Abstract

We propose a silicon waveguide structure employing silica-filled vertical-dual slots for broadband wavelength conversion, which can be fabricated using simple silicon-on-insulator technology. We demonstrate group-velocity dispersion tailoring by varying the width of the core, the slots and the side strips, and put forward a method to achieve spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion at telecom wavelengths. A proposed structure provides a group-velocity dispersion parameter β2 of −60 ps2/km with an effective mode area Aeff of 0.075 µm2 at 1550 nm. This structure is predicted to significantly broaden the bandwidth of wavelength conversion via four-wave mixing, which is validated with experimentally measured 3 dB bandwidth of 76 nm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Guo, S. M. M. Friis, J. B. Christensen, E. N. Christensen, X. Shi, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “Full-vectorial propagation model and modified effective mode area of four-wave mixing in straight waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3670–3673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

W. Zhang, S. Serna, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Analysis of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguide ring resonators targeting high Q-factors,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5566–5569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bao, Y. Yan, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, A. M. Agarwal, and A. E. Willner, “Increased bandwidth with flattened and low dispersion in a horizontal double-slot silicon waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(1), 26–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. Zhang, Y. Yue, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20529–20534 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

A. H. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

K. Preston and M. Lipson, “Slot waveguides with polycrystalline silicon for electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1527–1534 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, “Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7479–7490 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17 (11), 9282–9287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17 (23), 21066–21076 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, “Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2557–2559 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. A. Anderson, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High confinement in silicon slot waveguides with sharp bends,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9197–9202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Sharping, K. F. Lee, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, L. G. Alexander, and P. Kumar, “Generation of correlated photons in nanoscale silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12388–12393 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1981 (1)

R. F. W. Pease, “Electron beam lithography,” Contemporary Phys. 22(3), 265–290 (1981).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

C. Bao, Y. Yan, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, A. M. Agarwal, and A. E. Willner, “Increased bandwidth with flattened and low dispersion in a horizontal double-slot silicon waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(1), 26–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

C. Bao, Y. Yan, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, A. M. Agarwal, and A. E. Willner, “Increased bandwidth with flattened and low dispersion in a horizontal double-slot silicon waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(1), 26–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alasaarela, T.

Alexander, L. G.

Almeida, V. R.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andersen, J. D.

Anderson, P. A.

Andreani, L.C.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ashraf, H.

J. K. Bhardwaj and H. Ashraf, “Advanced silicon etching using high-density plasmas,” in Micromachining and Microfabrication (ISOP1995), pp. 224–233.
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Bacco, D.

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Bao, C.

C. Bao, Y. Yan, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, A. M. Agarwal, and A. E. Willner, “Increased bandwidth with flattened and low dispersion in a horizontal double-slot silicon waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(1), 26–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bhardwaj, J. K.

J. K. Bhardwaj and H. Ashraf, “Advanced silicon etching using high-density plasmas,” in Micromachining and Microfabrication (ISOP1995), pp. 224–233.
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Birks, T. A.

Blasco, J.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Bohley, C.

Bojko, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyko, B.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

Brongersma, M. L.

Cassan, E.

Chen, Y.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christensen, E. N.

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Guo, S. M. M. Friis, J. B. Christensen, E. N. Christensen, X. Shi, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “Full-vectorial propagation model and modified effective mode area of four-wave mixing in straight waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3670–3673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, J. B.

K. Guo, S. M. M. Friis, J. B. Christensen, E. N. Christensen, X. Shi, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “Full-vectorial propagation model and modified effective mode area of four-wave mixing in straight waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3670–3673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Colonna, J.P.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Cuesta-Soto, T.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Daldosso, N.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Dalgaard, K.

Dellólio, F.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Ding, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Erickson, D.

A. H. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Fallahkhair, A. B.

Fedeli, J.M.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Feng, N.

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Friis, S. M. M.

Galán, J. V.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galili, M.

Galli, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garrido, B.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Gautier, P.E.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Gerace, D.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

Guider, R.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, K.

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Guo, S. M. M. Friis, J. B. Christensen, E. N. Christensen, X. Shi, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “Full-vectorial propagation model and modified effective mode area of four-wave mixing in straight waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3670–3673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hainberger, R.

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17 (11), 9282–9287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, “Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2557–2559 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hedekvist, P. O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hiltunen, J.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hiltunen, M.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, C. Y.

Honkanen, S.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17 (23), 21066–21076 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

Huang, N.

Huang, S.

Jen, A. K. Y.

Ji, H.

Jordana, E.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Jordana, J. E.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

Karvonen, L.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17 (23), 21066–21076 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanna, A.

Kim, W. J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L.

Klug, M.

A. H. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Koefoed, J. G.

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Kuittinen, M.

Kumar, P.

Lebour, Y.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Lee, K. F.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, K. S.

Li, X.

Lin, Q.

Liow, T. Y.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Lo, G.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Lyan, P.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Martí, J.

Martínez, A.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Moore, S. D.

A. H. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muellner, P.

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17 (11), 9282–9287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, “Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2557–2559 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murphy, T.E.

Nolte, P. W.

Ou, H.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Passaro, V. M.

Patrini, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Pease, R. F. W.

R. F. W. Pease, “Electron beam lithography,” Contemporary Phys. 22(3), 265–290 (1981).
[Crossref]

Pellegrino, P.

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Peucheret, C.

Politi, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Preston, K.

Priolo, F.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

Rasmussen, A.

Rottwitt, K.

K. Guo, S. M. M. Friis, J. B. Christensen, E. N. Christensen, X. Shi, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “Full-vectorial propagation model and modified effective mode area of four-wave mixing in straight waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3670–3673 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roux, X. Le

Russell, P. St. J.

