Abstract

Light with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM) or twisted light is promising for quantum communication applications such as OAM-entangled photonic qubits. Methods and devices for the conversion of the photonic OAM to photonic spin angular momentum (SAM), as well as for the photonic SAM to electronic SAM transformation are known but the direct conversion between the photonic OAM and electronic SAM is not available within a single device. Here, we propose a scheme which converts photonic OAM to electronic SAM and vice versa within a single nanophotonic device. We employed a photonic crystal nanocavity with an embedded quantum dot (QD) which confines an electron spin as a stationary qubit. The confined spin-polarized electrons could recombine with holes to give circularly polarized emission, which could drive the rotation of the nanocavity modes via the strong optical spin-orbit interaction. The rotating modes then radiate light with nonzero OAM, allowing this device to serve as a transmitter. As this can be a unitary process, the time-reversed case enables the device to function as a receiver. This scheme could be generalized to other systems with a resonator and quantum emitters such as a microdisk and defects in diamond for example. Our scheme shows the potential for realizing an (ultra)compact electronic SAM-photonic OAM interface to accommodate OAM as an additional degree of freedom for quantum information purposes.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (4)

T. Van Mechelen and Z. Jacob, “Universal spin-momentum locking of evanescent waves,” Optica 3(2), 118 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. T. Schmiegelow, J. Schulz, H. Kaufmann, T. Ruster, U. G. Poschinger, and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12998 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kuruma, Y. Ota, M. Kakuda, D. Takamiya, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Position dependent optical coupling between single quantum dots and photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16019 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Asymmetric out-of-plane power distribution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(14), 3372–3375 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Padgett, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin–orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Padgett, F. M. Miatto, M. P. J. Lavery, A. Zeilinger, and R. W. Boyd, “Divergence of an orbital-angular-momentum-carrying beam upon propagation,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023011 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, P. Banzer, M. Neugebauer, and G. Leuchs, “From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 789–795 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Massari, G. Ruffato, M. Gintoli, F. Ricci, and F. Romanato, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality spiral phase plates for optical applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4077–4083 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Söllner, S. Mahmoodian, S. L. Hansen, L. Midolo, A. Javadi, G. Kiršanske, T. Pregnolato, H. El-Ella, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits supplementary information,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 1406 (2015).

C. Sayrin, C. Junge, R. Mitsch, B. Albrecht, D. O’Shea, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Nanophotonic Optical Isolator Controlled by the Internal State of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041036 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

M. Neugebauer, T. Bauer, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Polarization tailored light driven directional optical nanobeacon,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2546–2551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Petersen, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Chiral nanophotonic waveguide interface based on spin-orbit interaction of light,” Science 346(6205), 67–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mitsch, C. Sayrin, B. Albrecht, P. Schneeweiss, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum state-controlled directional spontaneous emission of photons into a nanophotonic waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5713 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Shomroni, S. Rosenblum, Y. Lovsky, O. Bechler, G. Guendelman, and B. Dayan, “All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon supp,” Science 345(6199), 903–906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. J. Coles, N. Prtljaga, B. Royall, I. J. Luxmoore, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Waveguide-coupled photonic crystal cavity for quantum dot spin readout,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2376–2385 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, I. Barber-Sanz, D. Puerto, A. Griol, and A. Martínez, “Resolving Light Handedness with an on-Chip Silicon Microdisk,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 762–767 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing Spins in an InGaAs Quantum Dot to a Semiconductor Waveguide Circuit Using Emitted Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Carter, T. M. Sweeney, M. Kim, C. S. Kim, D. Solenov, S. E. Economou, T. L. Reinecke, L. Yang, S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 329–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mathevet, B. V. de Lesegno, L. Pruvost, and G. L. J. A. Rikken, “Negative experimental evidence for magneto-orbital dichroism,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3941–3945 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using Optical Vortex To Control the Chirality of Twisted Metal Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takagi, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Ishida, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “High Q H1 photonic crystal nanocavities with efficient vertical emission,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28292–28300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Luxmoore, E. D. Ahmadi, B. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Hugues, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Fox, “Restoring mode degeneracy in H1 photonic crystal cavities by uniaxial strain tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121116 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Wiersig, “Structure of whispering-gallery modes in optical microdisks perturbed by nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063828 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. F. Quinteiro, A. O. Lucero, and P. I. Tamborenea, “Electronic transitions in quantum dots and rings induced by inhomogeneous off-centered light beams,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(50), 505802 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum Information Transfer from Spin to Orbital Angular Momentum of Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, A. Mohan, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and E. Kapon, “Integration of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots and photonic crystal membrane cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Hanson, L. P. Kouwenhoven, J. R. Petta, S. Tarucha, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Spins in few-electron quantum dots,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(4), 1217–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S.-H. Kim, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Vertical beaming of wavelength-scale photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 73(23), 235117 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Spiral phase contrast imaging in microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(3), 689–694 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems Van Beveren, B. Witkamp, L. M. K. Vandersypen, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, “Single-shot read-out of an individual electron spin in a quantum dot,” Nature 430(6998), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Nature of the Orbital Angular Momentum of a Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 053601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394(6691), 348–350 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission by Quantum Boxes in a Monolithic Optical Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(5), 1110–1113 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-Wave-Front Laser-Beams Produced With a Spiral Phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 670–678 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Achanta, V. G.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing Spins in an InGaAs Quantum Dot to a Semiconductor Waveguide Circuit Using Emitted Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmadi, E. D.

