Abstract

We demonstrate high responsivity in a polysilicon (Poly-Si) near-infrared photodetector by reducing the adverse effects of grain boundaries. The presence of grain boundaries is a serious problem in polysilicon since they act as traps and degrade the electrical characteristics. However, the relation between grain boundaries and photodetector performance has not yet been reported. Here, the effect of grain boundary on the resistivity and responsivity of Poly-Si devices is investigated. The resistivity of Poly-Si is higher than that of crystalline Si (c-Si) at the same doping concentration due to the potential barrier of the grain boundary, and its degradation of electrical characteristics is mitigated here by increasing the doping concentration. The photodetector with a highly-doped polysilicon layer exhibits a responsivity of 0.48 A/W at 900 nm, which is almost the same as that of c-Si photodetectors. In contrast, polysilicon devices with the same doping concentration as c-Si devices show degraded responsivity due to grain boundary traps. In addition, to improve the responsivity at target wavelengths of 900 nm and 1,064 nm, we deposited an indium-tin-oxide layer, which reduces the surface reflectance on the Poly-Si photodetector. The responsivity is improved by 22.9% and 50.0% at 900 nm and 1,064 nm respectively compared to devices without the ITO. The results here confirm the ability to fabricate low cost Poly-Si photodetectors with high responsivity which show similar or superior optical response compared to commercial c-Si devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

J. Choi, J.-S. Yoon, and C.-K. Baek, “Investigation of DC Characteristics in Polysilicon Nanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(5), 3071–3076 (2017).
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2016 (2)

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2013 (1)

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S.-W. Chang, V. P. Chuang, S. T. Boles, and C. V. Thompson, “Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(24), 4364–4370 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lien, “Characterization and Optimization of ITO Thin Films for Application in Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(21), S10–S13 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, and H.-I. Kwon, “Bias-Stress-Induced Stretched-Exponential Time Dependence of Threshold Voltage Shift in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093504 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, and K. Jain, “Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide by Projection Photoablation and Lift-Off Process for Fabrication of Flat-Panel Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Li, R. Chu, S. Liao, and L. Zhang, “Illumination invariant Face Recognition Using Near-Infrared Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 627–639 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. F. Cheng, T. C. Leung, M. C. Poon, and M. Chan, “Large-Grain Polysilicon Crystallization Enhancement Using Pulsed RTA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(8), 553–555 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. V. Farmakis, J. Brini, G. Kamarinos, and C. A. Dimitriadis, “Anomalous Turn-On Voltage Degradation During Hot-Carrier Stress in Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(2), 74–76 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Film Microstructure and Optical Constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 394–397 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. A. Green and M. J. Keevers, “Optical Properties of Intrinsic Silicon at 300 K,” Semicond. Prog. Photovoltaics 3(3), 189–192 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

1982 (1)

G. K. Reeves and H. B. Harrison, “Obtaining the Specific Contact Resistance from Transmission Line Model Measurements,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 3(5), 111–113 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

M. M. Mandurah, K. C. Saraswat, and T. I. Kamins, “Phosphorus Doping of Low Pressure Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 126(6), 1019–1023 (1979).

1975 (1)

J. Y. W. Seto, “The Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Silicon Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5247–5254 (1975).
[Crossref]

Achilefu, S.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akers, W. J.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almosni, S.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appasamy, S.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, and K. Jain, “Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide by Projection Photoablation and Lift-Off Process for Fabrication of Flat-Panel Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baek, C.-K.

J. Choi, J.-S. Yoon, and C.-K. Baek, “Investigation of DC Characteristics in Polysilicon Nanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(5), 3071–3076 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bauer, A. Q.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berar, J. F.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berezin, M. Y.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertru, N.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boles, S. T.

S.-W. Chang, V. P. Chuang, S. T. Boles, and C. V. Thompson, “Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(24), 4364–4370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boudet, N.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brini, J.

F. V. Farmakis, J. Brini, G. Kamarinos, and C. A. Dimitriadis, “Anomalous Turn-On Voltage Degradation During Hot-Carrier Stress in Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(2), 74–76 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brooke,

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Candler, R. N.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carey, J. E.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chae, J.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, and K. Jain, “Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide by Projection Photoablation and Lift-Off Process for Fabrication of Flat-Panel Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chan, M.

C. F. Cheng, T. C. Leung, M. C. Poon, and M. Chan, “Large-Grain Polysilicon Crystallization Enhancement Using Pulsed RTA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(8), 553–555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-W.

S.-W. Chang, V. P. Chuang, S. T. Boles, and C. V. Thompson, “Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(24), 4364–4370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. F.

