Abstract

Reconfigurability is an important requirement for implementing quantum photonic processing using waveguide circuits in which both high fidelity and the ability to change the optical transformation dynamically are necessary. This work aims to address the issue of scalability in reconfigurable waveguide circuits fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write (FLDW) technique. A set of reconfigurable waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers were designed and fabricated using a combination of femtosecond laser waveguide inscription and picosecond laser ablation. Thermal cross-talk between adjacent phase-shifters was managed by machining microchannels into the chip surface to isolate individual waveguides from the rest of the substrate. The tuning efficiency as defined by the dissipated power per unit of induced phase shift was improved by a factor of two in this way while maintaining a smaller device footprint than previous demonstrations of phase tuning in laser-written waveguides. The phase response of the waveguide interferometers to the heaters was thoroughly characterised and was well predicted by simulation. A characterization of the time-dependent response of the reconfigurable interferometers was also performed. A rise time measurement revealed that the circuit can be reconfigured within seconds. No long-term phase drifts away from a set point were observed over a period of more than 12 hours, and the short term phase stability was better than 6 mrad.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (2)

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
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Z. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, M.J. Steel, and M.J. Withford, “Engineering reconfigurable laser-written circuits for practical quantum metrology,” Proc. SPIE 9750, 97500U (2016).

2015 (7)

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Perfect optics with imperfect components,” Optica 2(3), 747–750 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Huh, G. G. Guerreschi, B. Peropadre, J. R. McClean, and A. Aspuru-Guzik, “Boson sampling for molecular vibronic spectra,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 615–621 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tuneable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Guan, R. Scott, C. Qin, and N. Fontaine, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22(1), 145–156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (5)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulating multi-photon entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. Smith, and I. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 264–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip,” Science 325(5945), 1221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alibart, O.

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

Aparo, L.

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arriola, A.

Asghari, M.

Aspuru-Guzik, A.

J. Huh, G. G. Guerreschi, B. Peropadre, J. R. McClean, and A. Aspuru-Guzik, “Boson sampling for molecular vibronic spectra,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 615–621 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.-H.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barz, S.

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

Bongioanni, I.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carolan, J.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaboyer, Z.

Z. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, M.J. Steel, and M.J. Withford, “Engineering reconfigurable laser-written circuits for practical quantum metrology,” Proc. SPIE 9750, 97500U (2016).

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tuneable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Charles, N.

Chen, H.-Z.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-A.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.-B.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciampini, M. A.

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clark, A. S.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Collins, M. J.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crespi, A.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and R. Ramponi, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

D’Ambrosio, V.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dakic, B.

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

Deng, Y.-J.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Downes, J.

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
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Eggleton, B. J.

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X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
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A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
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A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip,” Science 325(5945), 1221 (2009).
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G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
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J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulating multi-photon entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 346–350 (2009).
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A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
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J. Huh, G. G. Guerreschi, B. Peropadre, J. R. McClean, and A. Aspuru-Guzik, “Boson sampling for molecular vibronic spectra,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 615–621 (2015).
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Miura, K.

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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
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A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip,” Science 325(5945), 1221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
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J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulating multi-photon entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 346–350 (2009).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
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[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and R. Ramponi, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
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N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
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A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
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X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
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X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
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Peng, C.-Z.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
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J. Huh, G. G. Guerreschi, B. Peropadre, J. R. McClean, and A. Aspuru-Guzik, “Boson sampling for molecular vibronic spectra,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 615–621 (2015).
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B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
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A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
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A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip,” Science 325(5945), 1221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulating multi-photon entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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Qin, C.

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F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
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Ramponi, R.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and R. Ramponi, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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Raussendorf, R.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
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Reano, R. M.

Ringbauer, M.

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

Rubenchik, A.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
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J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sansoni, L.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sciarrino, F.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scott, R.

Shadbolt, P.

A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shadbolt, P. J.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Shore, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silverstone, J. W.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smerzi, A.

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, B.

B. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. Smith, and I. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 264–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, P.

B. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. Smith, and I. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 264–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, N.

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sparrow, C.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tuneable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steel, M.J.

Z. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, M.J. Steel, and M.J. Withford, “Engineering reconfigurable laser-written circuits for practical quantum metrology,” Proc. SPIE 9750, 97500U (2016).

Stefanov, A.

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulating multi-photon entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steinbrecher, G. R.

J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stokes, A.

Z. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, M.J. Steel, and M.J. Withford, “Engineering reconfigurable laser-written circuits for practical quantum metrology,” Proc. SPIE 9750, 97500U (2016).

Stuart, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, P.

Tanzilli, S.

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Topf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Optical and Physical Properties of Materials Crystals and Glasses,” in “Handbook of Optics,” 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill Education, 2009).

Thomas-Peter, N.

B. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. Smith, and I. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 264–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. G.

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topf, W. J.

W. J. Topf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Optical and Physical Properties of Materials Crystals and Glasses,” in “Handbook of Optics,” 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill Education, 2009).

Tuthill, P. G.

Vallone, G.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vergyris, P.

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitelli, C.

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I.

B. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. Smith, and I. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 264–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walther, P.

