Abstract

We demonstrated a high-power (474 mW) blue superluminescent diode (SLD) on c-plane GaN-substrate for speckle-free solid-state lighting (SSL), and high-speed visible light communication (VLC) link. The device, emitting at 442 nm, showed a large spectral bandwidth of 6.5 nm at an optical power of 105 mW. By integrating a YAG-phosphor-plate to the SLD, a CRI of 85.1 and CCT of 3392 K were measured, thus suitable for solid-state lighting. The SLD shows a relatively large 3-dB modulation bandwidth of >400 MHz, while a record high data rate of 1.45 Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) link has been achieved below forward-error correction (FEC) limit under non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme. Our results suggest that SLD is a promising alternative for simultaneous speckle-free white lighting and Gbps data communication dual functionalities.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

R. Ji, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and W. Lu, “High-speed visible light communications: enabling technologies and State of the Art,” Appl. Sci. 8(4), 589 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Haas, “LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology,” Rev. Phys. 3, 26–31 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN quantum-well laser diode with integrated amplifier for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(6), A219–A226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, M. Malinverni, C. Mounir, N. Matuschek, M. Duelk, and C. Vélez, “Recent progress on GaN-based superluminescent light-emitting diodes in the visible range,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 105321X (2018).

K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, G. Liu, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, A. A. Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “3.2 Gigabit-per-second Visible Light Communication Link with InGaN/GaN MQW Micro-photodetector,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3037–3045 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

G. R. Goldberg, A. Boldin, S. M. L. Andersson, P. Ivanov, N. Ozaki, R. J. E. Taylor, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, K. L. Kennedy, and R. A. Hogg, “Gallium nitride superluminescent light emitting diodes for optical coherence tomography applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(6), 2000511 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. Obrien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi- gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Haas, C. Chen, and D. O’Brien, “A guide to wireless networking by light,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 55, 88–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041U (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, M. Sarzynski, S. Grzanka, J. Goss, I. Makarowa, A. Nowakowska-Siwinska, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “InAlGaN superluminescent diodes fabricated on patterned substrates: an alternative semiconductor broadband emitter,” Photon. Res. 5(2), A30 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, M. Sarzynski, S. Grzanka, J. Goss, G. Targowski, A. Nowakowska-Siwinska, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Nitride superluminescent diodes with broadened emission spectrum fabricated using laterally patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9673–9682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, N. Matuschek, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “GaN-based superluminescent diodes with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9748, 97481V (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (202¯1¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, H. M. Oubei, M. S. Alias, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, “LED based indoor visible light communications: State of the Art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(3), 1649–1678 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Moslehi Milani, V. Mohadesi, and A. Asgari, “A novel theoretical model for broadband blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 054502 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. Durán Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, P. Wisniewski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, G. Targowski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Design and optimization of InGaN superluminescent diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 997–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Honglei, C. Xiongbin, H. Beiju, T. Danying, and C. Hongda, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar ((202¯1¯)) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Kopp, C. Eichler, A. Lell, S. Tautz, J. Ristić, B. Stojetz, C. Höß, T. Weig, U. T. Schwarz, and U. Strauss, “Blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes with output power above 100 mW for picoprojection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH07 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, G. Targowski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, P. Wisniewski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “High-optical-power InGaN superluminescent diodes with “j-shape” waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, S. Grzanka, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczyński, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Cavity suppression in nitride based superluminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083106 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rossetti, J. Napierala, N. Matuschek, U. Achatz, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, A. Castiglia, N. Grandjean, J. Dorsaz, and E. Feltin, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes: the best out of two worlds,” Proc. SPIE 8252, 825208 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Kopp, T. Lermer, C. Eichler, and U. Strauss, “Cyan superluminescent light-emitting diode based on InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Müller, U. Strauß, T. Lermer, G. Brüderl, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, and S. Lutgen, “Investigation of long wavelength green InGaN lasers on c-plane GaN up to 529 nm continuous wave operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 208(7), 1590–1592 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92(10), 2714–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, and P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. C. Holzman, “What’s in a color? The unique human health effect of blue light,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(1), A22–A27 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Velez, E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “High power blue-violet superluminescent light emitting diodes with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, and C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Da Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-plane GaN-based blue superluminescent diodes fabricated using selective chemical wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, “InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superluminescent diode for optical sensor and imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(2), 251–257 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, and B. S. Ooi, “Wideband quantum-dash-in-well superluminescent diode at 1.6 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1747–1749 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Rumbolz, G. Brüderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauß, and V. Härle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