C. F. Cheng, T. C. Leung, M. C. Poon, and M. Chan, “Large-Grain Polysilicon Crystallization Enhancement Using Pulsed RTA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(8), 553–555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chevalier, N.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, I.-T.

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, and H.-I. Kwon, “Bias-Stress-Induced Stretched-Exponential Time Dependence of Threshold Voltage Shift in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, J.-S. Yoon, and C.-K. Baek, “Investigation of DC Characteristics in Polysilicon Nanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(5), 3071–3076 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, R.

S. Z. Li, R. Chu, S. Liao, and L. Zhang, “Illumination invariant Face Recognition Using Near-Infrared Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 627–639 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, V. P.

S.-W. Chang, V. P. Chuang, S. T. Boles, and C. V. Thompson, “Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(24), 4364–4370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chui, C. O.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornet, C.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Corre, A. L.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Culver, J. P.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuscuna, M.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dehaese, O.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dhar, M.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimitriadis, C. A.

F. V. Farmakis, J. Brini, G. Kamarinos, and C. A. Dimitriadis, “Anomalous Turn-On Voltage Degradation During Hot-Carrier Stress in Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(2), 74–76 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dosluoglu, T.

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Durand, O.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Even, J.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Farmakis, F. V.

F. V. Farmakis, J. Brini, G. Kamarinos, and C. A. Dimitriadis, “Anomalous Turn-On Voltage Degradation During Hot-Carrier Stress in Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(2), 74–76 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fini, P. T.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fortunato, G.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Galatsis, K.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green and M. J. Keevers, “Optical Properties of Intrinsic Silicon at 300 K,” Semicond. Prog. Photovoltaics 3(3), 189–192 (1995).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hall, D.

Harrison, H. B.

G. K. Reeves and H. B. Harrison, “Obtaining the Specific Contact Resistance from Transmission Line Model Measurements,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 3(5), 111–113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hong, A. J.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hwang, Y.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibbetson, J. P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishida, S.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Iwata, H.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jain, K.

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, and K. Jain, “Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide by Projection Photoablation and Lift-Off Process for Fabrication of Flat-Panel Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamarinos, G.

F. V. Farmakis, J. Brini, G. Kamarinos, and C. A. Dimitriadis, “Anomalous Turn-On Voltage Degradation During Hot-Carrier Stress in Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(2), 74–76 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

M. M. Mandurah, K. C. Saraswat, and T. I. Kamins, “Phosphorus Doping of Low Pressure Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 126(6), 1019–1023 (1979).

Kawata, H.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Keevers, M. J.

M. A. Green and M. J. Keevers, “Optical Properties of Intrinsic Silicon at 300 K,” Semicond. Prog. Photovoltaics 3(3), 189–192 (1995).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. M.

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. M.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiyama, S.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuriyama, H.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kuwahara, T.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kuwano, Y.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kuyyalil, J.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kwon, D.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, H.-I.

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, and H.-I. Kwon, “Bias-Stress-Induced Stretched-Exponential Time Dependence of Threshold Voltage Shift in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, and H.-I. Kwon, “Bias-Stress-Induced Stretched-Exponential Time Dependence of Threshold Voltage Shift in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-M.

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, and H.-I. Kwon, “Bias-Stress-Induced Stretched-Exponential Time Dependence of Threshold Voltage Shift in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-S.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. K.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Letoublon, A.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leung, T. C.

C. F. Cheng, T. C. Leung, M. C. Poon, and M. Chan, “Large-Grain Polysilicon Crystallization Enhancement Using Pulsed RTA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(8), 553–555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

Li, S. Z.

S. Z. Li, R. Chu, S. Liao, and L. Zhang, “Illumination invariant Face Recognition Using Near-Infrared Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 627–639 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, K.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

S. Z. Li, R. Chu, S. Liao, and L. Zhang, “Illumination invariant Face Recognition Using Near-Infrared Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 627–639 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lien, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lien, “Characterization and Optimization of ITO Thin Films for Application in Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(21), S10–S13 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin Luan, S.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-H.

Lo, Y.-H.

Loualiche, S.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. Y.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Lu, N. C. C.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Maiolo, L.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mandurah, M. M.

M. M. Mandurah, K. C. Saraswat, and T. I. Kamins, “Phosphorus Doping of Low Pressure Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 126(6), 1019–1023 (1979).

Marchand, H.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mariucci, L.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, H.

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meyyappan, M.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minotti, A.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.-T.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morii, K.

Nakano, S.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nakano, Y.

Noguchi, S.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nohda, T.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, M.

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, M.

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osumi, M.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Palit, M.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C.

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pecora, A.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Poon, M. C.

C. F. Cheng, T. C. Leung, M. C. Poon, and M. Chan, “Large-Grain Polysilicon Crystallization Enhancement Using Pulsed RTA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(8), 553–555 (2004).
[Crossref]

Qian, F.

