Abstract

Metasurfaces have promised great possibilities in full control of the electromagnetic wavefront by spatially manipulating the phase characteristics across the interface. Here, we report a scheme to realize broadband backward scattering reduction through diffusion-like microwave reflection by utilizing a flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-based ultrathin coding metasurface (less than 0.1 wavelength thick) with high optical transparence. The diffusion-like scattering is caused by the destructive interference of the scattered far-field electromagnetic wave, which is further attributed to the randomly distributed reflection phases on the metasurface composed of pre-designed meta-atoms arranged with a computer-generated pseudorandom coding sequence. Both simulation and measurement on fabricated prototype sample have been carried out to validate its performance, demonstrating a polarization-independent broadband (nearly from 8 GHz to 15 GHz) 10 dB scattering reduction with good oblique performance. The excellent performances can also be preserved to conformal cases when the flexible metasurface is uniformly wrapped around a metallic cylinder. The proposed metasurface may create new opportunities to tailor the exotic microwave scattering features with simultaneously high transmittance in visible frequencies, which could provide crucial benefits in many practical uses, such as window and solar panel applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. A. Katsounaros, Y. Hao, N. Collings, and W. A. Crossland, “Optically transparent ultra-wideband antenna,” Electron. Lett. 45(14), 722–723 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. Patoka and M. Giersig, “Self-assembly of latex particles for the creation of nanostructures with tunable plasmonic properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(42), 16783–16796 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, and H. Wang, “An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20387 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Della Giovampaola and N. Engheta, “Digital metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1115–1121 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Peter, T. A. Rahman, S. W. Cheung, R. Nilavalan, H. F. Abutarboush, and A. Vilches, “A novel transparent UWB antenna for photovoltaic solar panel integration and RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1844–1853 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 657 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu and J. Tan, “Experimental study on a resonance mesh coating fabricated using a UV-lithography technique,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4228–4234 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Patoka and M. Giersig, “Self-assembly of latex particles for the creation of nanostructures with tunable plasmonic properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(42), 16783–16796 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J.-F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Chem. Mater. 22(12), 3569–3579 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Katsounaros, Y. Hao, N. Collings, and W. A. Crossland, “Optically transparent ultra-wideband antenna,” Electron. Lett. 45(14), 722–723 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abutarboush, H. F.

T. Peter, T. A. Rahman, S. W. Cheung, R. Nilavalan, H. F. Abutarboush, and A. Vilches, “A novel transparent UWB antenna for photovoltaic solar panel integration and RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1844–1853 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akinoglu, E. M.

J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balci, O.

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, B.

Cao, X.

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K.-W.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. B.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-B.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheung, S. W.

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T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
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J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J.-F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Chem. Mater. 22(12), 3569–3579 (2010).
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J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
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Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
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Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
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A. Katsounaros, Y. Hao, N. Collings, and W. A. Crossland, “Optically transparent ultra-wideband antenna,” Electron. Lett. 45(14), 722–723 (2009).
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Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoel, C. A.

C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J.-F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Chem. Mater. 22(12), 3569–3579 (2010).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

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N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsounaros, A.

A. Katsounaros, Y. Hao, N. Collings, and W. A. Crossland, “Optically transparent ultra-wideband antenna,” Electron. Lett. 45(14), 722–723 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kempa, K.

J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

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X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 657 (2013).
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O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koutsogeorgis, D. C.

C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kung, W.-T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, L.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, L.-J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liew, S. C.

C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. W.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.-W.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lu, H.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, H.-F.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, S. J.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.-J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mason, T. O.

C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J.-F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Chem. Mater. 22(12), 3569–3579 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miao, Z.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mias, C.

C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mrejen, M.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mühlenbernd, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 657 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nilavalan, R.

T. Peter, T. A. Rahman, S. W. Cheung, R. Nilavalan, H. F. Abutarboush, and A. Vilches, “A novel transparent UWB antenna for photovoltaic solar panel integration and RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1844–1853 (2014).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Patoka and M. Giersig, “Self-assembly of latex particles for the creation of nanostructures with tunable plasmonic properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(42), 16783–16796 (2011).
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Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peter, T.

T. Peter, T. A. Rahman, S. W. Cheung, R. Nilavalan, H. F. Abutarboush, and A. Vilches, “A novel transparent UWB antenna for photovoltaic solar panel integration and RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1844–1853 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poeppelmeier, K. R.

