Abstract

The light-emitting diode (LED) with an improved hole injection and straightforward process integration is proposed. p-type GaN direct hole injection plugs (DHIPs) are formed on locally etched multiple-quantum wells (MQWs) by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) method. We confirm that the optical output power is increased up to 23.2% at an operating current density of 100 A/cm2. Furthermore, in order to identify the origin of improvement in optical performance, the transient light decay time and light intensity distribution characteristics were analyzed on the DHIP LED devices. Through the calculation of the electroluminescence (EL) decay time, internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is extracted along with the recombination parameters, which reveals that the DHIPs have a significant effect on enhancement of radiative recombination and reduction of efficiency droop. Furthermore, the mapping PL reveals that the DHIP LED also has a potential to improve the light extraction efficiency by hexagonal pyramid shaped DHIPs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  28. K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  34. X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Z. Zang, X. Zeng, J. Du, M. Wang, and X. Tang, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of microholes on roughened ZnO for output power enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 41(15), 3463–3466 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

L. Cheng, S. Wu, C. Xia, and H. Chen, “Efficiency droop improvement in InGaN light-emitting diodes with graded InGaN barriers of increasing indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(10), 103103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Karpov, “ABC-model for interpretation of internal quantum efficiency and its droop in III-nitride LEDs: a review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Hsieh, A. J. Tzou, T. S. Kao, F. I. Lai, D. W. Lin, B. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, W. C. Lai, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved carrier injection in GaN-based VCSEL via AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum barrier electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27145–27151 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (4)

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jia, T. Yu, H. Lu, C. Zhong, Y. Sun, Y. Tong, and G. Zhang, “Performance improvement of GaN-based LEDs with step stage InGaN/GaN strain relief layers in GaN-based blue LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8444–8449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Kim, H. H. Park, Y. H. Song, H. J. Park, J. B. Kim, S. R. Jeon, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. M. Yang, “An improvement of light extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes by selective etched nanorods in periodic microholes,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7125–7130 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. H. Son and J.-L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, J. Lee, G. Yang, and C. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ali, M.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Camras, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. T.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

L. Cheng, S. Wu, C. Xia, and H. Chen, “Efficiency droop improvement in InGaN light-emitting diodes with graded InGaN barriers of increasing indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(10), 103103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-J.

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng, S. Wu, C. Xia, and H. Chen, “Efficiency droop improvement in InGaN light-emitting diodes with graded InGaN barriers of increasing indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(10), 103103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.-H.

Cho, H.

H. Cho, J. Lee, G. Yang, and C. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.-K.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.-H.

Chu, J. T.

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, T.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Craven, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Dupuis, R. D.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fred Schubert, E.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goano, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Götz, W.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hasanov, N.

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques used in group III nitride epitaxy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(32), 6961–6975 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, D. H.

Hung-Wen, H.

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iyechika, Y.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. R.

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Ji, Y.

Jia, C.

Jiang, D.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kang, D.

Kao, C. C.

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kao, T. S.

Karpov, S.

S. Karpov, “ABC-model for interpretation of internal quantum efficiency and its droop in III-nitride LEDs: a review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47(6), 1293–1303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, A.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

H. Cho, J. Lee, G. Yang, and C. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J. H. Kim, E. H. Park, D. Kang, and B.-G. Park, “Extraction of recombination coefficients and internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes considering effective volume of active region,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1235–1242 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. B.

Kim, J. H.

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J. H. Kim, E. H. Park, D. Kang, and B.-G. Park, “Extraction of recombination coefficients and internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes considering effective volume of active region,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1235–1242 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-M.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-Y.

Kim, M. H.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kim, S. H.

Kishino, K.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kivisaari, P.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ko, C.-G.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ko, D.-S.

Koleske, D. D.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kong, B.-H.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

D. H. Hsieh, A. J. Tzou, T. S. Kao, F. I. Lai, D. W. Lin, B. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, W. C. Lai, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved carrier injection in GaN-based VCSEL via AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum barrier electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27145–27151 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

Kuo, Y.-K.

Kyaw, Z.

Lai, F. I.

Lai, W. C.

Lan, Y.-P.

Lee, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-H.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.

Lee, J.

H. Cho, J. Lee, G. Yang, and C. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-L.

Lee, P.-T.

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-S.

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Limb, J.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, B. C.

Lin, B.-C.

Lin, C.-C.

Lin, D. W.

Lin, G.-B.

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Liu, Z.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

Lu, T. C.

D. H. Hsieh, A. J. Tzou, T. S. Kao, F. I. Lai, D. W. Lin, B. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, W. C. Lai, C. H. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved carrier injection in GaN-based VCSEL via AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum barrier electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27145–27151 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maeda, T.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyake, H.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

Motogaito, A.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

Munkholm, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nishiyama, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Recent Progress in Selective Area Growth and Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of III-Nitrides: Effects of Reactor Pressure in MOVPE Growth,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 176(1), 535–543 (1999).
[Crossref]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oksanen, J.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, B.-G.