B. Zhao, T. R. Chen, and A. Yariv, “The gain and carrier density in semiconductor lasers under steady-state and transient conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1479–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C.-F. Lin, “Superluminescent diodes with angled facet etched by chemically assisted ion beam etching,” Electron. Lett. 27(11), 968–970 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

G. A. Alphonse, D. B. Gilbert, M. G. Harvey, and M. Ettenberg, “High-power superluminescent diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 2454–2457 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, M. Nishioka, J. Yoshino, and T. Kamiya, “Recombination lifetime of carriers in GaAs-GaAlAs quantum wells near room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(5), 519–521 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

K. Y. Lau, I. Ury, N. Bar-Chaim, C. Harder, and A. Yariv, “Superluminescent damping of relaxation resonance in the modulation response of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(4), 329–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, and L. W. Stulz, “Measurement of the modal reflectivity of an antireflection coating on a superluminescent diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 493–495 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, “Low-drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17(10), 352–353 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

M. Ettenberg, C. J. Nuese, and H. Kressel, “The temperature dependence of threshold current for double-heterojunction lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 2949–2950 (1979).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

T.-P. Lee, C. A. Burrus, and B. I. Miller, “A stripe geometry double-heterostructure amplified-spontaneous-emission (superluminescent) diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9(8), 820–828 (1973).

1880 (1)

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light,” J. Soc. Telegr. Eng. 9(34), 404–426 (1880).

Achatz, U.

M. Rossetti, J. Napierala, N. Matuschek, U. Achatz, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, A. Castiglia, N. Grandjean, J. Dorsaz, and E. Feltin, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes: the best out of two worlds,” Proc. SPIE 8252, 825208 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alias, M. S.

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, H. M. Oubei, M. S. Alias, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M.-S.

Alphonse, G. A.

G. A. Alphonse, D. B. Gilbert, M. G. Harvey, and M. Ettenberg, “High-power superluminescent diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 2454–2457 (1988).
[Crossref]

Al-Saggaf, A. A.

Alyamani, A. Y.

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN quantum-well laser diode with integrated amplifier for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(6), A219–A226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041U (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, H. M. Oubei, M. S. Alias, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (202¯1¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, S. M. L.

G. R. Goldberg, A. Boldin, S. M. L. Andersson, P. Ivanov, N. Ozaki, R. J. E. Taylor, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, K. L. Kennedy, and R. A. Hogg, “Gallium nitride superluminescent light emitting diodes for optical coherence tomography applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(6), 2000511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, M. Nishioka, J. Yoshino, and T. Kamiya, “Recombination lifetime of carriers in GaAs-GaAlAs quantum wells near room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(5), 519–521 (1985).
[Crossref]

Asgari, A.

N. Moslehi Milani, V. Mohadesi, and A. Asgari, “A novel theoretical model for broadband blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 054502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avramescu, A.

J. Müller, U. Strauß, T. Lermer, G. Brüderl, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, and S. Lutgen, “Investigation of long wavelength green InGaN lasers on c-plane GaN up to 529 nm continuous wave operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 208(7), 1590–1592 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Rumbolz, G. Brüderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauß, and V. Härle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bar-Chaim, N.

K. Y. Lau, I. Ury, N. Bar-Chaim, C. Harder, and A. Yariv, “Superluminescent damping of relaxation resonance in the modulation response of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(4), 329–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

Beiju, H.

L. Honglei, C. Xiongbin, H. Beiju, T. Danying, and C. Hongda, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light,” J. Soc. Telegr. Eng. 9(34), 404–426 (1880).

Bockowski, M.