C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J.-F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Chem. Mater. 22(12), 3569–3579 (2010).
[Crossref]

Polat, E. O.

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qi, M. Q.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.-W.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rahman, T. A.

T. Peter, T. A. Rahman, S. W. Cheung, R. Nilavalan, H. F. Abutarboush, and A. Vilches, “A novel transparent UWB antenna for photovoltaic solar panel integration and RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1844–1853 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ranson, R. M.

C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 657 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

P. Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, and H. Wang, “An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20387 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, Y. J.

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spinelli, P.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, P.

P. Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, and H. Wang, “An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20387 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, J.

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsakonas, C.

C. Tsakonas, S. C. Liew, C. Mias, D. C. Koutsogeorgis, R. M. Ranson, W. M. Cranton, and M. Dudhia, “Optically transparent frequency selective window for microwave applications,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1464–1466 (2001).
[Crossref]

van de Groep, J.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vilches, A.

T. Peter, T. A. Rahman, S. W. Cheung, R. Nilavalan, H. F. Abutarboush, and A. Vilches, “A novel transparent UWB antenna for photovoltaic solar panel integration and RF energy harvesting,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 62(4), 1844–1853 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, X.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-M.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

P. Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, and H. Wang, “An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20387 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. K.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, Q.-Y.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wong, Z. J.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, P.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.-H.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.-Q.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Youn, H.

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, M. J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhai, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Zhao, Y.

P. Su, Y. Zhao, S. Jia, W. Shi, and H. Wang, “An Ultra-wideband and Polarization-independent Metasurface for RCS Reduction,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20387 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
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X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
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J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
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Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H.-T. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. J. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous Terahertz Reflection and Scattering by Flexible and Conformal Coding Metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
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J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, X. K. Wang, M. J. Yuan, X. Zhou, X. J. Fu, M. Q. Qi, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Y. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Controlling the Bandwidth of Terahertz Low‐Scattering Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1773–1779 (2016).
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Adv. Phys. (1)

J. Gao, K. Kempa, M. Giersig, E. M. Akinoglu, B. Han, and R. Li, “Physics of transparent conductors,” Adv. Phys. 65(6), 553–617 (2016).
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C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J.-F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O3-SnO2 system,” Chem. Mater. 22(12), 3569–3579 (2010).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Nano Lett. (3)

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Phys. Rev. X (1)

Z. Miao, Q. Wu, X. Li, Q. He, K. Ding, Z. An, Y. Zhang, and L. Zhou, “Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 41027 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, X. Cao, J. Gao, Y. Sun, H. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Zhou, T. Han, and W. Chen, “Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23896 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Science (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Digital elements of “0” (upper-left panel) and “1” (upper-right panel) with optimized geometric parameters of, in millimeters, p = 8, r = 3.5, l = 2.2, t = 2.55. Bottom panel shows the overall view of the coding metasurface with a random distribution of digital elements. (b) Simulated reflection spectra of the digital elements “0” and “1”.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The 3D backward scattering patterns under the normal illumination of (a)-(c) x-polarized ((b)-(d) for y-polarized incidence) plane wave at 9 GHz, 11 GHz, and 13 GHz, respectively, as well as the (d) corresponding results ((h) for y-polarized incidence) from a same-sized metallic slab at 13 GHz. The 3D backward scattering patterns of the metasurface under y-polarized incidence with different angle of (i) 15°, (j) 30°, and (k) 45° at 13 GHz, respectively, as well as (j) the corresponding result from a same-sized metallic slab with incident angle of 45° at 13 GHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated 3D backward scattering patterns of (a)-(c) a metasurface-coated cylinder at 9 GHz, 11 GHz and 13 GHz, respectively, as well as (d) bare metallic cylinder at 13 GHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photograph of the fabricated sample. (b) Simulated and measured reflections of the flat coding metasurface under the normal illumination of a plane wave. Inset shows the measured far-field backward scattering patterns in E-plane of the flat coding metasurface under the illumination of x-polarized incidence.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured far-field scattering reduction for TE-polarized oblique incidence with electrical field along (a) x- (b) y-direction, and for TM-polarized oblique incidence with electrical field along (c) x- (d) y-direction. (e) Measured far-field RCS (radar cross section) reduction of a metasurface-coated cylinder with different self-rotational angles.

Equations (1)

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E tol = m=1 M n=1 N E m,n (θ,φ) e j φ m,n ,

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