Abstract

Diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a significant challenge because of the highly complex process. We proposed an approach to diagnose NPC serum using a combination of hyperspectral imaging and weight-based principal component analysis. Samples were prepared by pressing boric acid into pellets for use as the sera substrate. The sera, collected from 100 healthy volunteers and 60 NPC patients, was dripped onto the surface of the substrate for hyperspectral imaging. The characteristic spectral bands were selected based on the variable weight obtained from a support vector machine (SVM) model, using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimension in the extracted bands. Obtained results show that the accuracy rate, sensitivity, and specificity between the NPC sera and the sera of the healthy controls reached extremely high levels of 99.15%, 98.79%, and 99.36%, respectively. For the model’s consistency evaluation, we found that the Kappa and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. These results suggest that the developed approach could serve as a noninvasive diagnostic and screening tool for highly accurate and consistent detection of NPC. Hence, a combination of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and a weighted principal component analysis (WPCA)-SVM model represents a powerful and promising tool for NPC diagnosis.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2018 (2)

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, and X. Liu, “Hyperspectral absorption and backscattering coefficients of bulk water retrieved from a combination of remote-sensing reflectance and attenuation coefficient,” Opt. Express 26(2), A157–A177 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, J. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Reference spectral signature selection using density-based cluster for automatic oil spill detection in hyperspectral images,” Opt. Express 24(7), 7411–7425 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

V. V. Kozoderov, E. V. Dmitriev, and A. A. Sokolov, “Improved technique for retrieval of forest parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing data,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1342–A1353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, S. Oshita, and S. Liu, “Assessment of visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging as a tool for detection of horsemeat adulteration in minced beef,” Food Bioprocess Technol. 8(5), 1054–1062 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, A. Kiess, and C. H. Chung, “Emerging biomarkers in head and neck cancer in the era of genomics,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(1), 11–26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, “Pathological leucocyte segmentation algorithm based on hyperspectral imaging technique,” Opt. Eng. 51, 3202 (2012).

2011 (1)

C. C. Chang and C. J. Lin, “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines,” ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol. 2(3), 1–27 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Y. Wang, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and X. Zhang, “MEMS scanner enabled real-time depth sensitive hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24101–24108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Mixed-spectrum generation mechanism analysis of dispersive hyperspectral imaging for improving environmental monitoring of coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 7857, 785717 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Lu and Q. Weng, “A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(5), 823–870 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Adami, H. O.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Akbari, H.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Y.

D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beach, J.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bei, J. X.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Bendix, J.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigler, S.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bish, S.

Cao, S. M.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang and C. J. Lin, “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines,” ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol. 2(3), 1–27 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, E. T.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, A.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G. Z.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Z.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, R.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. H.

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. Z.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Q. Li, Y. Wang, H. Liu, and Z. Chen, “Nerve fibers identification based on molecular hyperspectral imaging technology,”in 2012IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE 2012) pp. 15–17.

Chen, Z. G.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chung, C. H.

H. Kang, A. Kiess, and C. H. Chung, “Emerging biomarkers in head and neck cancer in the era of genomics,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(1), 11–26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Q.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Dai, L. H.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, W.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, C.

Dmitriev, E. V.

Downes, T.

Faruque, F.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fei, B.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, F. T.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Feng, G.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Feng, Q. S.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Feng, S.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, Y.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerstner, A. O.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goto, A.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
[Crossref]

Halig, L.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halig, L. V.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamabe, K.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamamoto, Y.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, S.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, H.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. S.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q. H.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughson, M.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, J.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, W. H.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Johnson, W.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamruzzaman, M.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, S. Oshita, and S. Liu, “Assessment of visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging as a tool for detection of horsemeat adulteration in minced beef,” Food Bioprocess Technol. 8(5), 1054–1062 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kan, W. K.

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, A. Kiess, and C. H. Chung, “Emerging biomarkers in head and neck cancer in the era of genomics,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(1), 11–26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, M.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiess, A.

H. Kang, A. Kiess, and C. H. Chung, “Emerging biomarkers in head and neck cancer in the era of genomics,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 12(1), 11–26 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiyotoki, S.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozoderov, V. V.

Kwong, D. L.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laffers, W.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, K.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, K. Y.

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leathers, R.

Lee, A. W.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. W. M.

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Z.

Li, C.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, E. M.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, “Pathological leucocyte segmentation algorithm based on hyperspectral imaging technique,” Opt. Eng. 51, 3202 (2012).

Q. Li, Y. Wang, H. Liu, and Z. Chen, “Nerve fibers identification based on molecular hyperspectral imaging technology,”in 2012IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE 2012) pp. 15–17.

