Abstract

We demonstrate a novel imaging approach and associated reconstruction algorithm for far-field coherent diffractive imaging, based on the measurement of a pair of laterally sheared diffraction patterns. The differential phase profile retrieved from such a measurement leads to improved reconstruction accuracy, increased robustness against noise, and faster convergence compared to traditional coherent diffractive imaging methods. We measure laterally sheared diffraction patterns using Fourier-transform spectroscopy with two phase-locked pulse pairs from a high-harmonic source. Using this approach, we demonstrate spectrally resolved imaging at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths between 28 and 35 nm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Loetgering, H. Froese, T. Wilhein, and M. Rose, “Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033819 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2014 (3)

V. T. Tenner, K. S. E. Eikema, and S. Witte, “Fourier transform holography with extended references using a coherent ultra-broadband light source,” Opt. Express 22, 25397–25409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. E. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nature Photonics 4, 844–849 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Marchesini, “Invited Article: A unified evaluation of iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 011301 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

V. Elser, “Phase retrieval by iterated projections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 40–55 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2759–2769 (1982).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aeppli, G.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

Arrell, C. A.

Austin, D. R.

Bajt, S.

Barthelmess, M.

Barty, A.

Beetz, T.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergmann, R. B.

Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bogan, M. J.

Bostedt, C.

Boutu, W.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozek, J. D.

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capotondi, F.

Carré, B.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Coppola, N.

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demmler, S.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinapoli, R.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

Eisebitt, S.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekeberg, T.

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Elser, “Phase retrieval by iterated projections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 40–55 (2003).
[Crossref]

Epp, S. W.

Erk, B.

Falldorf, C.

Faulkner, H. M. L.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fienup, J. R.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2759–2769 (1982).
[Crossref]

Fleckenstein, H.

Foucar, L.

Frank, F.

Frank, M.

Freisem, L.

Froese, H.

L. Loetgering, H. Froese, T. Wilhein, and M. Rose, “Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galloway, B. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gardner, D. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, X.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graafsma, H.

Guggenmos, A.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gumprecht, L.

Gusinow, M. A.

Hädrich, S.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hampton, C. Y.

Hantke, M.

Hartmann, A.

Hartmann, R.

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Hauser, G.

He, H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Hellwig, O.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirsemann, H.

Holl, P.

Holler, M.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. J.

W. J. Huang, J. M. Zuo, B. Jiang, K. W. Kwon, and M. Shim, “Sub-ångström-resolution diffractive imaging of single nanocrystals,” Nature Physics 5, 129–133 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, C.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, G. S. M.

Jiang, B.

W. J. Huang, J. M. Zuo, B. Jiang, K. W. Kwon, and M. Shim, “Sub-ångström-resolution diffractive imaging of single nanocrystals,” Nature Physics 5, 129–133 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Karl, R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kassemeyer, S.

Kimmel, N.

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kiskinova, M.

Kleineberg, U.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krebs, M.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, K. W.

W. J. Huang, J. M. Zuo, B. Jiang, K. W. Kwon, and M. Shim, “Sub-ångström-resolution diffractive imaging of single nanocrystals,” Nature Physics 5, 129–133 (2009).
[Crossref]

La-O-Vorakiat, C.

Liang, M.

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limpert, J.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loetgering, L.

L. Loetgering, H. Froese, T. Wilhein, and M. Rose, “Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Loh, N. D.

Lomb, L.

Lörgen, M.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüning, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maia, F. R. N. C.

Mancini, G. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mancuso, C. A.

Marangos, J. P.

Marchesini, S.

Martin, A. V.

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 341618–1620 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Müller, E.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

Nass, K.

Neiman, A. M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noom, D. W. E.

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. E. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Noy, A.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K. A.

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nature Photonics 4, 844–849 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

Pedersoli, E.

Pfeiffer, F.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porter, C. L.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raines, K. S.

Raymondson, D. A.

Reich, C.

Riley, M. E.

Rodenburg, J. M.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rolles, D.

Rose, M.

L. Loetgering, H. Froese, T. Wilhein, and M. Rose, “Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, J.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudek, B.

Rudenko, A.

Rudolf, D.

Sandberg, R. L.

Sayre, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schlichting, I.

Schlotter, W. F.

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 341618–1620 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schot, G. v. d.

Schulz, J.

Seaberg, M. H.

Shanblatt, E. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, M.

W. J. Huang, J. M. Zuo, B. Jiang, K. W. Kwon, and M. Shim, “Sub-ångström-resolution diffractive imaging of single nanocrystals,” Nature Physics 5, 129–133 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shoeman, R. L.

Sierra, R. G.

Soltau, H.

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starodub, D.

Steinbrener, J.

Stellato, F.

Stöhr, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strüder, L.

Tanksalvala, M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tenner, V. T.

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. E. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. T. Tenner, K. S. E. Eikema, and S. Witte, “Fourier transform holography with extended references using a coherent ultra-broadband light source,” Opt. Express 22, 25397–25409 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Tsai, E. H. R.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

von Kopylow, C.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, F.

Weidenspointner, G.

Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

White, T. A.

Wilhein, T.

L. Loetgering, H. Froese, T. Wilhein, and M. Rose, “Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Witte, S.

Witting, T.

Wunderer, C. B.

Wyatt, A. S.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, X.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zuo, J. M.

W. J. Huang, J. M. Zuo, B. Jiang, K. W. Kwon, and M. Shim, “Sub-ångström-resolution diffractive imaging of single nanocrystals,” Nature Physics 5, 129–133 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zürch, M.

