Abstract

We compare the results of simulated and measured power efficiency and far-field beam pattern, for two reflective Fourier phase gratings, designed to generate 2 × 2 and 2 × 4 beams respectively from a single-beam, coherent source at 1.4 THz. The designed surface structures were manufactured on aluminum plates by a computer numerical control (CNC) micro-milling machine. Despite small differences between the designed and fabricated gratings, we measured power efficiencies of both gratings to be around 70%, which is in a good agreement with the simulated values. We also find a good agreement between the simulated and measured diffracted beam size and spatial distribution. We demonstrate the application of both gratings as multiple beam local oscillators to simultaneously pump (or operate) a 4-pixel array of superconducting heterodyne mixers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Walker, Terahertz Astronomy (CRC, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016), Chap. 5&6.
  4. J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.
  7. C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Reflection gratings as THz local oscillator multiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 164–171 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.
  10. N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.
  13. J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.
  14. B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.
  16. H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Int. J. Opt. 24(4), 505–515 (1977).
  17. H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. D. Furlan, V. Ferrando, J. A. Monsoriu, P. Zagrajek, E. Czerwińska, and M. Szustakowski, “3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses,” Opt. Lett. 41(8), 1748–1751 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. D. Furlan, V. Ferrando, J. A. Monsoriu, P. Zagrajek, E. Czerwińska, and M. Szustakowski, “3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses,” Opt. Lett. 41(8), 1748–1751 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Reflection gratings as THz local oscillator multiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 164–171 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Int. J. Opt. 24(4), 505–515 (1977).

1963 (1)

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
[Crossref]

Adams, H.

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bansal, T.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barden, J.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Barends, R.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baryshev, A. M.

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bruneau, P.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Büchel, D.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cecil, T.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Colgan, R.

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

Czerwinska, E.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Int. J. Opt. 24(4), 505–515 (1977).

de Lange, G.

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ehrenreich, H.

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ekström, H.

H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ferrando, V.

Furlan, W. D.

Fusco, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, J. R.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Gensheimer, P.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Golish, D.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Graf, U. U.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Reflection gratings as THz local oscillator multiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 164–171 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Groppi, C.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Groppi, C. E.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Güsten, R.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hayton, D. J.

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Hedden, A.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Heyminck, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Reflection gratings as THz local oscillator multiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 164–171 (2000).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Honingh, C. E.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Hübers, H. W.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hurtado, N.

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iosad, N. N.

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jackson, B. D.

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, K.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Jones, G.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Karasik, B. S.

H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, J.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Khosropanah, P.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Klapwijk, T. M.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klein, B.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Klein, T.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kloosterman, J.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Klotz, E.

H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Int. J. Opt. 24(4), 505–515 (1977).

Kollberg, E.

H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kollberg, E. L.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kooi, J.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Kuiper, T.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Kulesa, C.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Lanigan, W.

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

Lee, C.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Leinz, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lichtenberger, A.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Lichtenberger, A. W.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. H.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Liu, X. X.

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Luo, Y. C.

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Maestrini, A.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Mani, H.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Mehdi, I.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Michael, E. A.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Monsoriu, J. A.

Murphy, J. A.

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

Narayanan, G.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

O’Sullivan, C.

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

Peralta, A.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Philipp, H. R.

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
[Crossref]

Pütz, P.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reyes, N.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ricken, O.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Risacher, C.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rosner, S.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schieder, R. T.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Schlecht, E.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Segall, B.

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
[Crossref]

Shitov, S. V.

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

Siles, J. V.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

Stanko, S.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Stutzki, J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Szustakowski, M.

Trappe, N.

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

Vowinkel, B.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

Walker, C.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Walker, C. K.

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

Weinreb, S.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Withington, S.

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

Wunsch, H. J.

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yngvesson, K. S.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
[Crossref]

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Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Zhang, P. Khosropanah, J. R. Gao, E. L. Kollberg, K. S. Yngvesson, T. Bansal, R. Barends, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111113 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. D. Jackson, A. M. Baryshev, G. de Lange, J. R. Gao, S. V. Shitov, N. N. Iosad, and T. M. Klapwijk, “Low-noise 1 THz superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixer incorporating a NbTiN/SiO2/AlNbTiN/SiO2/Al tuning circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(3), 436–438 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

U. U. Graf and S. Heyminck, “Fourier gratings as submillimeter beam splitters,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(4), 542–546 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

