Abstract

The performance of highly nonlinear organic electro-optic (EO) materials incorporated into nanoscale slots is examined. It is shown that EO coefficients as large as 190 pm/V can be obtained in 150 nm wide plasmonic slot waveguides but that the coefficients decrease for narrower slots. Possible mechanism that lead to such a decrease are discussed. Monte-Carlo computer simulations are performed, confirming that chromophore-surface interactions are one important factor influencing the EO coefficient in narrow plasmonic slots. These highly nonlinear materials are of particular interest for applications in optical modulators. However, in modulators the key parameters are the voltage-length product UπL and the insertion loss rather than the linear EO coefficients. We show record-low voltage-length products of 70 Vµm and 50 Vµm for slot widths in the order of 50 nm for the materials JRD1 and DLD164, respectively. This is because the nonlinear interaction is enhanced in narrow slot and thereby compensates for the reduced EO coefficient. Likewise, it is found that lowest insertion losses are observed for slot widths in the range 60 to 100 nm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  77. A. F. Tillack and B. H. Robinson, “Toward optimal eo response from onlo chromophores: A statistical mechanics study of optimizing shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(12), E121–E129 (2016).
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  78. L. Dalton, W. Steier, B. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: Organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
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  79. P. P. Klein, “On the ellipsoid and plane intersection equation,” Appl. Math. 3(11), 1634–1640 (2012).
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  80. H. Heinz, R. Vaia, B. Farmer, and R. Naik, “Accurate simulation of surfaces and interfaces of face-centered cubic metals using 12− 6 and 9− 6 Lennard-Jones potentials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(44), 17281–17290 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  81. J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
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  82. L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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2017 (1)

2016 (13)

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, D. Caimi, L. Czornomaz, M. Stuckelberger, M. Sousa, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A hybrid barium titanate–silicon photonics platform for ultraefficient electro-optic tuning,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1688–1693 (2016).
[Crossref]

I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C.-j. Chung, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, C.-T. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Design of a plasmonic-organic hybrid slot waveguide integrated with a bowtie-antenna for terahertz wave detection,” Proc. SPIE 975, 975614 (2016).

M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11694–11707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with > 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100 Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C.-J. Chung, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, R. L. Nelson, C. Y. C. Lee, and R. T. Chen, “High performance optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer filled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(12), 2941–2951 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure–function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, H. Nakamura, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Analysis of efficiently poled electro-optic polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Commun. 362, 77–80 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, B. E. Eichinger, and B. H. Robinson, “Systematic generation of anisotropic coarse-grained lennard-jones potentials and their application to ordered soft matter,” J. Chem. Theory Comput. 12(9), 4362–4374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Tillack and B. H. Robinson, “Toward optimal eo response from onlo chromophores: A statistical mechanics study of optimizing shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(12), E121–E129 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sinha, M. Karabiyik, C. Al-Amin, P. K. Vabbina, D. Ö. Güney, and N. Pala, “Tunable room temperature THz sources based on nonlinear mixing in a hybrid optical and THz micro-ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Li, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Zang, J. Wu, Z. Cui, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Poling efficiency enhancement of tethered binary nonlinear optical chromophores for achieving an ultrahigh n3r33 figure-of-merit of 2601 pm V−1,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(26), 6737–6744 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. S. Song, P. J. Reid, R. M. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 884829 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jouane, Y. C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. K. Eng, S. Kozacik, S. Shi, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “All-polymer modulator for high frequency low drive voltage applications,” Proc. SPIE 8983, 898316 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on broadband bowtie antenna coupled silicon organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3774–3784 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic nlo chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, Y. Jouane, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Enhanced conductivity of sol-gel silica cladding for efficient poling in electro-optic polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(24), 30191–30199 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 6600907 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Himmelhuber, O. D. Herrera, R. Voorakaranam, L. Li, A. M. Jones, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A silicon-polymer hybrid modulator;design, simulation and proof of principle,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4067–4072 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Wijayanto, H. Murata, and Y. Okamura, “Electrooptic millimeter-wave-lightwave signal converters suspended to gap-embedded patch antennas on low-k dielectric materials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 33–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, E. Cassan, D. Gao, and X. Zhang, “Highly efficient phase-matched second harmonic generation using an asymmetric plasmonic slot waveguide configuration in hybrid polymer-silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14876–14887 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, C. Weimann, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Second-order nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20506–20515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Knorr, S. J. Benight, B. Krajina, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, and R. M. Overney, “Nanoscale phase analysis of molecular cooperativity and thermal transitions in dendritic nonlinear optical glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(46), 13793–13805 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Benight, D. B. Knorr, L. E. Johnson, P. A. Sullivan, D. Lao, J. Sun, L. S. Kocherlakota, A. Elangovan, B. H. Robinson, R. M. Overney, and L. R. Dalton, “Nano-engineering lattice dimensionality for a soft matter organic functional material,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3263–3268 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Klein, “On the ellipsoid and plane intersection equation,” Appl. Math. 3(11), 1634–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “Eo polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H (2010).
[Crossref]