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, and P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Böhm, K.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, “Low-drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17(10), 352–353 (1981).
[Crossref]

Boldin, A.

G. R. Goldberg, A. Boldin, S. M. L. Andersson, P. Ivanov, N. Ozaki, R. J. E. Taylor, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, K. L. Kennedy, and R. A. Hogg, “Gallium nitride superluminescent light emitting diodes for optical coherence tomography applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(6), 2000511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brüderl, G.

J. Müller, U. Strauß, T. Lermer, G. Brüderl, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, and S. Lutgen, “Investigation of long wavelength green InGaN lasers on c-plane GaN up to 529 nm continuous wave operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 208(7), 1590–1592 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Rumbolz, G. Brüderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauß, and V. Härle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C. A.

T.-P. Lee, C. A. Burrus, and B. I. Miller, “A stripe geometry double-heterostructure amplified-spontaneous-emission (superluminescent) diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9(8), 820–828 (1973).

Cantore, M.

Carlin, J. F.

M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Velez, E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “High power blue-violet superluminescent light emitting diodes with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061002 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, and C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J.-F.

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, N. Matuschek, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “GaN-based superluminescent diodes with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9748, 97481V (2016).
[Crossref]

Castiglia, A.

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, M. Malinverni, C. Mounir, N. Matuschek, M. Duelk, and C. Vélez, “Recent progress on GaN-based superluminescent light-emitting diodes in the visible range,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 105321X (2018).

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, N. Matuschek, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “GaN-based superluminescent diodes with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9748, 97481V (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rossetti, J. Napierala, N. Matuschek, U. Achatz, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, A. Castiglia, N. Grandjean, J. Dorsaz, and E. Feltin, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes: the best out of two worlds,” Proc. SPIE 8252, 825208 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Velez, E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “High power blue-violet superluminescent light emitting diodes with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061002 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, and C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. H.

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, “InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superluminescent diode for optical sensor and imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(2), 251–257 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

H. Haas, C. Chen, and D. O’Brien, “A guide to wireless networking by light,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 55, 88–111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Chen, T. R.

B. Zhao, T. R. Chen, and A. Yariv, “The gain and carrier density in semiconductor lasers under steady-state and transient conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1479–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.-C.

Childs, D. T. D.

G. R. Goldberg, A. Boldin, S. M. L. Andersson, P. Ivanov, N. Ozaki, R. J. E. Taylor, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, K. L. Kennedy, and R. A. Hogg, “Gallium nitride superluminescent light emitting diodes for optical coherence tomography applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(6), 2000511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. Obrien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi- gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cinzano, P.

F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92(10), 2714–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cosendey, G.

M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Velez, E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “High power blue-violet superluminescent light emitting diodes with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061002 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, and C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cozzan, C.

Czernecki, R.

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, S. Grzanka, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczyński, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Cavity suppression in nitride based superluminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, and P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Da Lin, Y.

M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Da Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-plane GaN-based blue superluminescent diodes fabricated using selective chemical wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dang, G. T.

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, “InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superluminescent diode for optical sensor and imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(2), 251–257 (2007).
[Crossref]

Danying, T.

L. Honglei, C. Xiongbin, H. Beiju, T. Danying, and C. Hongda, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. Obrien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi- gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN quantum-well laser diode with integrated amplifier for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(6), A219–A226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041U (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, H. M. Oubei, M. S. Alias, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 262–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-brightness semipolar (202¯1¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2608–2611 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, P. Wisniewski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, G. Targowski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Design and optimization of InGaN superluminescent diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 997–1004 (2015).
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A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, S. Grzanka, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczyński, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Cavity suppression in nitride based superluminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083106 (2012).
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A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, G. Targowski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, P. Wisniewski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “High-optical-power InGaN superluminescent diodes with “j-shape” waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, S. Grzanka, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczyński, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Cavity suppression in nitride based superluminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083106 (2012).
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Ulrich, R.

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Velez, C.

M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Velez, E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “High power blue-violet superluminescent light emitting diodes with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061002 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, and C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vélez, C.