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Quinci, T.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reeves, G. K.

G. K. Reeves and H. B. Harrison, “Obtaining the Specific Contact Resistance from Transmission Line Model Measurements,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 3(5), 111–113 (1982).
[Crossref]

Reuter, W.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Rohel, T.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Royal, S.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sano, K.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K. C.

M. M. Mandurah, K. C. Saraswat, and T. I. Kamins, “Phosphorus Doping of Low Pressure Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 126(6), 1019–1023 (1979).

Seto, J. Y. W.

J. Y. W. Seto, “The Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Silicon Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5247–5254 (1975).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, T. T.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Shih, C. C.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Shin, K.-S.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simeone, D.

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Soga, M.

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solanki, R.

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Song, E. B.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sudlow, G.

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, M.

Synowicki, R. A.

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Film Microstructure and Optical Constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 394–397 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takagi, S.

Takai, I.

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takenaka, M.

Tavernier, K.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thanh, T. N.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thompson, C. V.

S.-W. Chang, V. P. Chuang, S. T. Boles, and C. V. Thompson, “Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(24), 4364–4370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, S.

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. S.

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

Wang, K. L.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. P.

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiu, F.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, L.

Yoon, J.-S.

J. Choi, J.-S. Yoon, and C.-K. Baek, “Investigation of DC Characteristics in Polysilicon Nanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(5), 3071–3076 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. Z. Li, R. Chu, S. Liao, and L. Zhang, “Illumination invariant Face Recognition Using Near-Infrared Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 627–639 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S.-W. Chang, V. P. Chuang, S. T. Boles, and C. V. Thompson, “Metal-Catalyzed Etching of Vertically Aligned Polysilicon and Amorphous Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Etching Direction Confinement,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(24), 4364–4370 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured Silicon Photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical Characterization of GaN P-N Junctions with and without Threading Dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Chae, S. Appasamy, and K. Jain, “Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide by Projection Photoablation and Lift-Off Process for Fabrication of Flat-Panel Displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261102 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Lee, I.-T. Cho, J.-H. Lee, and H.-I. Kwon, “Bias-Stress-Induced Stretched-Exponential Time Dependence of Threshold Voltage Shift in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 093504 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

K. Kim, C. Park, D. Kwon, D. Kim, M. Meyyappan, S. Jeon, and J.-S. Lee, “Silicon Nanowire Biosensors for Detection of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) with High Sensitivity,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 77, 695–701 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (2)

N. C. C. Lu, C. Y. Lu, M. K. Lee, C. C. Shih, C. S. Wang, W. Reuter, and T. T. Sheng, “The Effect of Film Thickness on The electrical Properties of LPCVD Polysilicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 131(4), 897–902 (1984).

M. M. Mandurah, K. C. Saraswat, and T. I. Kamins, “Phosphorus Doping of Low Pressure Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Films,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 126(6), 1019–1023 (1979).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (3)

G. K. Reeves and H. B. Harrison, “Obtaining the Specific Contact Resistance from Transmission Line Model Measurements,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 3(5), 111–113 (1982).
[Crossref]

C. F. Cheng, T. C. Leung, M. C. Poon, and M. Chan, “Large-Grain Polysilicon Crystallization Enhancement Using Pulsed RTA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25(8), 553–555 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. V. Farmakis, J. Brini, G. Kamarinos, and C. A. Dimitriadis, “Anomalous Turn-On Voltage Degradation During Hot-Carrier Stress in Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(2), 74–76 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. (1)

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. Dhar, Brooke, and T. Tyler, “Progress in Chip-Scale Photonic Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

S. Z. Li, R. Chu, S. Liao, and L. Zhang, “Illumination invariant Face Recognition Using Near-Infrared Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 29(4), 627–639 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Y. W. Seto, “The Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline Silicon Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5247–5254 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

T. Quinci, J. Kuyyalil, T. N. Thanh, Y. P. Wang, S. Almosni, A. Letoublon, T. Rohel, K. Tavernier, N. Chevalier, O. Dehaese, N. Boudet, J. F. Berar, S. Loualiche, J. Even, N. Bertru, A. L. Corre, O. Durand, and C. Cornet, “Defects Limitation in epitaxial GaP on Bistepped Si Surface Using UHVCVD-MBE Growth Cluster,” J. Cryst. Growth 380(1), 157–162 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Choi, J.-S. Yoon, and C.-K. Baek, “Investigation of DC Characteristics in Polysilicon Nanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 17(5), 3071–3076 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kuriyama, S. Kiyama, S. Noguchi, T. Kuwahara, S. Ishida, T. Nohda, K. Sano, H. Iwata, H. Kawata, M. Osumi, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, and Y. Kuwano, “Enlargement of Poly-Si Film Grain Size by Excimer Laser Annealing and Its Application to High-Performance Poly-Si Thin Film Transistor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(12B12B), 3700–3703 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, S. M. Kim, K.-S. Shin, E. B. Song, Y. Hwang, F. Xiu, K. Galatsis, C. O. Chui, R. N. Candler, S. Choi, J.-T. Moon, and K. L. Wang, “A Stacked Memory Device on Logic 3D Technology for Ultra-High-Density Data Storage,” Nanotechnology 22(25), 254006 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicond. Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