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, R. Barnes, B. C. Olbricht, D. H. Bale, P. J. Reid, B. E. Eichinger, L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and B. H. Robinson, “Reduced dimensionality in organic electro-optic materials: theory and defined order,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(37), 11949–11956 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, Z. Shi, Y.-J. Cheng, S.-H. Jang, D. B. Knorr, R. M. Overney, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Supramolecular self-assembled dendritic nonlinear optical chromophores: Fine-tuning of arene–perfluoroarene interactions for ultralarge electro-optic activity and enhanced thermal stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(19), 1976–1981 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Gray, T.-D. Kim, D. B. Knorr, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. M. Overney, “Mesoscale dynamics and cooperativity of networking dendronized nonlinear optical molecular glasses,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 754–759 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Binary chromophore systems in nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for large electrooptic activities†,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8091–8098 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K. Jen, “Wideband 15THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Heinz, R. Vaia, B. Farmer, and R. Naik, “Accurate simulation of surfaces and interfaces of face-centered cubic metals using 12− 6 and 9− 6 Lennard-Jones potentials,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(44), 17281–17290 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
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Y.-J. Wang and G. Carlisle, “Optical properties of disperse-red-1-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 13(3), 173–178 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

T. Pliška, W.-R. Cho, J. Meier, A.-C. Le Duff, V. Ricci, A. Otomo, M. Canva, G. I. Stegeman, P. Raimond, and F. Kajzar, “Comparative study of nonlinear-optical polymers for guided-wave second-harmonic generation at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(9), 1554–1564 (2000).
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B. Robinson and L. Dalton, “Monte Carlo statistical mechanical simulations of the competition of intermolecular electrostatic and poling-field interactions in defining macroscopic electro-optic activity for organic chromophore/polymer materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(20), 4785–4795 (2000).
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Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. Dalton, W. Steier, B. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: Organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wolff and R. Wortmann, “Organic materials for second-order non-linear optics,” Adv. Phys. Org. Chem. 32, 121–217 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, “Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in algaas waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2609–2611 (1996).
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Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro‐optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
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1994 (2)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).
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D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 195–242 (1994).
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1993 (1)

F. T. Sheehy, W. B. Bridges, and J. H. Schaffner, “60 GHz and 94 GHz antenna-coupled LiNbO3 electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(3), 307–310 (1993).
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1991 (1)

W. B. Bridges, F. T. Sheehy, and J. H. Schaffner, “Wave-coupled LiNbO3 electrooptic modulator for microwave and millimeter-wave modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(2), 133–135 (1991).
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1988 (1)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro‐optic phase modulation and optical second‐harmonic generation in corona‐poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1800–1802 (1988).
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1985 (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: Summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
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1977 (1)

J. Oudar and D. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66(6), 2664–2668 (1977).
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Abel, S.

Absil, P.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 6600907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akelaitis, A. J. P.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

Al-Amin, C.

R. Sinha, M. Karabiyik, C. Al-Amin, P. K. Vabbina, D. Ö. Güney, and N. Pala, “Tunable room temperature THz sources based on nonlinear mixing in a hybrid optical and THz micro-ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alloatti, L.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with > 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11694–11707 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure–function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic nlo chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
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W. W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. S. Song, P. J. Reid, R. M. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 884829 (2014).
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D. B. Knorr, S. J. Benight, B. Krajina, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, and R. M. Overney, “Nanoscale phase analysis of molecular cooperativity and thermal transitions in dendritic nonlinear optical glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(46), 13793–13805 (2012).
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S. J. Benight, D. B. Knorr, L. E. Johnson, P. A. Sullivan, D. Lao, J. Sun, L. S. Kocherlakota, A. Elangovan, B. H. Robinson, R. M. Overney, and L. R. Dalton, “Nano-engineering lattice dimensionality for a soft matter organic functional material,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3263–3268 (2012).
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L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr, I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. M. Overney, “Systematic nanoengineering of soft matter organic electro-optic materials,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 430–445 (2011).
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L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: state of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 25–55 (2010).
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S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, R. Barnes, B. C. Olbricht, D. H. Bale, P. J. Reid, B. E. Eichinger, L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and B. H. Robinson, “Reduced dimensionality in organic electro-optic materials: theory and defined order,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(37), 11949–11956 (2010).
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Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
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T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Binary chromophore systems in nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for large electrooptic activities†,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8091–8098 (2008).
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Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
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D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
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Dede, A.

