Abstract

Grating couplers have been widely used for coupling light between photonic chips and optical fibers. For various quantum-optics and bio-optics experiments, on the other hand, there is a need to achieve good light coupling between photonic chips and microscopy systems. Here, we propose an ultra-compact silicon nitride (SiN) grating coupler optimized for coupling light from a waveguide to a microscopy system. The grating coupler is about 4 by 2 μm2 in size and a 116 nm 1 dB bandwidth can be achieved theoretically. An optimized fabrication process was developed to realize suspended SiN waveguides integrated with these couplers on top of a highly reflective bottom mirror. Experimental results show that up to 53% (2.76 dB loss) of the power of the TE mode can be coupled from a suspended SiN waveguide to a microscopy system with a numerical aperture (NA) = 0.65. Simulations show this efficiency can increase up to 75% (1.25 dB loss) for NA = 0.95.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (1)

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shimizu, N. Nagai, K. Kohno, K. Hirakawa, and M. Nomura, “Waveguide coupled air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity for optomechanics,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21961–21969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

W. C. Lai, S. Chakravarty, Y. Zou, and R. T. Chen, “Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1208–1210 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Achanta, V. G.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aubert, T.

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xie, Y. Zhu, T. Aubert, S. Verstuyft, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Low-loss silicon nitride waveguide hybridly integrated with colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12152–12160 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awschalom, D. D.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bienstman, P.

Bisschop, S.

S. Bisschop, A. Guille, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, and E. Brainis, “Broadband enhancement of single photon emission and polarization dependent coupling in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(11), 13713–13724 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brainis, E.

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bisschop, A. Guille, D. Van Thourhout, Z. Hens, and E. Brainis, “Broadband enhancement of single photon emission and polarization dependent coupling in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(11), 13713–13724 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brokmann, X.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Buratto, S. K.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burkard, G.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carson, P. J.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakravarty, S.

Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

Clemmen, S.

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahan, M.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dave, U.

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Desbiolles, P.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dhakal, A.

Dhoore, S.

Dietrich, C. P.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

DiVincenzo, D. P.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eibl, M.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Englund, D.

Ezaki, M.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

Fiore, A.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

Fox, A. M.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fushman, I.

Gentile, A. A.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giacobino, E.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gomes, R.

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guille, A.

Hadfield, R. H.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Helin, P.

Hens, Z.

Hermans, A.

Hermier, J. P.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hirakawa, K.

Höfling, S.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugues, M.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iizuka, N.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Imamog, A.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamp, M.

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

Kasture, S.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knauer, S.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohno, K.

Komorowska, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuyken, B.

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, W. C.

Laing, A.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Le Thomas, N.

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

Loss, D.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Luxmoore, I. J.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, G. D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. D.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattle, K.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Messin, G.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

Nagai, N.

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, C. M.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
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Nitkowski, A.

Nomura, M.

O’Brien, J. L.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohira, K.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paesani, S.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Petroff, P.

Petruzzella, M.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Politi, A.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahim, A.

Ramsay, A. J.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raza, A.

Roelkens, G.

Rottenberg, X.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Santagati, R.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

Sherwin, M.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, W.

Silverstone, J. W.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M. S.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small, A.

A. Imamog, D. D. Awschalom, G. Burkard, D. P. DiVincenzo, D. Loss, M. Sherwin, and A. Small, “Quantum information processing using quantum dot spins and cavity QED,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4204–4207 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stoltz, N.

Strouse, G. F.

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanian, A. Z.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, N.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
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D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thijssen, A. C. T.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Verheyen, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Verstuyft, S.

W. Xie, Y. Zhu, T. Aubert, S. Verstuyft, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Low-loss silicon nitride waveguide hybridly integrated with colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12152–12160 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wasley, N. A.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wiebe, N.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xie, Y. Zhu, T. Aubert, S. Verstuyft, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Low-loss silicon nitride waveguide hybridly integrated with colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12152–12160 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xie, Y. Zhu, T. Aubert, S. Verstuyft, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Low-loss silicon nitride waveguide hybridly integrated with colloidal quantum dots,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12152–12160 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

Zwiller, V.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 870 (2016).

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Xie, R. Gomes, T. Aubert, S. Bisschop, Y. Zhu, Z. Hens, E. Brainis, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanoscale and Single-Dot Patterning of Colloidal Quantum Dots,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7481–7487 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Wang, S. Paesani, R. Santagati, S. Knauer, A. A. Gentile, N. Wiebe, M. Petruzzella, J. L. O’Brien, J. G. Rarity, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Experimental quantum Hamiltonian learning,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 551–555 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406(6799), 968–970 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 99 (2004).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing spins in an InGaAs quantum dot to a semiconductor waveguide circuit using emitted photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Science (1)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of the grating coupler design, in this paper the grating is completely etch through to enhance the contrast; (b) The top view of the proposed circular shape grating coupler, a small supporting beam is added between the grating coupler and the waveguide to ensure a fully suspended structure realistic.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3D FDTD simulation results of period length vs power up/power collected with NA = 0.65; (b)3D FDTD simulation results of number of periods vs power up/power collected NA = 0.65 (the period length is 600 nm) .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 3D FDTD simulation results of total power radiated upwards and power collection with NA = 0.65 versus distance Dclad. Resutls for substrates with/without Al coating are shown. (b) 3D FDTD simulation of far field radiation pattern of the grating coupler with optimized parameters (600 nm period length; 950nm Dclad distance). (c) Simulation results of coupling efficiency with different NA. (d) Simulation results of bandwidth and collecting efficiency (NA = 0.65) for different types of grating couplers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Proposed device structure to measure the efficiency of the ultra-compact grating coupler. The structure contains suspended waveguide with grating couplers at both sides. (b) SEM picture of fabricated device array.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematics of the fabrication flow. (a) Deposition of 50 nm Aluminum layer on top of the silicon substrate. Thin layer of Aluminum oxide (5 nm) and silicon oxide (5 nm) are later deposited on the Al layer to protect the Al layer from oxidation and wet etching. (b) 950 nm of a-Si is deposited on top of Al layer. (c) 220 nm of SiN is deposited on top of a-Si layer as the waveguide layer. (d) E-beam is used to pattern the test structure and RIE etching transfers the pattern from e-beam resist to SiN layer. (e) Wet etching is used to undercut the grating and the waveguide. Some a-Si is left to support the pillar, as shown in the figure. (f) CPD process is used to release the structure and oxygen plasma cleaning is used to remove the residual e-beam resist.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Microscopy system setup for the measurement. The laser is focused by a lens with NA = 0.65. An iris blocks the reflection from the input laser in the image plane. The light from the out coupling grating can be measured with the detector. Insert: optical microscope picture of the grating couplers with input reflection and output spot (without the iris).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measurement results: the black curve is the simulated power couple to a microscopy system with NA = 0.65; the blue curve is the measured results with a 950 nm distance between the grating coupler and the Al substrate.

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