Abstract

Microcavites contribute to enhancing the optical efficiency and color saturation of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display. A major tradeoff of the strong cavity effect is its apparent color shift, especially for RGB-based OLED displays, due to their mismatched angular intensity distributions. To mitigate the color shift, in this work we first analyze the emission spectrum shifts and angular distributions for the OLEDs with strong and weak cavities, both theoretically and experimentally. Excellent agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained. Next, we propose a systematic approach for RGB-OLED displays based on multi-objective optimization algorithms. Three objectives, namely external quantum efficiency (EQE), color gamut coverage, and angular color shift of primary and mixed colors, can be optimized simultaneously. Our optimization algorithm is proven to be effective for suppressing color shift while keeping a relatively high optical efficiency and wide color gamut.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Sakai, M. Shibata, and D. Yokoyama, “Simple model-free estimation of orientation order parameters of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous films used in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(9), 096601 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S.-T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 034001 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. T. Kamtekar, A. P. Monkman, and M. R. Bryce, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting materials and devices (WOLEDs),” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 572–582 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Realization of high efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with highly saturated colors and negligible angular dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 233306 (2009).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063114 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. P. Ghosh, L. J. Gerenser, C. M. Jarman, and J. E. Fornalik, “Thin-film encapsulation of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223503 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17(20), 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, “The light out-coupling efficiency of top emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 2986–2988 (2004).
[Crossref]

S.-F. Chen and C.-W. Wang, “Influence of the hole injection layer on the luminescent performance of organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 765–767 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

Barnes, W. L.

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, “The light out-coupling efficiency of top emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 2986–2988 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beirlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. J.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brütting, W.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bryce, M. R.

K. T. Kamtekar, A. P. Monkman, and M. R. Bryce, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting materials and devices (WOLEDs),” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 572–582 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, P.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chae, H.

J.-S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 034001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17(20), 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-Y.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-F.

S.-F. Chen and C.-W. Wang, “Influence of the hole injection layer on the luminescent performance of organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 765–767 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chiu, T.-L.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. S.

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, X.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chun, Y.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H. K.

J.-S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 034001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chung, J.

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chwang, A. B.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davidson, J. G.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

Deng, Z.

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Realization of high efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with highly saturated colors and negligible angular dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 233306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duan, Y.

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, Y. H.

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fornalik, J. E.

A. P. Ghosh, L. J. Gerenser, C. M. Jarman, and J. E. Fornalik, “Thin-film encapsulation of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Frischeisen, J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gerenser, L. J.

A. P. Ghosh, L. J. Gerenser, C. M. Jarman, and J. E. Fornalik, “Thin-film encapsulation of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, A. P.

A. P. Ghosh, L. J. Gerenser, C. M. Jarman, and J. E. Fornalik, “Thin-film encapsulation of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gou, F.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, K.

Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hack, M.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ham, G.

H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, D.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hewitt, R. H.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y.-H.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

Hsiao, C.-H.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hung, L. S.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jarman, C. M.

A. P. Ghosh, L. J. Gerenser, C. M. Jarman, and J. E. Fornalik, “Thin-film encapsulation of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamtekar, K. T.

K. T. Kamtekar, A. P. Monkman, and M. R. Bryce, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting materials and devices (WOLEDs),” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 572–582 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kee, I.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-B.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-Y.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krajewski, T.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kwack, J.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, H.-J.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, R. C.

M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lan, Y.-H.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063114 (2009).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-C.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. T.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17(20), 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.-Y.

C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. I.

J.-S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 034001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-Z.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leem, D.-S.

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1250–A1264 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, M. C.

F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17(20), 2493–2497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.-Y.

H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-C.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.-Y.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, M. H.

M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S.-T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

Ma, D.

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Realization of high efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with highly saturated colors and negligible angular dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 233306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Madathil, J.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mao, S. Y.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marcus, H.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

Mason, M. G.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mayr, C.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

McCamy, C. S.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

Miao, Y.