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Dinu, R.

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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 6600907 (2013).
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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Dupuy, J. Y.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100 Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, R. Barnes, B. C. Olbricht, D. H. Bale, P. J. Reid, B. E. Eichinger, L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and B. H. Robinson, “Reduced dimensionality in organic electro-optic materials: theory and defined order,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(37), 11949–11956 (2010).
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Elangovan, A.

S. J. Benight, D. B. Knorr, L. E. Johnson, P. A. Sullivan, D. Lao, J. Sun, L. S. Kocherlakota, A. Elangovan, B. H. Robinson, R. M. Overney, and L. R. Dalton, “Nano-engineering lattice dimensionality for a soft matter organic functional material,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3263–3268 (2012).
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Elder, D. L.

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11694–11707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with > 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, K. T. Manner, K. E. Garrett, W. Kaminsky, R. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Structure–function relationship exploration for enhanced thermal stability and electro-optic activity in monolithic organic nlo chromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(15), 3119–3124 (2016).
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[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic nlo chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. W. Jin, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, A. F. Tillack, B. C. Olbricht, J. S. Song, P. J. Reid, R. M. Xu, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Benzocyclobutene barrier layer for suppressing conductance in nonlinear optical devices during electric field poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 884829 (2014).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with > 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11694–11707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with > 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, R. Bonjour, M. Zahner, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Direct conversion of free space millimeter waves to optical domain by plasmonic modulator antenna,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 8342–8346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. B. Knorr, S. J. Benight, B. Krajina, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, and R. M. Overney, “Nanoscale phase analysis of molecular cooperativity and thermal transitions in dendritic nonlinear optical glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(46), 13793–13805 (2012).
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L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr, I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. M. Overney, “Systematic nanoengineering of soft matter organic electro-optic materials,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 430–445 (2011).
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X.-H. Zhou, J. Luo, S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, Z. Shi, Y.-J. Cheng, S.-H. Jang, D. B. Knorr, R. M. Overney, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Supramolecular self-assembled dendritic nonlinear optical chromophores: Fine-tuning of arene–perfluoroarene interactions for ultralarge electro-optic activity and enhanced thermal stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(19), 1976–1981 (2009).
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T. Gray, T.-D. Kim, D. B. Knorr, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. M. Overney, “Mesoscale dynamics and cooperativity of networking dendronized nonlinear optical molecular glasses,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 754–759 (2008).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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S. J. Benight, D. B. Knorr, L. E. Johnson, P. A. Sullivan, D. Lao, J. Sun, L. S. Kocherlakota, A. Elangovan, B. H. Robinson, R. M. Overney, and L. R. Dalton, “Nano-engineering lattice dimensionality for a soft matter organic functional material,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3263–3268 (2012).
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Koeber, S.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11694–11707 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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Koehnle, K.

Koenig, S.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 6600907 (2013).
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Kohl, M.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with > 70-GHz electrical bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Konczykowska, A.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100 Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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Koos, C.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lauermann, C. Weimann, A. Knopf, W. Heni, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, W. Bogaerts, J. Leuthold, L. R. Dalton, C. Rembe, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11694–11707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 6600907 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, C. Weimann, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Second-order nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20506–20515 (2012).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
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Korn, D.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power mach-zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 6600907 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, C. Weimann, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Second-order nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20506–20515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosilkin, I.

L. R. Dalton, S. J. Benight, L. E. Johnson, D. B. Knorr, I. Kosilkin, B. E. Eichinger, B. H. Robinson, A. K. Y. Jen, and R. M. Overney, “Systematic nanoengineering of soft matter organic electro-optic materials,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 430–445 (2011).
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Kouloumentas, C.

