Abstract

Frequency-comb-based Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors were developed to achieve acquisition-time reduction and high-spatial-resolution/long-distance sensing simultaneously. We found that, for the standard frequency-comb-based BOTDA, the use of a double-sideband (DSB) pulse generates a series of pulse pairs that simultaneously propagate along the sensing fiber, leading to a nonlinear interaction between the two sidebands of each frequency comb pulse, and a significant splitting of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS). This problem prevents its application in high-spatial-resolution sensing due to the higher pulse power requirement. Thus, one of the sidebands of DSB pulse was proposed for greatly suppressing the BGS distortion. In combination with the phonon pre-excitation technique based on phase-shifted pulse, a sensor with a spatial-resolution approximately 60 cm along a fiber approximately 592 m in length was demonstrated. Furthermore, we explored the detailed performance of long-distance sensing by frequency- comb-based BOTDA. The use of a frequency comb for the probe wave can suppress the pulse distortion and non-local effect, which is helpful for extending the sensing distance. A spatial resolution of approximately 6 m along a sensing fiber approximately 74.2 km in length was successfully demonstrated.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Dominguez-Lopez, Z. Yang, M. A. Soto, X. Angulo-Vinuesa, S. Martin-Lopez, L. Thevenaz, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Novel scanning method for distortion-free BOTDA measurements,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10188–10204 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

M. Pang, X. Bao, and L. Chen, “Observation of narrow linewidth spikes in the coherent Brillouin random fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1866–1868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Voskoboinik, D. Rogawski, H. Huang, Y. Peled, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “Frequency-domain analysis of dynamically applied strain using sweep-free Brillouin time-domain analyzer and sloped-assisted FBG sensing,” Opt. Express 20(26), B581–B586 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, and A. W. Brown, “Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1067–1072 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21616–21625 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

Alem, M.

Angulo-Vinuesa, X.

Ao, L.

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ba, D.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

Beugnot, J. C.

Bolognini, G.

Brown, A. W.

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, and A. W. Brown, “Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1067–1072 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, “Dark-Pulse Brillouin optical time domain sensor with 20-mm spatial resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(2), 381–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brown, K.

Chang, H. Q.

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaube, P.

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, and A. W. Brown, “Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1067–1072 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chitgarha, M.

Colpitts, B. G.

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, and A. W. Brown, “Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1067–1072 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. W. Brown, B. G. Colpitts, and K. Brown, “Dark-Pulse Brillouin optical time domain sensor with 20-mm spatial resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(2), 381–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

David, A.

Deng, K.

X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Di Pasquale, F.

Dominguez-Lopez, A.

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, M. Q.

Foaleng, S. M.

Foaleng Mafang, S.

L. Thévenaz, S. Foaleng Mafang, and J. Lin, “Impact of pump depletion on the determination of the Brillouin gain frequency in distributed fiber sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775322 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

González-Herráez, M.

Hauden, J.

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, H. J.

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, M.

Huang, H.

Jagannathan, D.

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, and A. W. Brown, “Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1067–1072 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ji, X. L.

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, X. H.

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. W.

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Li, Z. L.

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, J. W.

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Thévenaz, S. Foaleng Mafang, and J. Lin, “Impact of pump depletion on the determination of the Brillouin gain frequency in distributed fiber sensors,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 775322 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loayssa, A.

Lopez-Gil, A.

López-Higuera, J. M.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, B.

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mafang, S. F.

Maillotte, H.

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martin-Lopez, S.

Mirapeix, J.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nuccio, S.

Pan, W.

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pang, M.

Peled, Y.

Peng, F.

Ran, Z. L.

X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. J.

Z. N. Wang, J. Li, M. Q. Fan, L. Zhang, F. Peng, H. Wu, J. J. Zeng, Y. Zhou, and Y. J. Rao, “Phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry with Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4313–4316 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roch, C.

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez-Barrios, F.

Rogawski, D.

Ruiz-Lombera, R.