Li, X. Z.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Li, Y. H.

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lian, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. J.

C. C. Chang and C. J. Lin, “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines,” ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol. 2(3), 1–27 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
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Lin, J.

J. Lin, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, and X. Liu, “Hyperspectral absorption and backscattering coefficients of bulk water retrieved from a combination of remote-sensing reflectance and attenuation coefficient,” Opt. Express 26(2), A157–A177 (2018).
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S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
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Lin, Q.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Lin, Z.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Ling, W.

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
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Liu, D.

Liu, H.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
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Q. Li, Y. Wang, H. Liu, and Z. Chen, “Nerve fibers identification based on molecular hyperspectral imaging technology,”in 2012IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE 2012) pp. 15–17.

Liu, L.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
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Liu, Q.

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
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Liu, S.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, S. Oshita, and S. Liu, “Assessment of visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging as a tool for detection of horsemeat adulteration in minced beef,” Food Bioprocess Technol. 8(5), 1054–1062 (2015).
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Liu, W. S.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
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Liu, X.

Long, J.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
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Louchard, E.

Lu, C. C.

C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
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Lu, D.

D. Lu and Q. Weng, “A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(5), 823–870 (2007).
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Lu, G.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
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G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
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Lu, J.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
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Lu, X.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Lung, M. L.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
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Maffione, R.

Makino, Y.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, S. Oshita, and S. Liu, “Assessment of visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging as a tool for detection of horsemeat adulteration in minced beef,” Food Bioprocess Technol. 8(5), 1054–1062 (2015).
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Master, V.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
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Muller, S.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
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Müller, N. A.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
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Mzimbiri, R. I.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
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Ng, W. T.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
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W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
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X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
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Nieh, P. T.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
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Nishikawa, J.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Okamoto, T.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Ondrusek, M.

Oshita, S.

M. Kamruzzaman, Y. Makino, S. Oshita, and S. Liu, “Assessment of visible near-infrared hyperspectral imaging as a tool for detection of horsemeat adulteration in minced beef,” Food Bioprocess Technol. 8(5), 1054–1062 (2015).
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Osunkoya, A.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
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Pan, J.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
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L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Pang, E. S. Y.

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
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Peng, J.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Peng, P.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Peng, Y. H.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
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Pogue, B. W.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
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Pu, Y. S.

C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
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Qin, X.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
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Qiu, S.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
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Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
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Regeling, B.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
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Reid, R.

Saito, M.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Sakaida, I.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Satori, S.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Schmidt, K.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
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Schuster, D. M.

H. Akbari, L. V. Halig, D. M. Schuster, A. Osunkoya, V. Master, P. T. Nieh, G. Z. Chen, and B. Fei, “Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 076005 (2012).
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Shi, A.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
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D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
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A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
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Sokolov, A. A.

Stephens, C.

Szeto, C. Y.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
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Takeuchi, Y.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Tang, S.-S.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
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Tang, Y.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
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Thies, B.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
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Tsai, Y. C.

C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
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Tung, S. Y.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
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Tunnell, J. W.

Wang, D.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
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Wang, F.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
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Wang, J.

J. Wang, “Mixed-spectrum generation mechanism analysis of dispersive hyperspectral imaging for improving environmental monitoring of coastal waters,” Proc. SPIE 7857, 785717 (2010).
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Wang, N.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
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Wang, Q.

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
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Wang, R.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
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L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, S. Bish, J. W. Tunnell, and X. Zhang, “MEMS scanner enabled real-time depth sensitive hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24101–24108 (2010).
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Q. Li, Y. Wang, H. Liu, and Z. Chen, “Nerve fibers identification based on molecular hyperspectral imaging technology,”in 2012IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering (CSAE 2012) pp. 15–17.

Weng, Q.

D. Lu and Q. Weng, “A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(5), 823–870 (2007).
[Crossref]

Westermann, S.

B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, W.

A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, E. H.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, X.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, N.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, S. H.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, J.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L. Y.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Xu, Y.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y. W.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. S.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Y. Y.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yau, C. C.

X. Yang, W. Dai, D. L. Kwong, C. Y. Szeto, E. H. Wong, W. T. Ng, A. W. Lee, R. K. Ngan, C. C. Yau, S. Y. Tung, and M. L. Lung, “Epigenetic markers for noninvasive early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting,” Int. J. Cancer 136(4), E127–E135 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yau, T. K.

W. T. Ng, A. W. M. Lee, W. K. Kan, J. Chan, E. S. Y. Pang, T. K. Yau, and K. Y. Lau, “N-staging by magnetic resonance imaging for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: pattern of nodal involvement by radiological levels,” Radiother. Oncol. 82(1), 70–75 (2007).
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Ye, W.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ye, Z. L.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yen, R. F.