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohammadi, S.

S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monkman, A. P.

K. T. Kamtekar, A. P. Monkman, and M. R. Bryce, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting materials and devices (WOLEDs),” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 572–582 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, C. K.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moro, L.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K. A.

Nitsche, R.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-S.

J.-S. Park, H. Chae, H. K. Chung, and S. I. Lee, “Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 034001 (2011).
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F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
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Rajan, K.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
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L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
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Rieß, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
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M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
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A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
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H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
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Rutherford, N.

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
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Y. Sakai, M. Shibata, and D. Yokoyama, “Simple model-free estimation of orientation order parameters of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous films used in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(9), 096601 (2015).
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W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
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Scholz, B. J.

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
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Shibata, M.

Y. Sakai, M. Shibata, and D. Yokoyama, “Simple model-free estimation of orientation order parameters of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous films used in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(9), 096601 (2015).
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S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
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H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
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A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
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L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, “The light out-coupling efficiency of top emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 2986–2988 (2004).
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F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
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S. Kim, H.-J. Kwon, S. Lee, H. Shim, Y. Chun, W. Choi, J. Kwack, D. Han, M. Song, S. Kim, S. Mohammadi, I. Kee, and S. Y. Lee, “Low-power flexible organic light-emitting diode display device,” Adv. Mater. 23(31), 3511–3516 (2011).
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F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
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G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
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Tang, C. W.

L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
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M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
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M. T. Lee, C. H. Liao, C. H. Tsai, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient, deep-blue doped organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 17(20), 2493–2497 (2005).
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M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
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G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
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S.-F. Chen and C.-W. Wang, “Influence of the hole injection layer on the luminescent performance of organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 765–767 (2004).
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Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
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D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
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Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
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Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Realization of high efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with highly saturated colors and negligible angular dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 233306 (2009).
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F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
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L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, “The light out-coupling efficiency of top emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 2986–2988 (2004).
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A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
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M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
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Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
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M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
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M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
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H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
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F. Peng, H. Chen, F. Gou, Y. H. Lee, M. Wand, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Analytical equation for the motion picture response time of display devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(2), 023108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
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R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S.-T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
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Wu, T.-C.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
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Xu, B.

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
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Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xue, K. W.

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
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Yang, D.

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
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Yang, Y. Q.

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
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Yokoyama, D.

Y. Sakai, M. Shibata, and D. Yokoyama, “Simple model-free estimation of orientation order parameters of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous films used in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(9), 096601 (2015).
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Yoo, S.

E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
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Zhao, B.

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
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Zhao, D.

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
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Zhou, T. X.

M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
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D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
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Zhu, R.

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S.-T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
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K. T. Kamtekar, A. P. Monkman, and M. R. Bryce, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting materials and devices (WOLEDs),” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 572–582 (2010).
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J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C. K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Sakai, M. Shibata, and D. Yokoyama, “Simple model-free estimation of orientation order parameters of vacuum-deposited and spin-coated amorphous films used in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(9), 096601 (2015).
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B. W. D’Andrade and J. J. Brown, “Organic light-emitting device luminaire for illumination applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 192908 (2006).
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L. S. Hung, C. W. Tang, M. G. Mason, P. Raychaudhuri, and J. Madathil, “Application of an ultrathin LiF/Al bilayer in organic surface-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 544–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. B. Chwang, M. A. Rothman, S. Y. Mao, R. H. Hewitt, M. S. Weaver, J. A. Silvernail, K. Rajan, M. Hack, J. J. Brown, X. Chu, L. Moro, T. Krajewski, and N. Rutherford, “Thin film encapsulated flexible organic electroluminescent displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 413–415 (2003).
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C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
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M. H. Lu, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Rothman, R. C. Kwong, M. Hack, and J. J. Brown, “High-efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(21), 3921–3923 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. H. Smith, J. A. E. Wasey, and W. L. Barnes, “The light out-coupling efficiency of top emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 2986–2988 (2004).
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Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, “Realization of high efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with highly saturated colors and negligible angular dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 233306 (2009).
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M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
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H. Jung, H. Jeon, H. Choi, G. Ham, S. Shin, and H. Jeon, “Al2O3 multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073502 (2014).
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[Crossref]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beirlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, “Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(5), 055302 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Tan, R. Zhu, Y.-S. Tsai, K.-C. Lee, Z. Luo, Y.-Z. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(31), 315101 (2016).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