R. Ruiz-Lombera, J. Urricelqui, M. Sagues, J. Mirapeix, J. M. López-Higuera, and A. Loayssa, “Overcoming nonlocal effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin optical time-domain sensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sagues, M.

Shamee, B.

Shao, L. Y.

Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soto, M. A.

Stiller, B.

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sylvestre, T.

M. W. Lee, B. Stiller, J. Hauden, H. Maillotte, C. Roch, L. Thévenaz, and T. Sylvestre, “Differential phase-shift-keying technique-based Brillouin echo-distributed sensing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 79–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thevenaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

Urricelqui, J.

Voskoboinik, A.

Wan, Y.

Wang, J.

Wang, Z. N.

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Willner, A.

Willner, A. E.

Willner, A. W.

Wu, H.

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
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Z. N. Wang, J. Li, M. Q. Fan, L. Zhang, F. Peng, H. Wu, J. J. Zeng, Y. Zhou, and Y. J. Rao, “Phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry with Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4313–4316 (2014).
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Xu, C.

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
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H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
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Yang, Z. X.

X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
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Zeng, J. J.

Zhang, H.

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[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W. L.

X. H. Jia, H. Q. Chang, L. Ao, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, and W. L. Zhang, “BOTDA sensors enhanced using high-efficiency second-order distributed Brillouin amplification,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14079–14085 (2016).
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H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
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X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, W. L. Zhang, Z. L. Ran, K. Deng, and Z. X. Yang, “Theoretical investigations on the non-local effect in a long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on bi-directional Raman amplification,” J. Opt. 14(4), 045202 (2012).
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Zhou, D.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-spatial-resolution fast BOTDA for dynamic strain measurement based on differential double-pulse and second-order sideband of modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
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Z. L. Li, L. S. Yan, L. Y. Shao, W. Pan, B. Luo, J. W. Liang, and H. J. He, “Coherent BOTDA sensor with single-sideband modulated probe light,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 6800908 (2016).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Q. Chang, X. H. Jia, X. L. Ji, C. Xu, L. Ao, H. Wu, Z. N. Wang, and W. L. Zhang, “DBA-based BOTDA using optical-comb pump and pulse coding with a single laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1142–1145 (2016).
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L. Thévenaz, S. F. Mafang, and J. Lin, “Effect of pulse depletion in a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14017–14035 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Principle of BOTDA using pulse probe frequency comb pairs. (b) Time-domain waveform used to generate the pulse comb. One of the sidebands of DSB pulse is used for SBS interaction and BGS reconstruction (solid lines of pulse combs).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of frequency-comb-based BOTDA. DFB-LD: Distributed feedback laser diode; EOM: Electro-optic modulator; AOM: Acousto-optic modulator; EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PS: Polarization scrambler; VOA: Variable optical attenuator; ISO: optical isolator; CIR: circulator; FUT: Fiber under test; TBSF: Tunable band-stop filter; BPF: band-pass filter; PD: photodetector; DAQ: Data acquisition card; RF: Microwave source; DC: direct current port; RF-AMP: Microwave amplifier; AWG: Arbitrary waveform generator; LPF: low-pass filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of frequency-comb-based BOTDA using DSB pulse.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Reconstructed BGS of frequency-comb-based BOTDA. (b) Brillouin responses for various frequency shifts. The DSB pulse is used.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Extracted BFS along fiber for DSB pulse and one of the sidebands.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) 2D BGS distribution using 25-ns pulse without phase shift. (b) 2D BGS distribution after the differential operation. (c) Separated temperature distribution. The magnified views of (a), (b), and (c) around the hotspot are respectively shown in (d), (e) and (f).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of frequency-comb-based BOTDA for long-distance sensing. ΔνAOM is the frequency shift of the AOM. DBA is introduced to enhance the SNR.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Received electronic spectrum from the beating of carrier and probe light. (b) Pulse output waveforms for various frequency shifts.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Distributions of (a) BGS, (b) BFS, and (c) extracted temperature. The magnified view of (c) around hotspot is shown in (d).

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