Abstract

Although evanescent fields from tapered optical fibers with small diameters (<5 μm) enable efficient coupling to microresonators, fabrication and handling difficulties motivate the use of half-tapered fibers. As a prelude to microresonator coupling, however, we quantify just the coupling between two half-tapered fibers using fabrication, theory, design analysis, simulation and experimental verification. The dependence of coupling strength on taper diameter, fiber separation and coupling length are highlighted.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. O. V. Svitelskiy, Y. Li, M. Sumetsky, D. Carnegie, E. Rafailov, and V. N. Astratov, “A microfluidic platform integrated with tapered optical fiber for studying resonant properties of compact high index microspheres,” in 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Networks, ICTON (IEEE Computer Society, 2011), pp. 978–981.
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Karadag, A. Jonáš, I. Kucukkara, and A. Kiraz, “Size stabilization of surface-supported liquid aerosols using tapered optical fiber coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 793–795 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. O. Svitelskiy, Y. Li, A. Darafsheh, M. Sumetsky, D. Carnegie, E. Rafailov, and V. N. Astratov, “Fiber Coupling to BaTiO3 glass microspheres in an aqueous environment,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2862–2864 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Gorodetsky and V. Ilchenko, “Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 147–154 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Birks and Y. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Xue, M. Eijkelenborg, G. Barton, and P. Hambley, “Theoretical, numerical and experimental analysis of optical fiber tapering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1169–1176 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Grellier, N. Zayer, and C. Pannell, “Transfer modelling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 152(4-6), 324–328 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Suchowski, G. Porat, and A. Arie, “Adiabatic processes in frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 333–367 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. Synder and Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1983).
  17. B. E. Little, J.-P. Laine, and H. A. Haus, “Analytic theory of coupling from tapered fibers and half-blocks into microsphere resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 704–705 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. Sutter Instrument Company, http://www.sutter.com/MICROPIPETTE/index.html

2016 (1)

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Suchowski, G. Porat, and A. Arie, “Adiabatic processes in frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 333–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

A. Grellier, N. Zayer, and C. Pannell, “Transfer modelling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 152(4-6), 324–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

T. Birks and Y. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, H.

S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arie, A.

H. Suchowski, G. Porat, and A. Arie, “Adiabatic processes in frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 333–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Astratov, V. N.

Barton, G.

Birks, T.

T. Birks and Y. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Black, R.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carnegie, D.

Chenari, Z.

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Chormaic, S. N.

J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darafsheh, A.

Doroodmand, F.

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dumeige, Y.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eijkelenborg, M.

Feron, P.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghamari, S.

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gonthier, F.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M.

Grellier, A.

A. Grellier, N. Zayer, and C. Pannell, “Transfer modelling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 152(4-6), 324–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hambley, P.

Harun, S. W.

S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hashemi, R. S.

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Henry, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V.

Jacques, F.

Jasim, A. A.

S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jonáš, A.

Karadag, Y.

Kiraz, A.

Knight, J. C.

Kucukkara, I.

Lacroix, S.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

Laine, J.-P.

Latifi, H.

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le, V. H.

J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Lim, K. S.

S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

Love, J.

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Maimaiti, A.

J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortier, M.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pannell, C.

A. Grellier, N. Zayer, and C. Pannell, “Transfer modelling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 152(4-6), 324–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

Porat, G.

H. Suchowski, G. Porat, and A. Arie, “Adiabatic processes in frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 333–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rafailov, E.

Stewart, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suchowski, H.

H. Suchowski, G. Porat, and A. Arie, “Adiabatic processes in frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 333–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sumetsky, M.

Svitelskiy, O.

Trebaol, S.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ward, J. M.

J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xue, S.

Zayer, N.