Sanchis, P.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martínez, and J. Martí, “Design of silicon-based slot waveguide configurations for optimum nonlinear performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1298–1305 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

Saynatjoki, A.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Säynätjoki, A.

Schilling, J.

Schmidt, B. S.

Serna, S.

Sharping, J. E.

Shi, X.

Sørensen, B. M.

Spott, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stenberg, P.

Sun, Q.

Sun, R.

Tu, X.

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. C.

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Vivien, L.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Wang, Z.

Wellenzohn, M.

Wen,

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

Xu, J.

Xu, Q.

Yan, Y.

C. Bao, Y. Yan, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, A. M. Agarwal, and A. E. Willner, “Increased bandwidth with flattened and low dispersion in a horizontal double-slot silicon waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(1), 26–30 (2015).
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L. Zhang, Q. Lin, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths and its application in on-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1685–1690 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, A. H.

A. H. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

Yvind, K.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W.

Zhu, M.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Guo, E. N. Christensen, J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, D. Bacco, Y. Ding, H. Ou, and K. Rottwitt, “High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(6), 062801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W. J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Contemporary Phys. (1)

R. F. W. Pease, “Electron beam lithography,” Contemporary Phys. 22(3), 265–290 (1981).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Muellner and R. Hainberger, “Structural optimization of silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2557–2559 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Karvonen, A. Saynatjoki, Y. Chen, X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Hiltunen, M. Hiltunen, G. Lo, and S. Honkanen, “Low-loss multiple-slot waveguides fabricated by optical lithography and atomic layer deposition,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(22), 2074–2076 (2012).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

C. Bao, Y. Yan, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, N. Ahmed, A. M. Agarwal, and A. E. Willner, “Increased bandwidth with flattened and low dispersion in a horizontal double-slot silicon waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(1), 26–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. E. Jordana, and R. Guider, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
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Nature (3)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and W. Freude, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

A. H. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon–organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nature 3(4), 216–219 (2009).

Opt. Express (17)

Y. Ding, J. Xu, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Mode-selective wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in a multimode silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(1), 127–135 (2014).
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K. Preston and M. Lipson, “Slot waveguides with polycrystalline silicon for electrical injection,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1527–1534 (2009).
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Y. C. Jun, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, “Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7479–7490 (2009).
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P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17 (11), 9282–9287 (2009).
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A. Säynätjoki, T. Alasaarela, A. Khanna, L. Karvonen, P. Stenberg, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Angled sidewalls in silicon slot waveguides: conformal filling and mode properties,” Opt. Express 17 (23), 21066–21076 (2009).
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L. Zhang, Y. Yue, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20529–20534 (2010).
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M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
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L. Zhang, Q. Lin, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths and its application in on-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1685–1690 (2012).
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M. Zhu, H. Liu, X. Li, N. Huang, Q. Sun, Wen, and Z. Wang, “Ultrabroadband flat dispersion tailoring of dual-slot silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15899–15907 (2012).
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M. Pu, H. Hu, C. Peucheret, H. Ji, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, and K. Yvind, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion in a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16374–16380 (2012).
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P. W. Nolte, C. Bohley, and J. Schilling, “Tuning of zero group velocity dispersion in infiltrated vertical silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1741–1750 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

J. K. Bhardwaj and H. Ashraf, “Advanced silicon etching using high-density plasmas,” in Micromachining and Microfabrication (ISOP1995), pp. 224–233.
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E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, “Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications,” in 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), paper ThC3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The vertical-dual-slot structure. H: the height, Wc: the width of the center core, S: the width of the slots, Ws: the width of the side strips.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a). β2 versus wavelength by setting Wc at 450 nm (magenta), 500 nm (green), 550 nm (black), 600 nm (red) and 650 nm (blue) for the dimensions of Wc-150-150. (b). β2 versus wavelength by setting S at 50 nm (magenta), 100 nm (green), 150 nm (black), 200 nm (red) and 250 nm (blue) for the dimensions of 550-S-150. (c). β2 versus wavelength by setting Ws at 50 nm (magenta), 100 nm (green), 150 nm (black), 200 nm (red) and 250 nm (blue) for the dimensions of 550-150-Ws.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The S-Ws curve that makes ZDWS = 1460 nm (blue solid) and ZDWL = 1625 nm (red dashed), respectively. The core width and the related proposed dimension is: (a). Wc=520 nm and 520-86-54, (b). Wc=540 nm and 540-112-76, (c). Wc=550 nm and 550-129-98, (d). Wc=570 nm and 570-167-234.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a). β2 versus wavelength in the dimension of 550-129-98 by setting the average refractive index of slots at 1 (magenta), 1.11 (green), 1.22 (black), 1.34 (red) and 1.45 (blue). (b). Effective mode area Aeff versus wavelength. The insets are the mode profile at 1460 nm and 1625 nm, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A schematic experimental setup, and the Scanning Electron Microscope image from top view, where the dimension is measured at 551-135-186. The pump wavelength is 1550 nm with an in-waveguide power of 15 dBm. The signal is tuned within 1490 nm–1610 nm, with an in-waveguide power level of 0 dBm. Components abbreviation: EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, TBPF: Tunable band-pass filter, PC: Polarization controller, PM: Power-meter, OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulations and measurement of η in a wavelength range of 1490 – 1610 nm. Green diamond: measurement, blue solid: simulations when the filling ratio is 100%, blue dashed: simulations when the filling ratio is 0%, black solid: fitted simulations when the filling ratio is 55%, red solid: simulations of the corresponding strip structure.

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