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, M. Malinverni, C. Mounir, N. Matuschek, M. Duelk, and C. Vélez, “Recent progress on GaN-based superluminescent light-emitting diodes in the visible range,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 105321X (2018).

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, N. Matuschek, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “GaN-based superluminescent diodes with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9748, 97481V (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rossetti, J. Napierala, N. Matuschek, U. Achatz, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, A. Castiglia, N. Grandjean, J. Dorsaz, and E. Feltin, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes: the best out of two worlds,” Proc. SPIE 8252, 825208 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.-N.

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, “InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superluminescent diode for optical sensor and imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(2), 251–257 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.-Y.

Wang, S.

R. Ji, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and W. Lu, “High-speed visible light communications: enabling technologies and State of the Art,” Appl. Sci. 8(4), 589 (2018).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. Obrien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi- gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weidel, E.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, K. Petermann, E. Weidel, and R. Ulrich, “Low-drift fibre gyro using a superluminescent diode,” Electron. Lett. 17(10), 352–353 (1981).
[Crossref]

Weig, T.

F. Kopp, C. Eichler, A. Lell, S. Tautz, J. Ristić, B. Stojetz, C. Höß, T. Weig, U. T. Schwarz, and U. Strauss, “Blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes with output power above 100 mW for picoprojection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH07 (2013).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wisniewski, P.

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, P. Wisniewski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, G. Targowski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Design and optimization of InGaN superluminescent diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 997–1004 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, G. Targowski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, P. Wisniewski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “High-optical-power InGaN superluminescent diodes with “j-shape” waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, E.

R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiongbin, C.

L. Honglei, C. Xiongbin, H. Beiju, T. Danying, and C. Hongda, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, K.

H. Ohno, K. Orita, M. Kawaguchi, K. Yamanaka, and S. Takigawa, “200mW GaN-based superluminescent diode with a novel waveguide structure,” in Proc. IEEE Photonic Soc. 24th Annu. Meet. (IEEE, 2011), pp. 505–506.
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

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B. Zhao, T. R. Chen, and A. Yariv, “The gain and carrier density in semiconductor lasers under steady-state and transient conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1479–1486 (1992).
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K. Y. Lau, I. Ury, N. Bar-Chaim, C. Harder, and A. Yariv, “Superluminescent damping of relaxation resonance in the modulation response of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(4), 329–331 (1983).
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Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, M. Nishioka, J. Yoshino, and T. Kamiya, “Recombination lifetime of carriers in GaAs-GaAlAs quantum wells near room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(5), 519–521 (1985).
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Zafar, F.

D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, “LED based indoor visible light communications: State of the Art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(3), 1649–1678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, C.

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, S.

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B.

B. Zhao, T. R. Chen, and A. Yariv, “The gain and carrier density in semiconductor lasers under steady-state and transient conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1479–1486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhou, K.

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
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ACS Photonics (1)

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, J. T. Leonard, A. Pourhashemi, H. M. Oubei, M. S. Alias, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. Eldesouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm,” ACS Photonics 3(2), 262–268 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. Express (4)

A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, G. Targowski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, P. Wisniewski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “High-optical-power InGaN superluminescent diodes with “j-shape” waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Velez, E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “High power blue-violet superluminescent light emitting diodes with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(6), 061002 (2010).
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M. T. Hardy, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Da Lin, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “m-plane GaN-based blue superluminescent diodes fabricated using selective chemical wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121004 (2009).
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F. Kopp, T. Lermer, C. Eichler, and U. Strauss, “Cyan superluminescent light-emitting diode based on InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082105 (2012).
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Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, M. Nishioka, J. Yoshino, and T. Kamiya, “Recombination lifetime of carriers in GaAs-GaAlAs quantum wells near room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(5), 519–521 (1985).
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R. P. Green, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, and A. E. Kelly, “Modulation bandwidth studies of recombination processes in blue and green InGaN quantum well micro-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 091103 (2013).
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K. Y. Lau, I. Ury, N. Bar-Chaim, C. Harder, and A. Yariv, “Superluminescent damping of relaxation resonance in the modulation response of GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(4), 329–331 (1983).
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E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, and C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