V. Katopodis, P. Groumas, Z. Zhang, R. Dinu, E. Miller, A. Konczykowska, J. Y. Dupuy, A. Beretta, A. Dede, J. H. Choi, P. Harati, F. Jorge, V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, G. Cangini, A. Vannucci, N. Keil, H. G. Bach, N. Grote, H. Avramopoulos, and C. Kouloumentas, “Polymer enabled 100 Gbaud connectivity for datacom applications,” Opt. Commun. 362, 13–21 (2016).
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Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, “Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in algaas waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2609–2611 (1996).
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Krajina, B.

D. B. Knorr, S. J. Benight, B. Krajina, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, and R. M. Overney, “Nanoscale phase analysis of molecular cooperativity and thermal transitions in dendritic nonlinear optical glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 116(46), 13793–13805 (2012).
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Kurz, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro‐optic phase modulation and optical second‐harmonic generation in corona‐poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1800–1802 (1988).
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K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro‐optic phase modulation and optical second‐harmonic generation in corona‐poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(19), 1800–1802 (1988).
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Lao, D.

S. J. Benight, D. B. Knorr, L. E. Johnson, P. A. Sullivan, D. Lao, J. Sun, L. S. Kocherlakota, A. Elangovan, B. H. Robinson, R. M. Overney, and L. R. Dalton, “Nano-engineering lattice dimensionality for a soft matter organic functional material,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3263–3268 (2012).
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Lauermann, M.

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

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I.-C. Benea-Chelmus, C. Bonzon, C. Maissen, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Subcycle measurement of intensity correlations in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. A 93(4), 043812 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Đorđević, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic organic hybrid modulators—scaling highest speed photonics to the microscale,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2362–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “Eo polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990H (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C.-j. Chung, H. Subbaraman, Z. Pan, C.-T. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “Design of a plasmonic-organic hybrid slot waveguide integrated with a bowtie-antenna for terahertz wave detection,” Proc. SPIE 975, 975614 (2016).

D. L. K. Eng, S. Kozacik, S. Shi, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “All-polymer modulator for high frequency low drive voltage applications,” Proc. SPIE 8983, 898316 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

R. Sinha, M. Karabiyik, C. Al-Amin, P. K. Vabbina, D. Ö. Güney, and N. Pala, “Tunable room temperature THz sources based on nonlinear mixing in a hybrid optical and THz micro-ring resonator,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (10)

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, C.-j. Chung, H. Yan, Z. Pan, R. L. Nelson, and R. T. Chen, “Broadband energy-efficient optical modulation by hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics and organic electro-optic polymer,” arXiv 1503.01912 (2014).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

A. Nesic, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Korn, S. Koenig, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, and C. G. Koos, “Demonstration of difference frequency generation in a silicon slot waveguide,” in CLEO:2014 (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper STh1I.2.

“Soluxra, llc,” http://www.soluxra.com/ .

W. Heni, C. Haffner, P. V. Johnston, D. L. Elder, Y. Fedoryshyn, R. Cottier, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, A. F. Tillack, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optimizing plasmonic modulators for in-device nonlinearities of up to 275 pm/v,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics(Optical Society of America, 2016), paper ITu1A.1.

“Gigoptix inc.,” http://www.gigoptix.com .

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect with densely integrated plasmonic modulator and germanium photodetector arrays,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th1F.6.
[Crossref]

L. Dalton, P. Günter, M. Jazbinsek, O. Kwon, and P. Sullivan, Organic Electro-optics and Photonics (Cambridge, 2015).

P. V. Johnston, “Structure function paradigms of organic electrooptic materials,” in PhD Thesis (University of Washington, 2016).

