Abstract

We demonstrate U-shaped silicon PN junctions for energy efficient Mach-Zehnder modulators and ring modulators in the O-band. This type of junction has an improved modulation efficiency compared to existing PN junction geometries, has low losses, and supports high-speed operation. The U-shaped junctions were fabricated in an 8” silicon photonics platform, and they were incorporated in travelling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulators and microring modulators. For the high-bandwidth Mach-Zehnder modulator, the DC VπL at −0.5 V bias was 4.6 V·mm. It exhibited a 3dB bandwidth of 13 GHz, and eye patterns at up to 24 Gb/s were observed. A VπL as low as ~2.6 V·mm at a −0.5 V bias was measured in another device. The ring modulator tuning efficiency was 40 pm·V−1 between 0 V and −0.5 V bias. It had a 3-dB bandwidth of 13.5 GHz and open eye patterns at up to 13 Gb/s were measured. This type of PN junctions can be easily fabricated without extra masks and can be incorporated into generic silicon photonics platforms.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Zheng Yong, Wesley D. Sacher, Ying Huang, Jared C. Mikkelsen, Yisu Yang, Xianshu Luo, Patrick Dumais, Dominic Goodwill, Hadi Bahrami, Patrick Guo-Qiang Lo, Eric Bernier, and Joyce K. S. Poon, "U-shaped PN junctions for efficient silicon Mach-Zehnder and microring modulators in the O-band: erratum," Opt. Express 26, 32757-32757 (2018)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-26-25-32757

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (6)

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, Y. Yang, Q. Li, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-speed silicon modulator with slow-wave electrodes and fully independent differential drive,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(12), 2240–2247 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E. J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(14), 2434–2440 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, Y. Fei, L. Zhang, Y. Cao, and S. Chen, “Design of a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with a U-type PN junction,” Appl. Opt. 52(24), 5941–5948 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-responsive phase shifters for depletion mode silicon modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “An interior-ridge silicon microring modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 3907–3914 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E. J. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu and W. Bogaerts, “An equivalent circuit model of the traveling wave electrode for carrier-depletion-based silicon optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(11), 1602–1609 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

1987 (1)

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, Y. Yang, Q. Li, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-speed silicon modulator with slow-wave electrodes and fully independent differential drive,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(12), 2240–2247 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E. J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-responsive phase shifters for depletion mode silicon modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E. J. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Barwicz, T.

Baudot, C.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boeuf, F.

Bogaerts, W.

Cao, T.

Cao, Y.

Chagnon, M.

Cheben, P.

Chee, E. K. S.

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, S. W.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Chen, Y.-K.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

Crémer, S.

DeRose, C.

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, and M. R. Watts, “High speed travelling wave carrier depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2012), pp. 135–136.
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Dunham, S.

Emerson, N. G.

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faralli, S.

A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fei, Y.

Feng, D.

Ferè, M.

Gambini, F.

A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

Green, W. M. J.

Harris, N. C.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, Y. Yang, Q. Li, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-speed silicon modulator with slow-wave electrodes and fully independent differential drive,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(12), 2240–2247 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E. J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-responsive phase shifters for depletion mode silicon modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E. J. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, E. S.

Hsu, S. S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Hu, Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Jayatilleka, H.

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ji, R.

Klamkin, J.

A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kuo, B.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Latchu, T.

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

Le Maitre, P.

Lee, P.

Lentine, A.

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Li, Q.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, Y. Yang, Q. Li, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-speed silicon modulator with slow-wave electrodes and fully independent differential drive,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(12), 2240–2247 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Li, Z. Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E. J.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lin, S. H.

Liow, T. Y.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Y. Ma, Y. Yang, Q. Li, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-speed silicon modulator with slow-wave electrodes and fully independent differential drive,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(12), 2240–2247 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E. J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E. J. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Dunham, T. Baehr-Jones, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-responsive phase shifters for depletion mode silicon modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3787–3793 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lo, P. G. Q.

Lu, Y.

Ma, Y.

Maggi, L.

Magill, P.

Malacarne, A.

A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

McKinnon, W. R.

Mekis, A.

Miller, D.

D. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Min, R.

Myslivets, E.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Novack, A.

Ophir, N.

Osman, M.

Padmaraju, K.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

Pantouvaki, M.

Patel, D.

Petiton, H.

Pinguet, T.

Plant, D. V.

Pochet, M.

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K. S.

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potì, L.

A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Radic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sacher, W. D.

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samani, A.

Schmid, J. H.

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shank, S. M.

Shaw, M.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “An interior-ridge silicon microring modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 3907–3914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temporiti, E.

Teo, S. H.-G.

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “An interior-ridge silicon microring modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 3907–3914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Traldi, M.

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, and M. R. Watts, “High speed travelling wave carrier depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2012), pp. 135–136.
[Crossref]

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Usechak, N. G.

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Veerasubramanian, V.

Verheyen, P.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vulliet, N.

Wang, S. Y.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “An interior-ridge silicon microring modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 3907–3914 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, and M. R. Watts, “High speed travelling wave carrier depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2012), pp. 135–136.
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, H.

Xuan, Z.

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Yu, H.

