Abstract

Recent breakthroughs in solid-state photonic quantum technologies enable the generation and detection of single photons with near-unity efficiency as required for a range of photonic quantum technologies. The lack of methods to simultaneously generate and control photons within the same chip, however, is a main obstacle to achieving efficient multi-qubit gates and to harness the advantages of chip-scale quantum photonics. Here we propose and demonstrate an integrated voltage-controlled phase shifter based on the electro-optic effect in suspended photonic waveguides with embedded quantum emitters. The phase control allows the building of a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer with two orthogonal arms, taking advantage of the anisotropic electro-optic response in gallium arsenide. Photons emitted by single self-assembled quantum dots can be actively routed into the two outputs of the interferometer. These results, together with the observed sub-microsecond response time, constitute a significant step towards chip-scale single-photon-source de-multiplexing, fiber-loop boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (3)

H. Wang, Y. He, Y. H. Li, Z. E. Su, B. Li, H. L. Huang, X. Ding, M. C. Chen, C. Liu, J. Qin, J. P. Li, Y. M. He, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, C. Z. Peng, S. Höfling, C. Y. Lu, and J. W. Pan, “High-efficiency multiphoton boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 11, 361–365 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Lenzini, B. Haylock, J. C. Loredo, R. A. Abrahao, N. A. Zakaria, S. Kasture, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, H.-P. Phan, D. V. Dao, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, A. G. White, and M. Lobino, “Active demultiplexing of single-photons from a solid-state source,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11, 1600297 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kiršanskė, H. Thyrrestrup, R. S. Daveau, C. L. Dreeßen, T. Pregnolato, L. Midolo, P. Tighineanu, A. Javadi, S. Stobbe, R. Schott, A. Ludwig, A. D. Wieck, S. I. Park, J. D. Song, A. V. Kuhlmann, I. Söllner, M. C. Löbl, R. J. Warburton, and P. Lodahl, “Indistinguishable and efficient single photons from a quantum dot in a planar nanobeam waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 165306 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. D. Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. P. Dietrich, A. Fiore, M. G. Thompson, M. Kamp, and S. Höfling, “GaAs integrated quantum photonics: Towards compact and multi-functional quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 870–894 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, and S. Stobbe, “Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(2), 347–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Bentham, I. E. Itskevich, R. J. Coles, B. Royall, E. Clarke, J. O’Hara, N. Prtljaga, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, and L. R. Wilson, “On-chip electrically controlled routing of photons from a single quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 221101 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Söllner, S. Mahmoodian, S. L. Hansen, L. Midolo, A. Javadi, G. Kiršanskė, T. Pregnolato, H. El-Ella, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Deterministic photon–emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 775–778 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, C. R. Ye, S. Khan, and V. J. Sorger, “Review and perspective on ultrafast wavelength-size electro-optic modulators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 172–194 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Midolo, T. Pregnolato, G. Kiršanskė, and S. Stobbe, “Soft-mask fabrication of gallium arsenide nanomembranes for integrated quantum photonics,” Nanotechnology 26, 484002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Parrain, C. Baker, G. Wang, B. Guha, E. Gil Santos, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, G. Leo, S. Ducci, and I. Favero, “Origin of optical losses in gallium arsenide disk whispering gallery resonators,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19656–19672 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sapienza, M. Davanço, A. Badolato, and K. Srinivasan, “Nanoscale optical positioning of single quantum dots for bright and pure single-photon emission,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

F. Pagliano, Y. Cho, T. Xia, F. v. Otten, R. Johne, and A. Fiore, “Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5786 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Poot and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanoelectromechanical phase shifting of light on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327, 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable Lithium-Niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Motes, A. Gilchrist, J. P. Dowling, and P. P. Rohde, “Scalable boson sampling with time-bin encoding using a loop-based architecture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optical control of the emission direction of a quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 241102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Carter, T. M. Sweeney, M. Kim, C. S. Kim, D. Solenov, S. E. Economou, T. L. Reinecke, L. Yang, A. S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 329–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. J. Bennett, R. B. Patel, J. Skiba-Szymanska, C. A. Nicoll, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “Giant Stark effect in the emission of single semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031104 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Press, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, T. D. Ladd, B. Friess, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical spin echo in a single quantum dot,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 367–370 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. L. O’Brien, A. Furusawa, and J. Vučković, “Photonic quantum technologies,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 687–695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. P. Michael, K. Srinivasan, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Wavelength- and material-dependent absorption in GaAs and AlGaAs microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051108 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

L. M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, “Scalable photonic quantum computation through cavity-assisted interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. Berseth, C. Wuethrich, and F. K. Reinhart, “The electro-optic coefficients of GaAs: Measurements at 1.32 and 1.52 μm and study of their dispersion between 0.9 and 10 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(6), 2821–2825 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. S. Lee, R. V. Ramaswamy, and V. S. Sundaram, “Analysis and design of high-speed high-efficiency GaAs-AlGaAs double-heterostructure waveguide phase modulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 27(3), 726–736 (1991).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

G. E. Stillman, C. M. Wolfe, C. O. Bozler, and J. A. Rossi, “Electroabsorption in GaAs and its application to waveguide detectors and modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 544–546 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, “Concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient for n- and p-type GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), 250–257 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, and K. L. Lawley, “GaAs electro-optic directional-coupler switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(4), 202–205 (1975).
[Crossref]

Abrahao, R. A.