H. Chen, J.-H. Lee, B.-Y. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: Present status and future perspectives,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, e17168 (2018), doi:.
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F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
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Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Z. Gao, F. Wang, K. Guo, H. Wang, B. Wei, and B. Xu, “Carrier transfer and luminescence characteristics of concentration-dependent phosphorescent Ir (ppy) 3 doped CBP film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 20–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Org. Electron. (4)

F. B. Sun, Y. Duan, Y. Q. Yang, P. Chen, Y. H. Duan, X. Wang, D. Yang, and K. W. Xue, “Fabrication of tunable [Al2O3:Alucone] thin-film encapsulations for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high performance optical and barrier properties,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2546–2552 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao, H. Liu, Y. Miao, H. Wang, B. Zhao, Y. Hao, F. Zhu, and B. Xu, “A red tandem organic light-emitting diode based on organic photovoltaic-type charge generation layer,” Org. Electron. 32, 1–6 (2016).
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C.-H. Hsiao, Y.-H. Lan, P.-Y. Lee, T.-L. Chiu, and J.-H. Lee, “White organic light-emitting devices with ultra-high color stability over wide luminance range,” Org. Electron. 12(3), 547–555 (2011).
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E. Kim, J. Chung, J. Lee, H. Cho, N. S. Cho, and S. Yoo, “A systematic approach to reducing angular color shift in cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 48, 348–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

W. Brütting, J. Frischeisen, T. D. Schmidt, B. J. Scholz, and C. Mayr, “Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: progress by improved light outcoupling,” Phys. Status Solidi 210(1), 44–65 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 EL spectra of weak cavity OLEDs at different viewing angles. Measured results: a) device 1; b) device 2 and c) device 3. Simulated results: d) device 1; e) device 2 and f) device 3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 EL spectra of strong cavity OLEDs at different viewing angles. Measured results: a) device 4; b) device 5, and c) device 6. Simulated results: d) device 4; e) device 5 and f) device 6.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OLED EL emission intensity angular distributions: a) device 1; b) device 2; c) device 3; d) device 4; e) device 5; and f) device 6.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured and simulated color shifts of OLED devices: a) device 1; b) device 2; c) device 3; d) device 4; e) device 5; and f) device 6.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Layer structures of OLED display system with Red, Green and Blue sub-pixels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 10 reference colors in CIE1976 color space, with DCI-P3 primary colors and D65 white point.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The Pareto Front of the 3-objective systematic optimization for the RGB OLED display system. (Red dot: optimal solution 1)
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulated color triangle of the Op1 RGB OLED display system and the angular color shifts of 10 reference colors from 0° to 60° viewing angle.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated angular color shifts of the first 18 colors in Macbeth ColorChecker from 0° to 60° viewing angle.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The correlations between the OLED optical behaviors and the layers’ thickness: (a)(b)(c) HTL layers (red-d1, green-d2, blue-d3); (d)(e)(f) CPL layers (red-d4, green-d5, blue-d6); (g)(h)(i) Al2O3 layers in thin film encapsulation (blue-d7, green-d9, red-d11); (j)(k)(l) polymer layers in thin film encapsulation (blue-d8, red-d10).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Layer structures of the six OLED samples we fabricated (Unit: nm).

Equations (3)

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K( k x ,λ )= 1 3 K TMv + 2 3 ( K TMh + K TEh ),
EQE=ηIQE=ηγ η S/T q eff ,
CGC= A display A standard A standard ,

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