I. J. Luxmoore, E. D. Ahmadi, B. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Hugues, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Fox, “Restoring mode degeneracy in H1 photonic crystal cavities by uniaxial strain tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

A. Aiello, P. Banzer, M. Neugebauer, and G. Leuchs, “From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 789–795 (2015).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, B.

C. Sayrin, C. Junge, R. Mitsch, B. Albrecht, D. O’Shea, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Nanophotonic Optical Isolator Controlled by the Internal State of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041036 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Mitsch, C. Sayrin, B. Albrecht, P. Schneeweiss, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum state-controlled directional spontaneous emission of photons into a nanophotonic waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5713 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

A. T. O’Neil, I. MacVicar, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Nature of the Orbital Angular Momentum of a Light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 053601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 670–678 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambrosio, A.

Aoki, N.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using Optical Vortex To Control the Chirality of Twisted Metal Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Atlasov, K. A.

P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, A. Mohan, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and E. Kapon, “Integration of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots and photonic crystal membrane cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

A. Aiello, P. Banzer, M. Neugebauer, and G. Leuchs, “From transverse angular momentum to photonic wheels,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 789–795 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Neugebauer, T. Bauer, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Polarization tailored light driven directional optical nanobeacon,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2546–2551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barber-Sanz, I.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, I. Barber-Sanz, D. Puerto, A. Griol, and A. Martínez, “Resolving Light Handedness with an on-Chip Silicon Microdisk,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 762–767 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 670–678 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bauer, T.

M. Neugebauer, T. Bauer, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Polarization tailored light driven directional optical nanobeacon,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2546–2551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechler, O.

I. Shomroni, S. Rosenblum, Y. Lovsky, O. Bechler, G. Guendelman, and B. Dayan, “All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon supp,” Science 345(6199), 903–906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-Wave-Front Laser-Beams Produced With a Spiral Phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bekshaev, A. Y.

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Y. Bekshaev, and F. Nori, “Optical momentum and angular momentum in complex media: from the Abraham–Minkowski debate to unusual properties of surface plasmon-polaritons,” New J. Phys. 19(12), 123014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernet, S.

Biasiol, G.

P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, A. Mohan, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and E. Kapon, “Integration of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots and photonic crystal membrane cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bliokh, K. Y.

K. Y. Bliokh, A. Y. Bekshaev, and F. Nori, “Optical momentum and angular momentum in complex media: from the Abraham–Minkowski debate to unusual properties of surface plasmon-polaritons,” New J. Phys. 19(12), 123014 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin–orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
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Bouchard, F.

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

M. J. Padgett, F. M. Miatto, M. P. J. Lavery, A. Zeilinger, and R. W. Boyd, “Divergence of an orbital-angular-momentum-carrying beam upon propagation,” New J. Phys. 17(2), 023011 (2015).
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M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Padgett, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
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F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bracker, S.

S. G. Carter, T. M. Sweeney, M. Kim, C. S. Kim, D. Solenov, S. E. Economou, T. L. Reinecke, L. Yang, S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 329–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Carter, S. G.

S. G. Carter, T. M. Sweeney, M. Kim, C. S. Kim, D. Solenov, S. E. Economou, T. L. Reinecke, L. Yang, S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 329–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-Wave-Front Laser-Beams Produced With a Spiral Phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Coles, R. J.

Costard, E.

J. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission by Quantum Boxes in a Monolithic Optical Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(5), 1110–1113 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dayan, B.

I. Shomroni, S. Rosenblum, Y. Lovsky, O. Bechler, G. Guendelman, and B. Dayan, “All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon supp,” Science 345(6199), 903–906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101905 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Lesegno, B. V.

De Martini, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum Information Transfer from Spin to Orbital Angular Momentum of Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
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Deppe, D. G.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devlin, R. C.