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J. H. Kim, E. H. Park, D. Kang, and B.-G. Park, “Extraction of recombination coefficients and internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes considering effective volume of active region,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1235–1242 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, E.

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, E. H.

Park, H. H.

Park, H. J.

Park, J. H.

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-H.

Park, Y.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramesh, V.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Riuttanen, L.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: Challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shih, M.-H.

Shim, H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shin, C.-S.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, K.-M.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. H.

Sota, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suihkonen, S.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.-C.

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Sun, Y.

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Tang, X.

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tong, Y.

Tulkki, J.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tzou, A. J.

Verzellesi, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

Wang, H.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, C.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Won, J.-Y.

Wu, S.

L. Cheng, S. Wu, C. Xia, and H. Chen, “Efficiency droop improvement in InGaN light-emitting diodes with graded InGaN barriers of increasing indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(10), 103103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

L. Cheng, S. Wu, C. Xia, and H. Chen, “Efficiency droop improvement in InGaN light-emitting diodes with graded InGaN barriers of increasing indium composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(10), 103103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

H. Cho, J. Lee, G. Yang, and C. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. M.

Yang, H.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoo, D.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, T. Chung, and R. D. Dupuis, “Influence of growth temperature and growth rate of p-GaN layers on the characteristics of green light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(4), 587–591 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D.-H.

K.-M. Song, J.-M. Kim, D.-H. Lee, C.-S. Shin, C.-G. Ko, B.-H. Kong, H.-K. Cho, and D.-H. Yoon, “Growth behavior and growth rate dependency in LEDs performance for Mg-doped a-plane GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 135–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

H. Hung-Wen, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

Zang, Z.

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, S.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.-H.

Zhao, D.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, C.

Zhu, D.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “Light extraction efficiency improvement and strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanopillars,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084339 (2011).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

G.-B. Lin, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, J. H. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Onset of the Efficiency Droop in GaInN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes under Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Excitation,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1013–1018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

X. Meng, L. Wang, Z. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. Li, “Study on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes based on differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 013501 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, M.-C. Sun, J. H. Kim, E. Park, and B.-G. Park, “GaN-based light emitting diodes using p-type trench structure for improving internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021115 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, J. Lee, G. Yang, and C. Kim, “Formation mechanism of V defects in the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on GaN layers with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(2), 215–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001) InGaN/ GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 DHIP LED fabrication process and schematic of the mechanism for increased hole injection.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM and TEM images from the fabricated DHIP structures. (a) Holes dry-etched by ICP-RIE method for DHIP structures. (b) p-GaN islands regrown by MOCVD. (c) Cross-sectional view of a DHIP structure. (d) Enlarged image of Fig. 1(c). MQW has been partially etched above the 2nd QW successfully.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of optical and electrical performances among the REF LED and DHIP LED having total circumference of 62.6 mm and 104.2 mm. DHIP LEDs have same DHIP radius of 3 μm (a) Measured light output power vs. current density. (b) Wall plug efficiency vs. current density. (c) Reverse leakage current density vs. anode voltage. (d) Forward current density vs. anode voltage.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Light intensity distribution images from REF LED at current densities of (a) 4 A/cm2 and (b) 75 A/cm2 and those from DHIP LED at (c) 4 A/cm2 and (d) 75 A/cm2. (images were captured by microscope camera TUCSEN ISH300 and analyzed by EtaMax light distinct viewer).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured and fitted EL decay curves from (a) REF LED, (b) DHIP LED having radius of 3 μm and total circumference of 104.2 mm, and (c) DHIP LED having radius of 3 μm and total circumference of 62.6 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Extracted IQE vs. current density curves of reference LED device and DHIP devices with different circumferences, obtained from the EL intensity decay times.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Light output power vs. total DHIP circumference at current density of 75 A/cm2. It is confirmed that the optimal circumference length exists and is located near 70 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Mapping PL experiment over the wafer and [DHIP/active area] ratio.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Calculated recombination parameters (A, SRH recombination coefficient; B, radiative recombination coefficient; C, Auger recombination coefficient).

Equations (5)

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dn dt = An+B n 2 +C n 3
t= 1 2A [ 2B tan 1 ( B+2Cn 4AC B 2 ) 4AC B 2 +ln( A+n( B+Cn ) )2lnn ] t 0
t 0 = 1 2A [ 2B tan 1 ( B+2C n 0 4AC B 2 ) 4AC B 2 +ln( A+ n 0 ( B+C n 0 ) )2ln n 0 ]
η IQE = B n 2 An+B n 2 +C n 3
I=q V active ( An+B n 2 +C n 3 )

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