M. A. Green and M. J. Keevers, “Optical Properties of Intrinsic Silicon at 300 K,” Semicond. Prog. Photovoltaics 3(3), 189–192 (1995).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. M. Kim, J. Lee, T. Dosluoglu, R. Solanki, and F. Qian, “High-Speed Lateral Polysilicon Photodiodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1276–1278 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

I. Takai, H. Matsubara, M. Soga, M. Ohta, M. Ogawa, and T. Yamashita, “Single-Photon Avalanche Diode with Enhanced NIR-Sensitivity for Automotive LIDAR Systems,” Sensors (Basel) 16(4), 459 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

A. Pecora, L. Maiolo, M. Cuscuna, D. Simeone, A. Minotti, L. Mariucci, and G. Fortunato, “Low-Temperature Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors on Polyimide Substrates for Electronics on Plastic,” Solid-State Electron. 52(3), 348–352 (2008).
[Crossref]

Surgery (1)

Y. Liu, A. Q. Bauer, W. J. Akers, G. Sudlow, K. Liang, D. Shen, M. Y. Berezin, J. P. Culver, and S. Achilefu, “Hands-Free, Wireless Goggles for Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery,” Surgery 149(5), 689–698 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

S.-Y. Lien, “Characterization and Optimization of ITO Thin Films for Application in Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells,” Thin Solid Films 518(21), S10–S13 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. A. Synowicki, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Film Microstructure and Optical Constants,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 394–397 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

M. N. Favorskaya and L. C. Jain, Handbook on Advances in Remote Semsing and Geographic Information Systems (Springer, 2017), Chap. 2.

S. H. Yun, and S. J. J. Kwok, “Light in Diagnosis, Therapy and Surgery,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1, 0008 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Kang, T. Rim, C.-K. Baek, M. Meyyappan, and J.-S. Lee, “Thermally Phase-Transformed In2Se3 Nanowires for Highly Sensitive Photodetectors,” 10(18), 3795–3802 (2014).

C. Gorecki, “Optical waveguides and silicon-based micromachined architectures,” in MEMS and MOEMS Technology and Applications, P. Rai-Choudhury, ed. (SPIE, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flow chart for the fabrication of a NIR PD using Poly-Si.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) HR-TEM image of 30-nm thick c-Si, and (b) 30-nm thick Poly-Si. (c) HR-TEM image of deposited Poly-Si layer with various crystal planes. Inset: Diffraction pattern of the c-Si and the Poly-Si. (d) FE-SEM image of Poly-Si grain up to ~30 nm. Inset: FE-SEM image of c-Si surface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Band diagram of Poly-Si depending on the phosphorus doping concentration at the grain boundary. (b) Resistivity of Poly-Si and c-Si according to phosphorus doping concentration. The black solid line for c-Si is from ref [21]. (i) and (ii) represent the size of the potential barrier for each doping case
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Current-voltage curves of highly doped Poly-Si PD and c-Si PD in all bias-ranges (voltage is applied to the n-type Si). (b) Current-voltage curves of highly doped Poly-Si PD and c-Si PD under dark and illumination conditions in the reverse bias. The incident power and wavelength are 90 μW/cm2 and 900 nm, respectively. (c) Comparison of Rλ by wavelength among highly doped Poly-Si PD, Poly-Si PD and c-Si PD. (d) The semi-log plot of Rλ on highly doped Poly-Si PD and Poly-Si PD against wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Surface reflectance variation with ITO thickness and SiO2 passivation layer on Si in the NIR light. (b) Comparison of responsivity (Rλ) with ITO Poly-Si PD, Poly-Si PD, and commercial Si PD. (c) External quantum efficiency comparison with ITO Poly-Si PD, Poly-Si PD, and commercial Si PDs. (d) 20 cycles of on/off signal corresponding to 0.5 V, 2.5 V, and 5 V at 900 nm (only the first 3 cycles and the last 3 cycles are displayed).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical and electrical characteristics according to the ITO thickness at the target wavelengths.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R λ = I ph I dark P×AA
n×d= λ 4
EQE= h×c× R λ q×λ

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