H. Ekström, B. S. Karasik, E. Kollberg, and K. S. Yngvesson, “Conversion gain and noise of niobium superconducting hot-electron-mixers,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(4), 938–947 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Risacher, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, D. Büchel, U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Klein, T. Klein, C. Leinz, P. Pütz, N. Reyes, O. Ricken, H. J. Wunsch, P. Fusco, and S. Rosner, “First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 199–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves (1)

J. A. Murphy, C. O’Sullivan, N. Trappe, W. Lanigan, R. Colgan, and S. Withington, “Modal Analysis of the Quasi-Optical Performance of Phase Gratings,” Int. J. Inf. Mill. Waves 20(8), 1469–1486 (1999).
[Crossref]

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H. Dammann and E. Klotz, “Coherent optical generation and inspection of two-dimensional periodic structures,” Int. J. Opt. 24(4), 505–515 (1977).

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, and B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

N. Hurtado, U. U. Graf, H. Adams, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, P. Pütz, R. Güsten, and J. Stutzki, “Optics and cryogenics for the 1.1 THz multi-pixel heterodyne receiver for APEX,” Proc. SPIE 9153, 915327 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Groppi, C. K. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, A. Hedden, P. Gensheimer, G. Narayanan, A. W. Lichtenberger, U. U. Graf, and S. Heyminck, “Desert STAR: A 7 pixel 345 GHz heterodyne array receiver for the Heinrich Hertz Telescope,” Proc. SPIE 4855, 330–337 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Heyminck and U. U. Graf, “Reflection gratings as THz local oscillator multiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 164–171 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, “SMART: the KOSMA sub-millimeter array receiver for two frequencies,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Harvard University, 2002), pp. 143–152.

W. Lanigan, N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, R. Colgan, C. O’Sullivan, and S. Withington, “Quasi-optical multiplexing using reflection phase gratings,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (University of Michigan, 2000), pp. 616–625.

C. Walker, Terahertz Astronomy (CRC, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016), Chap. 5&6.

Y. C. Luo, X. X. Liu, D. J. Hayton, L. Wei, J. R. Gao, and C. Groppi, “Fourier phase grating for THz multi-beam local oscillators,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 77–78.

C. Groppi, C. Walker, C. Kulesa, D. Golish, J. Kloosterman, S. Weinreb, G. Jones, J. Barden, H. Mani, T. Kuiper, J. Kooi, A. Lichtenberger, T. Cecil, and G. Narayanan, P. Pu ̈tz and A. Hedden, “SuperCam: A 64 pixel heterodyne array receiver for the 350 GHz atmospheric window,” in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Charlottesville, 2009), pp. 90–96.

J. V. Siles, R. H. Lin, C. Lee, E. Schlecht, A. Maestrini, P. Bruneau, A. Peralta, J. Kloosterman, J. Kawamura, and I. Mehdi, “Development of High-Power Multi-Pixel LO Sources at 1.47 THz and 1.9 THz for Astrophysics: Present and Future,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (Cambridge, MA, 2015), pp. 40–42.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3D surface profiles of unit cells of 4 (a) and 8-pixel (b) gratings with exaggerated z axis and a photograph of the manufactured 8-pixel grating (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Two cross sections or surface profiles measured orthogonally from a unit cell of the manufactured 8-pixel grating (dashed), together with the designed profiles (solid), for comparison (corresponding to the 3D profile shown in the middle of the Fig. 1). Here Z is the vertical direction of the grating.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic view of the experimental setup for measuring the beam patterns diffracted from the grating.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a,b) Arrow schematics illustrate the simulation results of diffraction orders, corresponding to two incident beams with 90° azimuth angle difference on the 8-pixel grating; (c,d) Planar measured (left) and simulated (right) far-field beam patterns at 60 mm from the grating with incident beams corresponding to (a) and (b) respectively; (e) the simulated far-field beam pattern of the case corresponding to (a) shown on a spherical surface; (f) Measured incident beam on the grating.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Angular and power distributions of diffracted beams for the case shown in Fig. 4(a), for four different incident angles. The power fractions in the top and bottom plots of each section are shown versus the azimuth angle and the elevation angle with respect to the grating surface, for different diffracted orders, respectively. Each diffraction order is distinguished by the colour of the corresponding arrow in Fig. 4(a). In the elevation angle plots, the doubled circles indicate the overlapping of two corresponding diffracted beams.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured incident beam (right) and measured (middle) and simulated (right) diffracted beam patterns of the 4-pixel grating at a plane, which is 12 cm away from the grating. Small differences in the measured beam profiles are likely due to the FIR laser, the profile of which is found to vary in time.

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