Abstract

The angular momentum of light can be described by the states of spin angular momentum, associated with polarization, and orbital angular momentum, related to the helical structure of the wave front. Laguerre-Gaussian beams carry orbital angular momentum and their generation can be done by using an optical device known as q-plate. However, due to the usage of liquid crystals, these components may be restricted to operate in specific wavelengths and low power sources. Here we present the fabrication and characterization of q-plates made without liquid crystals, using processes of electron beam lithography, atomic layer deposition and dry etch techniques. We exploit the phenomenon of form birefringence to give rise to the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion. We demonstrate that these plates can generate beams with high quality for the UV and IR range, allowing them to interact with high power laser sources or inside laser cavities.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gregg, M. Mirhosseini, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, “Q-plates as higher order polarization controllers for orbital angular momentum modes of fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1729–1732 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 470, 20140633 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y. Huang, G. Pandraud, and P. M. Sarro, “The atomic layer deposition array defined by etch-back technique: A new method to fabricate TiO2 nanopillars, nanotubes and nanochannel arrays,” Nanotechnology 23, 485306 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Grenci, A. Pozzato, E. Sovernigo, M. Prasciolu, and M. Tormen, “Fabrication of nickel diffractive phase elements for x-ray microscopy at 8 kev photon energy,” J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 031205 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2009 (1)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. Marrucci, “Generation of helical modes of light by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 148–162 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Marrucci, “Rotating light with light: Generation of helical modes of light by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 658708 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: Switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tsai, U. Levy, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “Form-birefringent space-variant inhomogeneous medium element for shaping point-spread functions,” Appl. Opt. 45, 1777–1784 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Commun. 251, 306–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Padgett and L. Allen, “Light with a twist in its tail,” Contemp. Phys. 41, 275–285 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Second-harmonic generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order laguerre-gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Commutation rules and eigenvalues of spin and orbital angular momentum of radiation fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 963–977 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Allen, L.

M. Padgett and L. Allen, “Light with a twist in its tail,” Contemp. Phys. 41, 275–285 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Second-harmonic generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order laguerre-gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ambrosio, A.

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–944 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berger, A.

Bhatia, A.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

Biener, G.

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Commun. 251, 306–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1875–1877 (2002).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).
[Crossref]

Bouchard, F.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R.

Boyd, R. W.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brasselet, E.

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Brasselet and C. Loussert, “Electrically controlled topological defects in liquid crystals as tunable spin-orbit encoders for photons,” Opt. Lett. 36, 719–721 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Cheah, K. W.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Second-harmonic generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order laguerre-gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

Danner, A.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

Dholakia, K.

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Second-harmonic generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order laguerre-gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193–4196 (1997).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

Dudley, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forbes, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ghadyani, Z.

Gregg, P.

Grenci, G.

G. Grenci, A. Pozzato, E. Sovernigo, M. Prasciolu, and M. Tormen, “Fabrication of nickel diffractive phase elements for x-ray microscopy at 8 kev photon energy,” J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 031205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hakobyan, D.

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harder, I.

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Commun. 251, 306–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1875–1877 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, K.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, G. Pandraud, and P. M. Sarro, “The atomic layer deposition array defined by etch-back technique: A new method to fabricate TiO2 nanopillars, nanotubes and nanochannel arrays,” Nanotechnology 23, 485306 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hussain, S.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iff, W.

Jensen, F.

E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, M.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

P. Gregg, M. Mirhosseini, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, “Q-plates as higher order polarization controllers for orbital angular momentum modes of fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1729–1732 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

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M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
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Kleiner, V.

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Commun. 251, 306–314 (2005).
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G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1875–1877 (2002).
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Larsen, P. V.

E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
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E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
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W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
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Li, G.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
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G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
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E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Lu, Y.-Q.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
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Magallanes, H.

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: Switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
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E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Gregg, M. Mirhosseini, A. Rubano, L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, R. Boyd, and S. Ramachandran, “Q-plates as higher order polarization controllers for orbital angular momentum modes of fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1729–1732 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, “Generation of helical modes of light by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 148–162 (2008).
[Crossref]

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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: Switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
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Morris, G. M.

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E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
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A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Commun. 251, 306–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1875–1877 (2002).
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A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3, 161–204 (2011).
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Y. Huang, G. Pandraud, and P. M. Sarro, “The atomic layer deposition array defined by etch-back technique: A new method to fabricate TiO2 nanopillars, nanotubes and nanochannel arrays,” Nanotechnology 23, 485306 (2012).
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Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: Switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
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G. Grenci, A. Pozzato, E. Sovernigo, M. Prasciolu, and M. Tormen, “Fabrication of nickel diffractive phase elements for x-ray microscopy at 8 kev photon energy,” J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 031205 (2012).
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G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
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Santamato, E.