A. F. Tillack, “Electro-optic material design criteria derived from condensed matter simulations using the level-of-detail coarse-graining approach,” in PhD Thesis (University of Washington, 2015).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Artistic view of a plasmonic slot waveguide filled with an organic EO material (JRD1, inset). A dependence of the EO coefficient on the slot waveguide width is experimentally investigated for the materials JRD1 and DLD164. EO coefficients of 190 pm/V are found for wide slots while these values decrease for narrower slots.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Maximum reported EO coefficients as a function of the slot width. For all reviewed materials a strong slot-width dependence of the EO coefficient is found. Monolithic material systems show a more than 10 times higher EO coefficient than guest-host systems for slot widths below 80 nm, indicating that these material systems may potentially be better suitable for nanoscale photonic applications. (Device EO coefficients measured around 1550 nm, bulk values measured at 1310 nm.)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Thermally randomized order of the material after deposition. JRD1 offers a higher chromophore density ρN than DLD164. The randomized order results in an average order of cos 3 θ=0 . (b) Upon electric field poling the chromophores align along the poling field Epoling. The angle θ between the dipole axis μ and the poling field describes the efficiency of the poling process. The ordering of all molecules in one direction results in co s 3 >0 and therefore r33 > 0. (c) Chemical structure of the chromophores. Both materials share the commonly used amine donor – π bridge – tricyanofuran acceptor motif chromophore core. JRD1 features two sterically bulky tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) functional groups, DLD164 features two coumarin-based pendent side chains.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Refractive indices of JRD1 [28] and DLD164 [58] measured by ellipsometry. (a) Real part: At the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm JRD1 features a comparable refractive index to DLD164 (nJRD1(1550 nm) = 1.81, nDLD164(1550 nm) = 1.83). (b) Imaginary part. At the communication wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm both materials offer a negligible imaginary part of the refractive index.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulated chromophore loading as a function of the plasmonic slot width. The achieved average acentric order cos 2 θ is marked as the color of the data points. (b) Simulated centrosymmetric order, P 2 =( 3 cos 2 θ1 )/2 , in the poling direction as a function of the average acentric order, cos 2 θ , the plasmonic slot width is marked as the color of the data points. Additionally included are the centrosymmetric order parameters P 2 ( θ ) , is plotted as a function of the acentric order parameter cos 2 θ , obtained from Langevin theory for two-dimensional (blue, solid line) and three-dimensional (green, dashed line) dipole order orientational spaces in the independent particle limit. (c) Snapshot of a poled chromophore system in a 30 nm wide plasmonic slot.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Maximum measured current during the poling process of JRD1 as a function of the plasmonic slot width. The achieved EO coefficient is marked as the color of the data points. (b) Maximum conductance G of JRD1 as a function of the plasmonic slot width measured above the glass transition temperature Tg. To take different device lengths into account, the conductance is normalized to the device length L. The achieved EO coefficient is marked as the color of the data points. No correlation between the EO coefficient, the current and the conductance is found. Narrow slots neither feature an increased maximum poling current nor lead to an increased material conductivity or increased charge injection.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Colorized microscope picture of a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator. (b) Colorized SEM picture of a plasmonic phase modulator. Light is guided in a plasmonic slot waveguide between two Au electrodes (c, d) Schematic and cross-sectional view into a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator with fields applied for (c) device poling and (d) device operation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Schematic of the characterization setup. (b) Triangular voltage sweep and corresponding intensity modulation with Ud > Uπ = 1.4 V. (c) EO coefficient r33 as a function of the poling field. The poling efficiency r33/Epoling is plotted for different slot widths and shows a strong slot width dependence. The JRD1 material provides EO coefficients up to r33,max = 193 pm/V.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Measured EO coefficients r33 as a function of the slot width for JRD1 and DLD164 (solid lines) and ideal case with a constant r33 (dashed lines). (b) UπL for devices with different slot widths. The solid lines show the experimental values, the dashed line indicates the ideal UπL if r33 coefficients were constant across all slot widths. (c) Plasmonic propagation losses α derived from theory (dashed lines) for the two nonlinear materials and extracted from cut-back measurements (diamonds) for JRD1. The plasmonic losses are comparable for the two materials because they have a similar refractive index. (d) αUπL figure-of-merit for measured (solid) and ideal (dashed) EO coefficients. The lines are calculated using simulated values of α, diamonds represent αUπL for measured propagation. (e) Expected modulator insertion loss for a MZM when the modulator length is adapted to maintain Uπ = 5 V. The plots show loss values for the measured r33 from above (solid) and the expected losses if r33 would be ideal (dashed). The diamonds show the insertion loss for measured propagation losses.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Colorized SEM image of a plasmonic slot waveguide and feeding silicon waveguide. (b) Cross section of a plasmonic slot waveguide with a sidewall angle of approximately 10° to 15°. Image was taken with an angle of 52°. (c) Cross section of slot with α = 10° and simulated poling field (color-coded) (d) In case of tilted sidewalls, chromophores may not be ordered parallel to x-axis
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Voltage sweep method to determine UπL of an MZM: Uπ can be directly measured in the T vs. U plot. A CW laser is fed to the MZM while a DC voltage is applied to the monitor. The applied voltage and the modulator output power are recorded while the applied voltage is linearly increased. (b) Wavelength sweep method to determine UπL of an imbalanced MZM: The spectral shift can be measured and related to the applied DC voltage to calculate Uπ. (c) Low frequency modulation method to determine UπL of an MZM: A triangular low-frequency drive signal is applied to the MZM. For Udrive > Uπ the modulated optical time signal shows signs of overmodulation. The on-off time T1 can be related to the modulation frequency to calculate Uπ. (d) RF modulation method to determine UπL of a phase modulator: A sinusoidal RF drive signal is applied to the phase modulator. The ratio between the optical carrier and the modulation

Tables (3)

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Table 1 State-of-the-art organic electro-optic materials.