F. Lenzini, B. Haylock, J. C. Loredo, R. A. Abrahao, N. A. Zakaria, S. Kasture, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, H.-P. Phan, D. V. Dao, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, A. G. White, and M. Lobino, “Active demultiplexing of single-photons from a solid-state source,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11, 1600297 (2017).
[Crossref]

Almeida, M. P.

F. Lenzini, B. Haylock, J. C. Loredo, R. A. Abrahao, N. A. Zakaria, S. Kasture, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, H.-P. Phan, D. V. Dao, P. Senellart, M. P. Almeida, A. G. White, and M. Lobino, “Active demultiplexing of single-photons from a solid-state source,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11, 1600297 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. D. Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Antón, C.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. D. Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arcari, M.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093603 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Integrated router based on suspended electro-optic waveguides. (a) Schematic outline of the device. In the presence of an electric field in the growth direction (z), the refractive index changes along the [110] and [11̄0] directions as indicated by the index ellipse. The phase change results in an anti-correlated output at the two output ports as shown in the inset for an ideal loss-less device. (b) Layer structure of the electro-optic waveguides. The white triangles indicate a layer of self-assembled quantum dots. (c) Plot of the absorption loss (right axis) and switching voltage Vπ (V) (left axis) as a function of length of the device. A device with 400 μm-long arms requires less than 2.5 V to achieve a full switching cycle, while losses are kept below 3 dB.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Numerical analysis of the circuit components. (a) Finite element method (FEM) simulation of the fundamental transverse electric mode. The profile of the norm of the electric field is shown. (b) FEM simulation of the electric field (y-component) propagation in the Y-splitter at a wavelength of 904 nm. The mirror symmetry guarantees equal power and phase at the two outputs. (c) Simulated total (sum of both ports) transmission efficiency (black squares) and reflectivity (red circles) of the Y-splitter around the quantum-dot emission wavelength. The black dotted line indicates the wavelength of our experiment (λ = 904 nm). (d) Simulated electric-field propagation in the multi-mode interference (MMI) coupler when launching the same power on both ports with a relative phase difference of π/2. (e) Simulated total transmission (black squares) and reflection (red circles) in the MMI. The transmission level indicates the sum of both outputs T1 and T2 indicated in (d). (f) Transmission at the two output ports of the MMI as a function of the phase difference at the wavelength of our experiment.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the on-chip electro-optical router. (a) The full MZI with the two orthogonal arms. The green and yellow boxes indicate the input power splitter (Y-splitter) and 3 dB multi-mode interference (MMI) combiner, respectively. These devices have been aligned to the [100] direction to make them insensitive to the electro-optic effect. The wavy pattern on the contact protection is an artifact due to charging effects. The two arms of the MZI are suspended with 100-nm-wide tethers. (b) The fabricated Y-splitter with trenches to electrically isolate the switch area from the emitter region. (c) SEM of the output 2×2 MMI beam splitter.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electro-optical switching of photons from a single quantum dot. (a,b) Single QD spectra collected at output port 1 (blue) and output port 2 (red) at −0.4V (a) and +1.2V (b). The intensity of the collected QD signal at the two ports varies by changing the voltage while its wavelength remains unchanged. (c) Experimental data showing the integrated intensity of the QD emission as a function of the bias. The vertical lines indicate the voltages at which the spectra in (a) and (b) are recorded. (d) Theoretical predictions of the experimental data in (c) for port 1 (blue) and port 2 (red) as a function of bias scaled to the experimental counts. (e) Comparison between the numerical model and the experimental transmission from a quantum dot. The normalized intensity is extracted as the fraction of power emitted in one port divided by the sum of both ports. The error bars are smaller than the size of the symbols and therefore not visible.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission measurements using a coherent light source. Intensity measured from (a) output port 2 and (b) output port 1 as a function of wavelength and voltage. (c) Comparison between the theoretical and the experimental normalized transmission intensity at λ = 918.7 nm. A clear drop in transmission is observed for both arms for V < −0.7 V due to electro-absorption. The oscillations originate from Fabry-Pérot modes caused by reflections in the circuit.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Response time of the device. (a) A square wave voltage is applied to the sample, where Von and Voff are chosen so that the sample emission is maximized at Von = 1.55 V and is completely turned off at the average value Voff = 0.9 V. The purple dash-dotted (green dashed) line indicates the calculated system response below (above) the frequency response cut-off. (b) Integrated intensity from the wetting layer as a function of the applied bias. (c) The emission spectrum recorded at a modulation frequency of 10 kHz. (d) Same as (c) but at 10 MHz. (e) The integrated intensity of the wetting layer as a function of the modulation frequency of the square wave voltage (blue dots). The solid black line is the simulated response for a single-pole low-pass filter. The 3 dB cut-off is observed at around 2.8 MHz. The error bars are smaller than the size of the symbols and therefore not visible.

Equations (1)

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S u , v = ( 0 exp ( in u , v ( V , λ ) k 0 L ) exp ( in u , v ( V , λ ) k 0 L ) 0 )

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