Ding, D.-S.

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16019 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dreiser, J.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dwir, B.

P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, A. Mohan, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and E. Kapon, “Integration of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots and photonic crystal membrane cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Economou, S. E.

S. G. Carter, T. M. Sweeney, M. Kim, C. S. Kim, D. Solenov, S. E. Economou, T. L. Reinecke, L. Yang, S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 329–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

El-Ella, H.

I. Söllner, S. Mahmoodian, S. L. Hansen, L. Midolo, A. Javadi, G. Kiršanske, T. Pregnolato, H. El-Ella, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits supplementary information,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 1406 (2015).

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elzerman, J. M.

J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems Van Beveren, B. Witkamp, L. M. K. Vandersypen, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, “Single-shot read-out of an individual electron spin in a quantum dot,” Nature 430(6998), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, L.

Felici, M.

P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, A. Mohan, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and E. Kapon, “Integration of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots and photonic crystal membrane cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fickler, R.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, A. M.

R. J. Coles, N. Prtljaga, B. Royall, I. J. Luxmoore, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Waveguide-coupled photonic crystal cavity for quantum dot spin readout,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2376–2385 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing Spins in an InGaAs Quantum Dot to a Semiconductor Waveguide Circuit Using Emitted Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, M.

I. J. Luxmoore, E. D. Ahmadi, B. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Hugues, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Fox, “Restoring mode degeneracy in H1 photonic crystal cavities by uniaxial strain tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394(6691), 348–350 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fürhapter, S.

Gallo, P.

P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, K. A. Atlasov, K. F. Karlsson, A. Rudra, A. Mohan, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and E. Kapon, “Integration of site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots and photonic crystal membrane cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gammon, D.

S. G. Carter, T. M. Sweeney, M. Kim, C. S. Kim, D. Solenov, S. E. Economou, T. L. Reinecke, L. Yang, S. Bracker, and D. Gammon, “Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 329–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, D. J.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magaña-Loaiza, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Padgett, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light,” New J. Phys. 17(3), 033033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gayral, B.

J. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission by Quantum Boxes in a Monolithic Optical Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(5), 1110–1113 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gérard, J.

J. Gérard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission by Quantum Boxes in a Monolithic Optical Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(5), 1110–1113 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, H. M.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gintoli, M.

Griol, A.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, I. Barber-Sanz, D. Puerto, A. Griol, and A. Martínez, “Resolving Light Handedness with an on-Chip Silicon Microdisk,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 762–767 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guendelman, G.

I. Shomroni, S. Rosenblum, Y. Lovsky, O. Bechler, G. Guendelman, and B. Dayan, “All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon supp,” Science 345(6199), 903–906 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, G.-C.

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16019 (2016).
[Crossref]

Handsteiner, J.

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(46), 14197–14201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, S. L.

I. Söllner, S. Mahmoodian, S. L. Hansen, L. Midolo, A. Javadi, G. Kiršanske, T. Pregnolato, H. El-Ella, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits supplementary information,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 1406 (2015).

Hanson, R.

R. Hanson, L. P. Kouwenhoven, J. R. Petta, S. Tarucha, and L. M. K. Vandersypen, “Spins in few-electron quantum dots,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(4), 1217–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Elzerman, R. Hanson, L. H. Willems Van Beveren, B. Witkamp, L. M. K. Vandersypen, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, “Single-shot read-out of an individual electron spin in a quantum dot,” Nature 430(6998), 431–435 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heckenberg, N. R.

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 394(6691), 348–350 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, J.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugues, M.

I. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. J. Ramsay, A. C. T. Thijssen, R. Oulton, M. Hugues, S. Kasture, V. G. Achanta, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Interfacing Spins in an InGaAs Quantum Dot to a Semiconductor Waveguide Circuit Using Emitted Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(3), 037402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Luxmoore, E. D. Ahmadi, B. J. Luxmoore, N. A. Wasley, A. I. Tartakovskii, M. Hugues, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Fox, “Restoring mode degeneracy in H1 photonic crystal cavities by uniaxial strain tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishida, S.

Iwamoto, S.

Jacob, Z.

Javadi, A.

I. Söllner, S. Mahmoodian, S. L. Hansen, L. Midolo, A. Javadi, G. Kiršanske, T. Pregnolato, H. El-Ella, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Deterministic photon-emitter coupling in chiral photonic circuits supplementary information,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 1406 (2015).

Jesacher, A.

Junge, C.