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.-X.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. J.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tuneable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withford, M.J.

Z. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, M.J. Steel, and M.J. Withford, “Engineering reconfigurable laser-written circuits for practical quantum metrology,” Proc. SPIE 9750, 97500U (2016).

Xu, P.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.-C.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yung, M.-H.

A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zandrini, T.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.-Q.

A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Crespi, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, C. R. Neal, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and J. L. O’Brien, “Measuring protein concentration with entangled photons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 233704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. Peruzzo, J. McClean, P. Shadbolt, M.-H. Yung, X.-Q. Zhou, P. J. Love, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and J. L. O’Brien, “A variational eigenvalue solver on a photonic quantum processor,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat. Commun. 2, 566 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Huh, G. G. Guerreschi, B. Peropadre, J. R. McClean, and A. Aspuru-Guzik, “Boson sampling for molecular vibronic spectra,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 615–621 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, and R. Ramponi, “Anderson localization of entangled photons in an integrated quantum walk,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 322–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulating multi-photon entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, H.-Z. Chen, W.-B. Gao, A. G. Fowler, R. Raussendorf, Z.-B. Chen, N.-L. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-J. Deng, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of topological error correction,” Nature 482(4), 489–494 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

B. Smith, D. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. Smith, and I. Walmsley, “Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(16), 264–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sun and R. M. Reano, “Submilliwatt thermo-optic switches using free-standing silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8406–8411 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for spatial modes,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20220–20229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Self-aligning universal beam coupler,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6360–6370 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Guan, R. Scott, C. Qin, and N. Fontaine, “Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing using a hybrid 3D photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 22(1), 145–156 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Mower, N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, Y. Lahini, and D. Englund, “High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits,” Phys. Rev. A 92(3), 032322 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Z. Chaboyer, A. Stokes, M.J. Steel, and M.J. Withford, “Engineering reconfigurable laser-written circuits for practical quantum metrology,” Proc. SPIE 9750, 97500U (2016).

Sci. Rep. (5)

P. Vergyris, T. Meany, T. Lunghi, J. Downes, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35975 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Ciampini, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, L. Pezzè, A. Smerzi, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum-enhanced multiparameter estimation in multiarm interferometers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28881 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, C. Vitelli, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Quantum interferometry with three-dimensional geometry,” Sci. Rep. 2, 862 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barz, I. Kassal, M. Ringbauer, Y. O. Lipp, B. Dakić, A. Aspuru-Guzik, and P. Walther, “A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6155 (2014).

Z. Chaboyer, T. Meany, L. G. Helt, M. J. Withford, and M. J. Steel, “Tuneable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9601 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip,” Science 325(5945), 1221 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martín-López, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Corning Inc., “Corning EAGLE2000 AMLCD Glass Substrates Material Information,” (2005).

W. J. Topf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Optical and Physical Properties of Materials Crystals and Glasses,” in “Handbook of Optics,” 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill Education, 2009).

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, 2003), 84th ed.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Two-dimensional cross-sections (top) and one-dimensional cuts (bottom) along a horizontal line at a distance of 50 µm from the top surface of a silica glass substrate with a 300 µm-wide heat source placed at the top without (a) and with (b) a rectangular section removed from the top to separate adjacent volumes of material. Positions of waveguide interferometer arms in a proposed device design are indicated by blue circles.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sketch (not to scale) of the layout of the waveguide chip indicating the numbering convention for the laser-written interferometers, input ports and heaters.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of a 3D tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The two arms are raised to within 50 µm of the surface to interact with Ni-Cr heaters. A channel is machined between the arms for thermal isolation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Four-step fabrication process of the reconfigurable photonic chip. The waveguide interferometers are fabricated first. Channels are machined using picosecond laser ablation in a second step to thermally isolate each waveguide arm (top left). Next, a 45 nm-thick layer of 80/20 Nickel-Chromium (NiCr) alloy is deposited in a wide strip across the whole chip (top right). A second laser ablation step is used to pattern the NiCr strip into eight 300 µm wide resistors and contact pads (bottom left).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured interference fringes obtained from (a) interferometer D having no isolation channel and (b) interferometer C containing an isolation channel when launching into the left input port and monitoring the intensity at the left (black circles) and right (blue asterisks) output ports. Lines: best fits to a model following the form of Eq. (2)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured (blue points) and theoretical (dotted lines) phase calibration constants α as a function of the centre-to-centre distance between each heater and interferometer C along the x-axis. The two lines delimit a range of 15% centred around the theoretically determined constants.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) Phase determined from the ratio of intensities emerging from each output port of an interferometer as a function of time. Inset: distribution of phase fluctuations over the duration of the experiment. The phase remained within a standard deviation of less than 6 mrad of the set point with no offsets. b) Measured (solid black line) and simulated (blue dash-dotted line) response of a fabricated interferometer to an instantaneous step in the voltage applied to a heater. The measured 10–90% rise time is ≈0.4 s.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = P diss A heater = V app 2 t heater ρ NiCr L heater 2 = 7.68 × 10 4 W / m 2 ,
I i ( P j ) = I max 2 [ 1 + V cos ( Φ 0 + α i , j P j ) ] ,

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