R. Ji, S. Wang, Q. Liu, and W. Lu, “High-speed visible light communications: enabling technologies and State of the Art,” Appl. Sci. 8(4), 589 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

C. Zeng, S. Zhang, J. Liu, D. Li, D. Jiang, M. Feng, Z. Li, K. Zhou, F. Wang, H. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Characteristics of InGaN-based superluminescent diodes with one-sided oblique cavity facet,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 59(16), 1903–1906 (2014).
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C.-F. Lin, “Superluminescent diodes with angled facet etched by chemically assisted ion beam etching,” Electron. Lett. 27(11), 968–970 (1991).
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D. C. Holzman, “What’s in a color? The unique human health effect of blue light,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(1), A22–A27 (2010).
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IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (1)

D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, “LED based indoor visible light communications: State of the Art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 17(3), 1649–1678 (2015).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

T.-P. Lee, C. A. Burrus, and B. I. Miller, “A stripe geometry double-heterostructure amplified-spontaneous-emission (superluminescent) diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9(8), 820–828 (1973).

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G. A. Alphonse, D. B. Gilbert, M. G. Harvey, and M. Ettenberg, “High-power superluminescent diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 2454–2457 (1988).
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B. Zhao, T. R. Chen, and A. Yariv, “The gain and carrier density in semiconductor lasers under steady-state and transient conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1479–1486 (1992).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. R. Goldberg, A. Boldin, S. M. L. Andersson, P. Ivanov, N. Ozaki, R. J. E. Taylor, D. T. D. Childs, K. M. Groom, K. L. Kennedy, and R. A. Hogg, “Gallium nitride superluminescent light emitting diodes for optical coherence tomography applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(6), 2000511 (2017).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

L. Honglei, C. Xiongbin, H. Beiju, T. Danying, and C. Hongda, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
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H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, and B. S. Ooi, “Wideband quantum-dash-in-well superluminescent diode at 1.6 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1747–1749 (2006).
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R. X. G. Ferreira, E. Xie, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Rajbhandari, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, D. C. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “High bandwidth GaN-based micro-LEDs for multi-Gb/s visible light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

H. S. Djie, C. E. Dimas, D.-N. Wang, B. S. Ooi, J. C. M. Hwang, G. T. Dang, and W. H. Chang, “InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superluminescent diode for optical sensor and imaging,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(2), 251–257 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys. (4)

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, S. Grzanka, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczyński, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Cavity suppression in nitride based superluminescent diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083106 (2012).
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K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, and P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
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N. Moslehi Milani, V. Mohadesi, and A. Asgari, “A novel theoretical model for broadband blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(5), 054502 (2015).
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F. Falchi, P. Cinzano, C. D. Elvidge, D. M. Keith, and A. Haim, “Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility,” J. Environ. Manage. 92(10), 2714–2722 (2011).
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A. G. Bell, “On the production and reproduction of sound by light,” J. Soc. Telegr. Eng. 9(34), 404–426 (1880).

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F. Kopp, C. Eichler, A. Lell, S. Tautz, J. Ristić, B. Stojetz, C. Höß, T. Weig, U. T. Schwarz, and U. Strauss, “Blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes with output power above 100 mW for picoprojection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JH07 (2013).
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Nat. Med. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
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Opt. Express (7)

C. Shen, C. Lee, T. K. Ng, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “High-speed 405-nm superluminescent diode (SLD) with 807-MHz modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20281–20286 (2016).
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A. Kafar, S. Stanczyk, M. Sarzynski, S. Grzanka, J. Goss, G. Targowski, A. Nowakowska-Siwinska, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Nitride superluminescent diodes with broadened emission spectrum fabricated using laterally patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9673–9682 (2016).
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C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
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C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN quantum-well laser diode with integrated amplifier for visible light communications,” Opt. Express 26(6), A219–A226 (2018).
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C. Lee, C. Shen, C. Cozzan, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, B. S. Ooi, and S. P. DenBaars, “Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17480–17487 (2017).
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B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. Durán Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-R. Lin, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
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K.-T. Ho, R. Chen, G. Liu, C. Shen, J. Holguin-Lerma, A. A. Al-Saggaf, T. K. Ng, M.-S. Alouini, J.-H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “3.2 Gigabit-per-second Visible Light Communication Link with InGaN/GaN MQW Micro-photodetector,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3037–3045 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