S. Slussarenko, A. Murauski, T. Du, V. Chigrinov, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Tunable liquid crystal q-plates with arbitrary topological charge,” Opt. Express 19, 4085–4090 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
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Y. Huang, G. Pandraud, and P. M. Sarro, “The atomic layer deposition array defined by etch-back technique: A new method to fabricate TiO2 nanopillars, nanotubes and nanochannel arrays,” Nanotechnology 23, 485306 (2012).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
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E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
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Sovernigo, E.

G. Grenci, A. Pozzato, E. Sovernigo, M. Prasciolu, and M. Tormen, “Fabrication of nickel diffractive phase elements for x-ray microscopy at 8 kev photon energy,” J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 031205 (2012).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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G. Grenci, A. Pozzato, E. Sovernigo, M. Prasciolu, and M. Tormen, “Fabrication of nickel diffractive phase elements for x-ray microscopy at 8 kev photon energy,” J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 031205 (2012).
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Upham, J.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
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Zhu, A. Y.

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3, 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: Switchable helical mode generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

M. Padgett and L. Allen, “Light with a twist in its tail,” Contemp. Phys. 41, 275–285 (2000).
[Crossref]

J Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

G. Grenci, A. Pozzato, E. Sovernigo, M. Prasciolu, and M. Tormen, “Fabrication of nickel diffractive phase elements for x-ray microscopy at 8 kev photon energy,” J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 031205 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Van Enk and G. Nienhuis, “Commutation rules and eigenvalues of spin and orbital angular momentum of radiation fields,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 963–977 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A (1)

E. Shkondin, O. Takayama, J. M. Lindhard, P. V. Larsen, M. D. Mar, F. Jensen, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Fabrication of high aspect ratio TiO2 and Al2O3 nanogratings by atomic layer deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Thechnol. A 34, 031605 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

L. Marrucci, “Generation of helical modes of light by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 488, 148–162 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Huang, G. Pandraud, and P. M. Sarro, “The atomic layer deposition array defined by etch-back technique: A new method to fabricate TiO2 nanopillars, nanotubes and nanochannel arrays,” Nanotechnology 23, 485306 (2012).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Arbabi, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–944 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Commun. 251, 306–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Courtial, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Second-harmonic generation and the conservation of orbital angular momentum with high-order laguerre-gaussian modes,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4193–4196 (1997).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

M. Padgett, “Light’s twist,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A 470, 20140633 (2014).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Marrucci, “Rotating light with light: Generation of helical modes of light by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6587, 658708 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Example of a liquid crystal q-plate whose molecules are azimuthally oriented. The phase shifts are δ = 0 for linear polarization along the radial direction and δ = π for linear polarization along the azimuthal direction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Form birefringence: a material of refractive index n1 is arranged in a periodic nano structure with a filling factor f, and surrounded by a medium of refractive index n2. Light linearly polarized in the directions parallel (E) and normal (E) to the interfaces will propagate with different velocities, corresponding to two different refractive indices n and n.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scheme of fabrication flow. (a) Si deposited on SiO2 by LPCVD process (only top part considered, sub sequential removal of the backside is not included). (b) E-beam lithography. (c) Advance silicon etching (ASE). (d) ALD of amorphous TiO2. (e) Removal of TiO2 by IBE (only top part considered) TiO2 structures. (f) Isotropic SF6 based RIE process and final structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of the q-plate. Top: Si mask. Middle: TiO2 structures. Bottom: Cross section of the TiO2 structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Image of tha q-plate taken from an optical microscope.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Setup for the generation of a Laguerre-Gauss mode using the fabricated q-plate.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Intensity profile of the Laguerre-Gauss mode of l = 2 and λ = 810 nm generated by the q-plate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Setup with the asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated intensity profile of the interference between LG modes of l = 2 and l = −2 (Left), compared with the one captured by the CCD for λ = 810 nm (Right).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Setup for the generation of Laguerre-Gauss modes of l = 2, 4, 6.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Simulated intensity profiles (top) compared with the ones captured by the CCD camera (bottom) for l = 2 (a), l = 4 (b) and l = 6 (c), λ = 405 nm, at the output of the asymmetric interferometer.

Equations (1)

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Δ n = n n = f n 1 2 + ( 1 f ) n 2 2 f n 1 2 + 1 f n 2 2 ,

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