Abstract

The repetition rate stabilization of an optical frequency comb based on diode-pumped solid-state laser technology is demonstrated using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator. The large feedback bandwidth of such modulators allows disciplining the comb repetition rate on a cavity-stabilized continuous-wave laser with a locking bandwidth up to 700 kHz. This surpasses what can be achieved with any other type of actuator reported so far. An in-loop integrated phase noise of 133 mrad has been measured and the PM-to-AM coupling of the electro-optic modulator has been investigated as well.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, K. M. T. Yamada, H. Inaba, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, and H. Sasada, “Ortho-Para-Dependent Pressure Effects Observed in the Near Infrared Band of Acetylene by Dual-Comb Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(14), 143902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Shoji, W. Xie, K. L. Silverman, A. Feldman, T. Harvey, R. P. Mirin, and T. R. Schibli, “Ultra-low-noise monolithic mode-locked solid-state laser,” Optica 3(9), 995–998 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Karlen, G. Buchs, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Efficient carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization through gain modulation via stimulated emission,” Opt. Lett. 41(2), 376–379 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kuse, J. Jiang, C.-C. Lee, T. R. Schibli, and M. E. Fermann, “All polarization-maintaining Er fiber-based optical frequency combs with nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 24(3), 3095–3102 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Portuondo-Campa, R. Paschotta, and S. Lecomte, “Sub-100 attosecond timing jitter from low-noise passively mode-locked solid-state laser at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2650–2653 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 638–640 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, C.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balet, L.

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, E.

Baynes, F. N.

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bethge, J.

Bjork, B. J.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-Infrared Time-Resolved Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouchand, R.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

Buchs, G.

Bui, T. Q.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-Infrared Time-Resolved Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

Changala, P. B.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cingöz, A.

Coddington, I.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J.-D. Deschênes, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comb-calibrated laser ranging for three-dimensional surface profiling with micrometer-level precision at a distance,” Opt. Express 22(21), 24914–24928 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 638–640 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, G. D.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cossel, K. C.

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-Infrared Time-Resolved Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cross, A.

Cundiff, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

Datta, S.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deschênes, J.-D.

Deutsch, C.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical amplification and pulse interleaving for low-noise photonic microwave generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1581–1584 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), 51–62 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feldman, A.

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleisher, A. J.

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-Infrared Time-Resolved Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
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Follman, D.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
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Fortier, T.

Fortier, T. M.

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical amplification and pulse interleaving for low-noise photonic microwave generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1581–1584 (2014).
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S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Giorgetta, F. R.

Giunta, M.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Heckl, O. H.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
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A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
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B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
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Holzwarth, R.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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Hosaka, K.

Hou, D.

Hudson, D. D.

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K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, K. M. T. Yamada, H. Inaba, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, and H. Sasada, “Ortho-Para-Dependent Pressure Effects Observed in the Near Infrared Band of Acetylene by Dual-Comb Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(14), 143902 (2016).
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K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13769–13776 (2012).
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Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Joshi, A.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Kawato, S.

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A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1536–1538 (2005).
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H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
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J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
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Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Kohno, T.

Krainer, L.

Kundermann, S.

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Le Coq, Y.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Lee, C. C.

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
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J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
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J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 716–720 (2010).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Lours, M.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, S. A.

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).
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Minoshima, K.

Mirin, R. P.

Mohr, C.

Nakajima, Y.

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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J.-D. Deschênes, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comb-calibrated laser ranging for three-dimensional surface profiling with micrometer-level precision at a distance,” Opt. Express 22(21), 24914–24928 (2014).
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F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
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N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
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E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 638–640 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
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Nicholson, J. W.

Nicolodi, D.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, K. M. T. Yamada, H. Inaba, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, and H. Sasada, “Ortho-Para-Dependent Pressure Effects Observed in the Near Infrared Band of Acetylene by Dual-Comb Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(14), 143902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okumura, M.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-Infrared Time-Resolved Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onae, A.

Paschotta, R.

Portuondo-Campa, E.

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, F. N. Baynes, T. M. Fortier, Q. Zhou, A. Cross, J. C. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical amplification and pulse interleaving for low-noise photonic microwave generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1581–1584 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Rauschenberger, J.

Richardson, D. J.

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Rudin, B.

Santarelli, G.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
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Sasada, H.

K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, K. M. T. Yamada, H. Inaba, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, and H. Sasada, “Ortho-Para-Dependent Pressure Effects Observed in the Near Infrared Band of Acetylene by Dual-Comb Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(14), 143902 (2016).
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Schibli, T. R.

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-Envelope Offset Stabilized Ultrafast Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 787–816 (2015).
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M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
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Shoji, T. D.

Silverman, K. L.

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F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
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Spaun, B.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
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Spühler, G. J.

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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Südmeyer, T.

S. Schilt and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-Envelope Offset Stabilized Ultrafast Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 787–816 (2015).
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M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
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Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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Suzuki, S.

Swann, W. C.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J.-D. Deschênes, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Comb-calibrated laser ranging for three-dimensional surface profiling with micrometer-level precision at a distance,” Opt. Express 22(21), 24914–24928 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 638–640 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1536–1538 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
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Tremblin, P.-A.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Xie, X.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P.-A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. Le Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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K. Iwakuni, S. Okubo, K. M. T. Yamada, H. Inaba, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, and H. Sasada, “Ortho-Para-Dependent Pressure Effects Observed in the Near Infrared Band of Acetylene by Dual-Comb Spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(14), 143902 (2016).
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Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, O. H. Heckl, P. B. Changala, B. Spaun, P. Heu, D. Follman, C. Deutsch, G. D. Cole, M. Aspelmeyer, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurement of OD + CO → DOCO kinetics,” Science 354(6311), 444–448 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-Infrared Time-Resolved Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
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Zeller, S. C.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
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Zhou, Q.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. A. Meyer, T. M. Fortier, S. Lecomte, and S. A. Diddams, “A frequency-stabilized Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb and its application to low-phase-noise microwave generation,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 565–570 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

S. Schilt and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-Envelope Offset Stabilized Ultrafast Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 787–816 (2015).
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IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 . Schematic of the experimental setup with the two phase-locked loop (PLL) systems to respectively stabilize the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency (orange) and the repetition rate by generating an optical beat note (green). Er/Yb glass: codoped erbium-ytterbium glass, OC: output coupler, GTI: Gires-Tournois interferometer mirror, PD: photodetector, Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror (SESAM) mounted on a piezoelectric transducer (PZT), EOM: electro-optic modulator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 . (a) Red: In-loop RF spectrum of the stabilized optical beat note. Grey: In-loop RF spectrum of the cavity-stabilized CW laser around its phase modulation frequency of 18 MHz. Both spectra were measured with 100 Hz rbw. (b) Left: Phase noise spectrum. Right: Integrated phase noise. An integrated phase noise of 133 mrad has been measured in the range from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. After numerically removing the contribution from the CW laser the calculated integrated phase noise is 115 mrad [10 Hz; 1 MHz].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relative intensity noise of the fully stabilized laser. The servo bump from the stabilization of the carrier-envelope offset frequency appears at 45 kHz and a spur around 700 kHz can be interpreted as PM-to-AM coupling due to the EOM.

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