C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, H. Yu, L. Guo, J. Li, Y. Chu, Y. Tang, S.-S. Tang, and F. Wang, “Accuracy and stability improvement of identification for Wuchang rice adulteration by Piece–Wise multiplicative scatter correction in the hyperspectral imaging system,” Anal. Methods 10(26), 3224–3231 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y. X.

Q. Cui, F. T. Feng, M. Xu, W. S. Liu, Y. Y. Yao, S. H. Xie, X. Z. Li, Z. L. Ye, Q. S. Feng, L. Z. Chen, J. X. Bei, L. Feng, Q. H. Huang, W. H. Jia, S. M. Cao, E. T. Chang, W. Ye, H. O. Adami, and Y. X. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants,” Oncotarget 8(56), 95066–95074 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhai, T. T.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. F.

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. Q.

Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, C.

L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, C.

S. Qiu, C. Li, J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Lu, Q. Huang, C. Zou, C. Chen, N. Xiao, D. Lin, R. Chen, J. Pan, and S. Feng, “Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(12), 125003 (2016).
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[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Liu, N. Wang, Y. Yang, A. Shi, L. Liu, H. Hu, R. I. Mzimbiri, and Q. Wang, “Rapid and visual measurement of fat content in peanuts by using the hyperspectral imaging technique with chemometrics,” Anal. Methods 8(41), 7482 (2016).
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A. M. Siddiqi, H. Li, F. Faruque, W. Williams, K. Lai, M. Hughson, S. Bigler, J. Beach, and W. Johnson, “Use of hyperspectral imaging to distinguish normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells,” Cancer 114(1), 13–21 (2008).
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Y. H. Peng, Y. W. Xu, L. S. Huang, T. T. Zhai, L. H. Dai, S. Q. Qiu, Y. S. Yang, W. Z. Chen, L. Q. Zhang, E. M. Li, and L. Y. Xu, “Autoantibody signatures combined with Epstein-Barr virus capsid Antigen-IgA as a biomarker panel for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 8(8), 729–736 (2015).
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Chin. J. Cancer (1)

L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Li, S. H. Xie, W. Ling, S. H. Chen, Q. Liu, Q. H. Huang, and S. M. Cao, “Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China: an age-period-cohort analysis,” Chin. J. Cancer 34(3), 350–357 (2015).
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C. C. Lu, R. F. Yen, C. Y. Huang, Y. C. Tsai, and Y. S. Pu, “Clinical application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in upper tract urothelial carcinoma,” Eur. Urol. 16(3Supp.), e1809–e1810 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lu, D. Wang, X. Qin, L. Halig, S. Muller, H. Zhang, A. Chen, B. W. Pogue, Z. G. Chen, and B. Fei, “Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(12), 126012 (2015).
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B. Regeling, W. Laffers, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, K. Schmidt, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Development of an image pre-processor for operational hyperspectral laryngeal cancer detection,” J. Biophotonics 9(3), 235–245 (2016).
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D. Wu, H. Shi, Y. He, X. Yu, and Y. Bao, “Potential of hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for rapid and non-invasive detection of gelatin adulteration in prawn,” J. Food Eng. 119(3), 680–686 (2013).
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L. Zhang, Y. Huang, S. Hong, Y. Yang, G. Yu, J. Jia, P. Peng, X. Wu, Q. Lin, X. Xi, J. Peng, M. Xu, D. Chen, X. Lu, R. Wang, X. Cao, X. Chen, Z. Lin, J. Xiong, Q. Lin, C. Xie, Z. Li, J. Pan, J. Li, S. Wu, Y. Lian, Q. Yang, and C. Zhao, “Gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus fluorouracil plus cisplatin in recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial,” Lancet 388(10054), 1883–1892 (2016).
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Oncotarget (2)

M. Kang, P. Zhou, J. Long, G. Li, H. Yan, G. Feng, M. Liu, J. Zhu, and R. Wang, “A new staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT),” Oncotarget 8(55), 94188–94196 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the HSI system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The process of average spectral extraction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The classification results of four models.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The ROC curve of four classification models.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The weight distribution of 950 bands.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The classification results of three models.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The ROC curve of three classification models.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 The five indicators of the four models.

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Table 2 The selected bands and their average weight.

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Table 3 The classification results of the three models.

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Table 4 The consistency evaluation of three models.

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Table 5 The structure of three kinds of models.

Equations (2)

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R c = R 0 D I W I D I
w=Wi*SV

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