C. Sayrin, C. Junge, R. Mitsch, B. Albrecht, D. O’Shea, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Nanophotonic Optical Isolator Controlled by the Internal State of Cold Atoms,” Phys. Rev. X 5(4), 041036 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, I. Barber-Sanz, D. Puerto, A. Griol, and A. Martínez, “Resolving Light Handedness with an on-Chip Silicon Microdisk,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 762–767 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101905 (2014).
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K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, A. Tamboli, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, and A. Imamoğlu, “Tuning photonic crystal nanocavity modes by wet chemical digital etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021108 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

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Light Sci. Appl. (2)

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y. Li, D.-S. Ding, W. Zhang, S. Shi, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Orbital angular momentum photonic quantum interface,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16019 (2016).
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K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using Optical Vortex To Control the Chirality of Twisted Metal Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic showing the conventional situation to convert photonic OAM to electronic SAM. Twisted light indicated by the helical phase (magenta) is incident on a photonic OAM-photonic SAM interface, converting the angular momentum, outputting a beam with constant phase fronts. This beam then excites a photonic SAM-electronic SAM interface, which is essentially a quantum emitter, to finally generate a stationary electron spin. (b) Schematic of the proposed media converter scheme which could convert photonic OAM to electronic SAM and vice versa with just a single nanophotonic device: a PhC nanocavity with an embedded QD. (c) Illustration of how the media conversion is enabled by the optical spin-orbit interaction within the nanocavity. Going from left to right, the light emission of a spin-polarized electron in a QD drives the nanocavity modes to rotate, resulting in the nanocavity emitting twisted light. In the opposite case, twisted light excitation drives the rotating modes, which then generates an electron spin in the QD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Quadrupole mode field profiles of the relevant field components – Hz, Ex and Ey – at the center of the PhC slab (y = 0) in the TE mode obtained from FDTD numerical simulations. The black circles outline the edges of the air-holes of the PhC. The software RSoft was used for all FDTD simulations. The dashed lines mark along x = 0.225 and y = 0 where the intersection serves as the exemplary position for the discussions in the main text. (b) Schematic of PhC nanocavity. Labelled are the key parameters of the air-holes. See main text for parameter description and values. (c-d) Plots of the product of SAM density and ω, i.e. sdω at the PhC slab center for the case of (c) Q1 + iQ2 and (d) Q1 – iQ2, calculated using the field components in (a). sdω takes the unit of energy density, [J/μm3].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The real part of E x of the linear combination of quadrupole modes Q1 ± iQ2 at different time steps, δt is plotted illustrating the expected rotation as labelled. Similar behaviour is observed in other field components (not shown). δt corresponds to the time it takes for light to propagate cδt~0.1μm, about 30 fs in absolute time, which is 1/8th of a rotation period in the simulations here.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of the H1 PhC nanocavity showing the position of the QD at (x, y) = (0.225, 0). Plot of the real part of Ex, phase component of Ex in the plane which is at ~2λcav above the PhC, as well as the farfield under right circularly polarized (RCP) excitation (b-d) and left circularly polarized excitation (LCP) excitation (e-g), linear polarization excitation (h-j) respectively, as well as the case of RCP excitation at (-0.225, 0) which is another suitable position for a QD (k-n) showing consistent field emission properties as that with excitation at (0.225, 0).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Plots of the sdω of the quadrupole modes at the center of the PhC slab for the case of twisted light excitation with l = + 1(a-c) and l = -1 (d-f) with different polarization as labelled. Note the scale of the color bar. (g) Schematic illustration showing that the excitation configuration considered here where an external twisted light excitation from above the PhC is at normal incidence at the center of the nanocavity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 sdω, total field energy density, and the degree of circular polarization under excitation of l=±1, together with the polarization as labelled.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A summary of FDTD simulation results with twisted light excitation of different combinations of l and eσ, along with the observation of coupling.

Equations (10)

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ψ m (r,ϕ)= α m J m (nkr)exp(imϕ)
H z Q1 = ψ 2 + ψ +2 H z Q2 =i( ψ 2 ψ +2 )
H z ± =  1 2 ( H z Q1   ± i  H z Q2 )=  ψ ±2 .
s d (r)=Im[ ε 0 ε r E*×E+ μ 0 μ r H*×H]/4ω
l d =r× p 0
p 0 =Im[ ε 0 ε r E*E+ μ 0 μ r H*H]/4ω
l= ω l d z ^ rdrdφ W rdrdφ
E(r,ϕ, z 0 )  e σ E 0   [ ( 2 r w 0 ) |l| ( 2 r 2 w 0 2 )exp( r 2 w 0 2 ) L p |l| ]exp( i l ϕ )
E ± * ( ϕ )  E TL ( ϕ )d ϕ     0 2π exp[ iϕ ( m+l+ p l ) ]dϕ
l+ p l =m

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