A. Grellier, N. Zayer, and C. Pannell, “Transfer modelling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 152(4-6), 324–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. (2)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Love, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 2: Experimental and theoretical quantification,” IEE Proc., J Optoelectron. 138(5), 355–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Feron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(8), 559–561 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

H. Suchowski, G. Porat, and A. Arie, “Adiabatic processes in frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 333–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Grellier, N. Zayer, and C. Pannell, “Transfer modelling in CO2 laser processing of optical fibres,” Opt. Commun. 152(4-6), 324–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Z. Chenari, H. Latifi, S. Ghamari, R. S. Hashemi, and F. Doroodmand, “Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 76, 91–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. W. Harun, K. S. Lim, A. A. Jasim, and H. Ahmad, “Fabrication of optical comb filter using tapered fiber based ring resonator,” Proc. SPIE 7743(1), 774303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. M. Ward, A. Maimaiti, V. H. Le, and S. N. Chormaic, “Contributed review: optical micro- and nanofiber pulling rig,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 111501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

O. V. Svitelskiy, Y. Li, M. Sumetsky, D. Carnegie, E. Rafailov, and V. N. Astratov, “A microfluidic platform integrated with tapered optical fiber for studying resonant properties of compact high index microspheres,” in 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Networks, ICTON (IEEE Computer Society, 2011), pp. 978–981.
[Crossref]

Sutter Instrument Company, http://www.sutter.com/MICROPIPETTE/index.html

Synder and Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1983).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Tapered fibers: (a) taper angles for low loss tapers and (b) fabricated taper loss
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Coupling coefficient: (a) Mismatched coupled fibers model and (b) Normalized coupling coefficient (theory)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fractional coupled power for different separations and diameters: (a) plot and (b) model
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Beam propagation simulation of coupled tapered fibers: (a) electric field profile and (b) power flow, pathway 1 = Excited fiber, pathway 2 = Receiving fiber
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Setup for fiber coupling
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Coupled power (experiment vs. simulation)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Summary of power flow in coupled tapered fibers

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Power at exit end of receiving fiber f2.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d p = λ 2π ( n 1 2 sin 2 θ n 2 2 ) 1/2
z t ρ Ω z b = 2π β 1 β 2 .
Ω  ρ( β 1 β 2 ) 2π .
V( z )= 2πρ( z ) λ ( n co 2 n cl 2 ) ¯ .
2 ψ r 2 + 1 r ψ r + 1 r 2 2 ψ ϕ 2 + 2 ψ z 2 με 2 ψ t 2 =0.
ψ( r,ϕ,z )=F( r ) e ilϕ e iβz .
ψ=F( r )exp( ±ilϕ )exp( iβz ).
2 F r 2 + 1 r F r +( n 2 k o 2 β 2 l 2 r 2 )F=0.
For core, r < a    k T 2 = ( n 1 k o ) 2 β 2 .
 For cladding, r > a γ 2 = β 2 ( n 2 k o ) 2 .
For core, r < a ( 2 F)/( r 2 )+1/rF/r+( k T 2 l 2 / r 2 )F=0.
For cladding, r > a 2 F r 2 + 1 r F r ( γ 2 + l 2 r 2 )F=0.
For core, r < a F= N f J o 1 ( k T a ) J o ( k T r ).
For cladding, r > a F= N f exp( γ f ( ra ) ).
k T a J 1 ( k T a ) J 0 ( k T a ) =γa K 1 ( γa ) K 0 ( γa ) .
κ( S o )= k 2 2 β f x,y ( n 2 2 n 0 2 ) F 1 F 2  dxdy.
κ( S o )= k 2 ( n 2 2 n 0 2 ) N f1 N f2 2 β f r,θ J o 1 ( k T a ) J o ( k T r 2 ) e ( γ f1 ( r r 1 ) ) dA.
κ( S o )= k 2 ( n 2 2 n 0 2 ) N f1 N f2 2 β f x { J 0 ( k n 2 r 2 )+( x r 2 ) J 1 ]} e ( γ f1 ( x r 1 ) ) dx × p e ( γ f1 2 ( 1 S o + r 1 + 1 r 2 ) p 2 ) dp.
x e x dx= e x ( x1 ).
e x 2 cos( ax )dx= π e a 2 4 .
dU dz =i γ f1 U+i κ f1f2 V.
dV dz =i γ f2 V+i κ f2f1 U.
P f1 ( z )= B + 2 1+ a + 2 + B 2 1+ a 2 + 2 B + B ( 1+ a + 2 ) 1/2 ( 1+ a 2 ) 1/2 cos{ 2 0 z κ F dz }.
P f2 ( z )= a + 2 B + 2 1+ a + 2 + a 2 B 2 1+ a 2 2 B + B ( 1+ a + 2 ) 1/2 ( 1+ a 2 ) 1/2 cos{ 2 0 z κ F dz }.

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