Yu, J.

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Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Zortman, W.

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

Zortman, W. A.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, and M. R. Watts, “High speed travelling wave carrier depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2012), pp. 135–136.
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

H. Jayatilleka, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Analytical model and fringing-field parasitics of carrier-depletion silicon-on-insulator optical modulation diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(1), 2200211 (2013).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(11), 936–938 (2012).
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D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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A. Malacarne, F. Gambini, S. Faralli, J. Klamkin, and L. Potì, “High-speed silicon electro-optic microring modulator for optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 1042–1044 (2014).
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Nanophotonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
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Opt. Express (15)

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
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P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
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D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
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M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
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M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E. J. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
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X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E. J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
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W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
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Other (7)

M. Webster, C. Appel, P. Gothoskar, S. Sunder, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Silicon photonic modulator based on a MOS-capacitor and a CMOS driver,” in CSICs (2014), pp. 1–4.

G. Ghione, Semiconductor Devices for High-speed Optoelectronics (Cambridge University Press, 2009), Chap. 6.

S. Sharif Azadeh, J. Müller, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Advances in silicon photonics segmented electrode Mach-Zehnder modulators and peaking enhanced resonant devices,” in Photonics North (ISOP, 2014).

IMEC’s Integrated Si-Photonics Platform, (ISIPP50G), www2.imec.be/content/user/File/Brochures/leaflets 2016/IMEC'S INTEGRATED SILICON PHOTONICS PLATFORM ISIPP50G + .pdf .

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, and M. R. Watts, “High speed travelling wave carrier depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2012), pp. 135–136.
[Crossref]

T. Latchu, M. Pochet, N. G. Usechak, C. DeRose, A. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and W. Zortman, “Power-penalty comparison of push-pull and traveling-wave electrode Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2014), pp. 25–26.
[Crossref]

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in CLEO (2016), paper JTh4C.3.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sections of the doping concentration profiles computed using Sentaurus TCAD of the U-shaped PN junction under bias voltages of (a) 0V and (b) −1V. The vertical profiles of the electron and hole densities at x = 0 µm under bias voltages of (c) 0 V and (d) −1 V. The waveguide height is 150 nm, the slab height is 65 nm, and the rib width is 700 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured and simulated capacitance of the junction at different bias voltages.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cross-section schematic of the designed MZM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated (a) RF effective refractive index, (b) characteristic impedance, (c) RF loss, and (d) EO S21 with the designed and measured U-shaped junction capacitance at −1V.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical micrograph of the 2-mm long single-drive push-pull Si MZM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The MZM transmission at several bias voltages applied to the top arm for (a) the device with the highest bandwidth and (b) the device with the highest DC tuning efficiency. (c) The measured and simulated phase-shift as a function of the reverse bias voltage.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured (a) S11 and (b) EO S21 of the MZM at a bias of 0V and −2V. The input wavelength was set to the quadrature point of the MZM. The S11 is < −14 dB over the 30 GHz bandwidth. The EO S21 3dB bandwidth is 4 GHz at 0 V bias and extends to ~13 GHz at −2 V bias
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured eye diagrams using a PRBS 231-1 pattern at (a) 16 Gb/s, (b) 20 Gb/s, and (c) 24 Gb/s. The input wavelength was at the modulator quadrature point near a wavelength of 1310 nm. The drive voltage was 2.88 Vpp. The device IL was 2.7 dB. The ER is 2.6 dB in (a), 2.4 dB in (b), and 2.2 dB in (c).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Optical micrograph of the microring modulator. (b) Microring transmission at several bias voltages.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The EO S21 of the microring for 0 V and −1 V bias taken at a transmission near −2.55 dB. The 3 dB bandwidth was about 9.8 GHz at 0V bias and extended to 13.5 GHz at −1V. (b) 13 Gb/s eye pattern of the microring modulator with a drive voltage of 1.6 Vpp at 0 V bias.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Implantation steps for U-shaped diode (the tilt angle is 0° for all steps).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performance comparison of the MZMs.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Performance comparison of microring modulators.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m( ω m )=| V dep ( ω m ) V dep ( ω 0 ) |=| (1+j ω 0 C dep Z Si ) V avg ( ω m ) (1+j ω m C dep Z Si ) V avg ( ω 0 ) |,
V avg ( ω m )= V g (1+ ρ 1 ) e i β o L 2( e γ m L + ρ 1 ρ 2 e γ m L ) ( V + + ρ 2 V ),
V ± = e ±i ϕ ± sin( ϕ ± ) ϕ ± , ϕ ± = (i γ m β o )L 2 , ρ 1 = Z 0 Z S Z 0 + Z S , ρ 2 = Z T Z 0 Z T + Z 0 .
LEP= V π L α opt [VdB].
MD=( P 1 P 0 P 1 + P 0 )/ V PP [V 1 ],
FOM= η F g [GHz/V].
d ϕ ring /dV d ϕ wg /dV F.
η Δ ν FSR = d ϕ ring /dV 2π ,
1 L d ϕ wg dV 1 LF d ϕ ring dV = 1 LF 2πη Δ ν FSR = 2π n g η cF .
FOM= η F g [GHz/V].

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