 16866–16871 (2011).
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S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Time-evolution of the plasma channel at the trail of a self-guided IR femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 181, 123–127 (2000).

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y. B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation of a conducting channel in air by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 60(4 Pt A), R3505–R3507 (1999).
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Vidal, F.

M. Clerici, Y. Hu, P. Lassonde, C. Milián, A. Couairon, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, L. Razzari, F. Vidal, F. Légaré, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Laser-assisted guiding of electric discharges around objects,” Sci. Adv. 1(5), e1400111 (2015).
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Wang, C.

Wang, J. G.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, W.

Wang, W. M.

Wang, Z. H.

Wei, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
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Wei, Z. Y.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
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X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
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Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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Wolf, J. P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
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J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
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Xu, H. L.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, F. Théberge, H. L. Xu, J. F. Daigle, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1268–1274 (2008).

Xu, Z.

J. Ju, J. Liu, C. Wang, H. Sun, W. Wang, X. Ge, C. Li, S. L. Chin, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1214–1216 (2012).
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J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
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Xue, F. B.

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yellampalle, B.

You, Y. S.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 5002 (2013).

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y. B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 772–774 (2002).
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Yuan, D. W.

B. J. Zhu, Y. T. Li, D. W. Yuan, Y. F. Li, F. Li, G. Q. Liao, J. R. Zhao, J. Y. Zhong, F. B. Xue, and S. K. He, “Strong magnetic fields generated with a simple open-ended coil irradiated byhigh power laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 23 (2015).

Zeng, Z.

J. Liu, Z. Duan, Z. Zeng, X. Xie, Y. Deng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and S. L. Chin, “Time-resolved investigation of low-density plasma channels produced by a kilohertz femtosecond laser in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(2 Pt 2), 026412 (2005).
[PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Lu, S. Y. Chen, J. L. Ma, L. Hou, G. Q. Liao, J. G. Wang, Y. J. Han, X. L. Liu, H. Teng, H. N. Han, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15515 (2015).
[PubMed]

X. L. Liu, X. Lu, J. L. Ma, L. B. Feng, X. L. Ge, Y. Zheng, Y. T. Li, L. M. Chen, Q. L. Dong, W. M. Wang, Z. H. Wang, H. Teng, Z. Y. Wei, and J. Zhang, “Long lifetime air plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse sequence,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5968–5973 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Zhang, X. Lu, W. X. Liang, Z. Q. Hao, M. L. Zhou, Z. H. Wang, X. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Triggering and guiding HV discharge in air by filamentation of single and dual fs pulses,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3461–3468 (2009).
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H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, “Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(1 Pt 2), 016406 (2002).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Typical setup of standard EC measurement. The orderly arrayed voltage sources are DC power supply, chemical battery pack and charged capacitor. (b) Setup of EMI method. (c) The relative position of coil and filament.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electric signals of standard EC method with three different voltage sources.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(c) EMF signal of transient magnetic field around the filament; (d)-(f) The corresponding integral signal. Where x = 0 represents the strongest ionized point.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The attitudes of coil in additional test experiment; (b) Signals from coil in conditions of different external voltage and attitudes of the coil; (c) The integral signals of (b).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ= BdS =a μ 0 4π I
a= 5 5 dy 2 12 1 x (sin β 1 sin β 2 )dx
I= 4π μ 0 a φ= 4π μ 0 a εdt
σ= L π r 2 R = L π r 2 I U
σ= e 2 n e m e ν m
n e = L π r 2 I U m e ν m e 2

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