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Table 2 Material properties of the organic EO materials JRD1, DLD164 and YLD124

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Table 3 EO coefficients r33 calculated for different calculation methods and simulation assumptions

Equations (23)

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r 33 =2 β zzz ρ N cos 3 θ g n 4 ,
I poling = U poling G slot = U poling σ slot h Au L dev w slot ,
| E out ( U d ) E in | 2 1 2 ( 1+cos( 4π λ OC Δ n eff ( U d )L Φ bias ) )= 1 2 ( 1+cos( 4π λ OC Γ Δ n mat ( U d ) n mat n slow L Φ bias ) )
Δ n mat =1/2 r 33 n mat 3 U d / w slot .
U π L= λ OC 2 w slot Γ n slow waveguide 1 r 33 n mat 2 OEOmaterial .
V wall ( r i )=4 ε wall ε i [ ( w wall + w i ( L 2 | ( r i ) x | ) σ min,i +( w wall + w i ) ) 12 ( w wall + w i ( L 2 | ( r i ) x | ) σ min,i +( w wall + w i ) ) 6 ]
| E out ( U d ) E in | 2 1 2 ( 1+cos( 4π λ OC Δ n eff ( U d )L Φ bias ) )= 1 2 ( 1+cos( 4π λ OC Γ Δ n mat ( U d ) n mat n slow L Φ bias ) )
on-state: 1= 1 2 ( 1+ cos ( 4π λ OC Δ n eff ( U on )L Φ bias ) 0 =1 ), off -state: 0= 1 2 ( 1+ cos ( 4π λ OC Δ n eff ( U off )L Φ bias ) ±π =1 )
on-state: 0=( 4π λ OC Δ n eff ( U on )L ), off-state: π= 4π λ OC Δ n eff ( U off )L= 2π w slot λ OC Γ r 33 n mat 2 n slow U off L.
U on =0V, U off = λ OC 2 w slot Γ n slow L 1 r 33 n mat 2 .
U π = U on U off = λ OC 2 w slot Γ n slow L 1 r 33 n mat 2 , U π L= λ OC 2 w slot Γ n slow waveguide 1 r 33 n mat 2 OEOmaterial .
r 33,max = λ OC 2 n mat 2 w slot U π L 1 Γ n slow
η( x,y )= r 33 ( x,y ) r 33,max E x,poling 2 ( x,y )+ E y,poling 2 ( x,y ) U poling w
Γ ϵ r S slot ( η 2 ( x,y ) E x ^ ,OC 2 )dσ S ( ϵ 0 d( ϵ( ω )ω ) dω E OC E OC + μ 0 H OC H OC + )dσ   
n slow = c 0 v energy = c 0 S ( ϵ 0 d( ϵ( ω )ω ) dω E OC E OC + μ 0 H OC H OC + )dσ  S ( E OC,t × H OC,t ) z ^  dσ 
r 33,avg = r 33,max mean( E poling ) E poling,max
U π = Δ λ FSR ( U 2 U 1 ) 2Δ λ DC
1 f 0 = T 0 , T 1 T 0 /2 = U π U d , U π = T 1 T 0 /2 U d
E out (t) E in Aexp(jγ(t)),
E out (t)= A out exp( j( ω 0 t+ηsin(Ωt) ) )= A out exp( j ω 0 t )exp( jηsin(Ωt) ) = A out exp( j ω 0 t )( n= J n ( η )exp( jnΩt ) ) = A out exp( j ω 0 t )( J 0 (β)+ n=1 J n ( η )exp( jnΩt )+ n=1 (1) n J n ( η )exp( -jnΩt ) ),
E out (ω)= A out ( J 0 (η)δ( ω ω 0 )+ n=1 J n ( η )δ( ω( ω 0 +nΩ ) )+ n=1 (1) n J n ( η )δ( ω( ω 0 nΩ ) ) )
ΔP= P( ω 0 ±Ω) P( ω 0 ) = J 1 ( η ) 2 J 0 ( η ) 2
U π,PM U d = π η U π,PM L= U d η πL,

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