A. Kafar, S. Stańczyk, P. Wisniewski, T. Oto, I. Makarowa, G. Targowski, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Design and optimization of InGaN superluminescent diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 997–1004 (2015).
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J. Müller, U. Strauß, T. Lermer, G. Brüderl, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, and S. Lutgen, “Investigation of long wavelength green InGaN lasers on c-plane GaN up to 529 nm continuous wave operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 208(7), 1590–1592 (2011).
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Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. Rumbolz, G. Brüderl, A. Leber, C. Eichler, M. Furitsch, A. Avramescu, A. Miler, A. Lell, U. Strauß, and V. Härle, “Development of AlInGaN based blue-violet lasers on GaN and SiC substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(7), 1792–1796 (2006).
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Proc. SPIE (4)

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, N. Matuschek, R. Rezzonico, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “GaN-based superluminescent diodes with long lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 9748, 97481V (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, T. K. Ng, C. Lee, J. T. Leonard, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications,” Proc. SPIE 10104, 101041U (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Castiglia, M. Rossetti, M. Malinverni, C. Mounir, N. Matuschek, M. Duelk, and C. Vélez, “Recent progress on GaN-based superluminescent light-emitting diodes in the visible range,” Proc. SPIE 10532, 105321X (2018).

M. Rossetti, J. Napierala, N. Matuschek, U. Achatz, M. Duelk, C. Vélez, A. Castiglia, N. Grandjean, J. Dorsaz, and E. Feltin, “Superluminescent light emitting diodes: the best out of two worlds,” Proc. SPIE 8252, 825208 (2012).
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Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Haas, C. Chen, and D. O’Brien, “A guide to wireless networking by light,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 55, 88–111 (2017).
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H. Haas, “LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology,” Rev. Phys. 3, 26–31 (2018).
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S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. Obrien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi- gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

C. E. Dimas, H. S. Djie, and B. S. Ooi, “Gain optimization method of a DQW superluminescent diode with broad multi-state emission,” 2010 Photonics Glob. Conf. 1–5 (2010).

H. Ohno, K. Orita, M. Kawaguchi, K. Yamanaka, and S. Takigawa, “200mW GaN-based superluminescent diode with a novel waveguide structure,” in Proc. IEEE Photonic Soc. 24th Annu. Meet. (IEEE, 2011), pp. 505–506.
[Crossref]

R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, 1st ed. (Artech House Publishers, 2000).

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SLD device and electro-optical characteristics: (a) Scanning electron microscope image of the SLD and showing the angled facet. (b) Bias-dependent EL spectrum. (c) FWHM and peak position. (d) CW and (e) pulsed injection L–I–V curve of the SLD showing high peak optical power of 105 mW and 474 mW respectively. (f) External quantum efficiency (ηext) of the SLD, calculated from optical power (Poptical), elementary charge (e), injection current (I), Planck’s constant (h) and frequency of emitted light (υ).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Light beam of LD and SLD: (a) LD beam path. (b) SLD beam path. Insets are the far field projections of the LD and SLD beam patterns, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SLD-based SSL white light characteristics: (a) Photograph of SLD in combination with a phosphor plate operating at 1A CW. (b) Illuminance of the generated white light at different injection current. (c) Spectral shape of the white light with CRI of 85.1 and CCT of 3392 K. (d) CIE diagram showing the chromaticity coordinates of the generated white light.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Stand-alone SLD modulation bandwidth and data rate: (a) Modulation bandwidth response at different injection currents. (b) and (c) show the eye diagram for data rate of 1 Gbps, and 1.45 Gbps respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of characteristics on GaN-based superluminescent diodes (SLDs).

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Table 2 Data rates achieved with the SLD used for visible light communication (VLC).

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Table 3 Comparison of superluminescent diodes (SLD) used for visible light communications (VLC)

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