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. E. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. R. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Müller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
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S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (2)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nature Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nature Photonics 4, 844–849 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature Physics (1)

W. J. Huang, J. M. Zuo, B. Jiang, K. W. Kwon, and M. Shim, “Sub-ångström-resolution diffractive imaging of single nanocrystals,” Nature Physics 5, 129–133 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

A. V. Martin, F. Wang, N. D. Loh, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. Hantke, G. v. d. Schot, C. Y. Hampton, R. G. Sierra, A. Aquila, S. Bajt, M. Barthelmess, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, N. Coppola, S. W. Epp, B. Erk, H. Fleckenstein, L. Foucar, M. Frank, H. Graafsma, L. Gumprecht, A. Hartmann, R. Hartmann, G. Hauser, H. Hirsemann, P. Holl, S. Kassemeyer, N. Kimmel, M. Liang, L. Lomb, S. Marchesini, K. Nass, E. Pedersoli, C. Reich, D. Rolles, B. Rudek, A. Rudenko, J. Schulz, R. L. Shoeman, H. Soltau, D. Starodub, J. Steinbrener, F. Stellato, L. Strüder, J. Ullrich, G. Weidenspointner, T. A. White, C. B. Wunderer, A. Barty, I. Schlichting, M. J. Bogan, and H. N. Chapman, “Noise-robust coherent diffractive imaging with a single diffraction pattern,” Opt. Express 20, 16650–16661 (2012).
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V. T. Tenner, K. S. E. Eikema, and S. Witte, “Fourier transform holography with extended references using a coherent ultra-broadband light source,” Opt. Express 22, 25397–25409 (2014).
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F. Capotondi, E. Pedersoli, M. Kiskinova, A. V. Martin, M. Barthelmess, and H. N. Chapman, “A scheme for lensless X-ray microscopy combining coherent diffraction imaging and differential corner holography,” Opt. Express 20, 25152–25160 (2012).
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B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Loetgering, H. Froese, T. Wilhein, and M. Rose, “Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 033819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 130101(R) (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, J. R. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot Femtosecond X-Ray Holography Using Extended References,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” PNAS 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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S. Marchesini, “Invited Article: A unified evaluation of iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 011301 (2007).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Zürch, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, and C. Spielmann, “Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic overview of lensless imaging by diffractive shear interferometry. Two identical and coherent beams, E+ and E, illuminate a transmissive object such that the angle between the beams is α. This results in two far-field diffraction patterns on the camera which are slightly displaced relative to each other. The black region on the screen indicates where the diffraction patterns overlap and interfere.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of traditional single-beam CDI with the proposed diffractive shear interferometry. Each row compares the two methods for identical signal-to-noise levels. The first two columns show the simulated diffraction patterns and reconstructions, respectively, for single-beam CDI. Columns three and four show the simulated DSI amplitude and phase. Column five shows the image retrieved using our algorithm. Finally, the last column compares the accuracy of both methods. The error is calculated from the RMS difference between reconstruction and original image. For clarity, the error calculation only considers the direct vicinity of the object.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic overview of the setup used for EUV Fourier-transform interferometry. The output of a common-path interferometer is focused by the lens into a gas jet confined to tube. The resulting EUV pulse pair is separated from the infrared using an Aluminum filter and detected using an Andor Ikon-L CCD camera. A transmissive object can be positioned between the Aluminum filter and the camera using a remotely controlled translation stage. (b) Typical high-harmonic spectrum generated in Argon, measured through Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the same setup without an object in the beam.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Extreme ultraviolet DSI of a transmissive sample with multiple holographic references. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of the sample used for the initial measurements at EUV wavelengths. The sample consists of our institute logo and three circular apertures with diameters 12, 4 and 1 μm respectively acting as holographic references. (b) Broadband EUV transmission of the sample. (c) Intensity at 32 nm retrieved from the FTS-scan. (d) Phase of the signal at 32 nm. (e) Hologram acquired using just the intensity at 32 nm as shown in (c). (f) Hologram acquired using both intensity and phase information at 32 nm. The inset show the hologram arising from interference with the 4 μm aperture.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 DSI reconstruction results of the multi-wavelength data presented in Fig. 4. (a–d) for the ARCNL research center logo. Measured amplitude of the DSI patterns for the 29th, 27th, 25th and 23rd harmonics with wavelengths 28 nm, 30 nm, 32 nm and 35 nm respectively, shown on a logarithmic color scale. (e–h) Reconstructed images for the 29th to 23rd harmonics respectively, show on a linear grayscale. The images all have a height and width of 200 pixels, while the sample has a width of 40 μm. The difference in magnification follows directly from the differences in wavelength between the images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Results obtained for a complex ‘griffin’ sample without holographic references. (a) SEM image of the sample as described in section 3.3. (b) DSI reconstruction of the sample at 34 nm wavelength, shown on a linear colorscale. (c) Measured amplitude (logarithmic false color) and phase (gray) of the DSI pattern used to obtain (b).

Equations (6)

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E ± = A ˜ ( x ) exp [ i ( Φ ˜ ( x ) ± d k x ) ] exp ( i ω t ± ) ,
I ( k ) = A ( k + d k ) 2 + A ( k d k ) 2 + A ( k + d k ) A ( k d k ) exp { i [ Φ ( k + d k ) Φ ( k d k ) + ω T ] } + c . c . ,
E n ( k ) = A n ( k ) exp [ i Φ n ( k ) ]
M ( k ) = A ( k + d k ) A ( k d k ) exp { i ( Φ ( k + d k ) Φ ( k d k ) ] } ,
E n + 1 ( k + d k ) = M ( k ) E n * ( k d k ) .
E n + 1 ( k ) = ( 1 β ) E n ( k ) + β 2 [ M ( k d k ) E n ( k 2 d k ) | E n ( k 2 d k ) | 2 + α 2 + M * ( k + d k ) E n ( k + 2 d k ) | E n ( k + 2 d k ) | 2 + α 2 ] ,

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