Abstract

We demonstrate a compact high-performance adiabatic 3-dB coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform. The refractive index of the gap region between two coupling waveguides is effectively increased using subwavelength grating, which leads to high-performance operation and a compact design footprint, with a mode-evolution length of only 25 µm and an entire device length of 65 µm. The designed adiabatic 3-dB coupler has been fabricated using electron beam lithography and the feature size used in our design is CMOS compatible. The fabricated device is characterized in the wavelength range from 1500 nm to 1600 nm, with a measured power splitting ratio better than 3 ± 0.27 dB and an average insertion loss of 0.20 dB.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (4)

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Ultra-broadband 2 × 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using subwavelengthgrating-assisted silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1935–1938 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

2016 (7)

A. Sánchez-Postigo, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. M. Luque-González, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, C. A. Alonso-Ramos, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “Broadband fiber-chip zero-order surface grating coupler with 0.4 dB efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3013–3016 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Ma, H. Yun, F. Zhang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Compact broadband directional couplers using subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7101408 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Q. Deng, and Z. Zhou, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted broadband polarization-independent directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1648–1651 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu and J. Xiao, “Compact and high extinction ratio polarization beam splitter using subwavelength grating couplers,” Opt. Lett. 41(4), 773–776 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 x 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Ma, H. Yun, Z. Lu, X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact sub-wavelength grating polarization splitter-rotator for silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7805709 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2x2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Xing, K. Xiong, H. Xu, Z. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Silicon-on-insulator-based adiabatic splitter with simultaneous tapering of velocity and coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2221–2223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xing, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Design of polarization-independent adiabatic splitters fabricated on silicon-oninsulator substrates,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26729–26734 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, S. Romero-García, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and P. Cheben, “Wavelength independent multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7033–7040 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, “Directional couplers realized on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1671–1673 (2005).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Light. Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Abadíacalvo, N.

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aboketaf, A.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2010), CThAA2.

Absil, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Alonso-Ramos, C.

D. Benedikovic, M. Berciano, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. L. Roux, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Dispersion control of silicon nanophotonic waveguides using sub-wavelength grating metamaterials in near-and mid-IR wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19468–19478 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C. A.

Benedikovic, D.

Ben-Hamida, N.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, M. Morsy-Osman, R. Li, M. Hui, M. Parvizi, N. Ben-Hamida, and D. V. Plant, “Ultrabroadband and ultra-compact optical 90° hybrid based on 2x4 MMI Coupler with subwavelength gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2018), M3I.7.

Berciano, M.

Bernier, E.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Bojko, R.

Campenhout, J. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Cao, G. B.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, “Directional couplers realized on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1671–1673 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2010), CThAA2.

Cassan, E.

Caverley, M.

Celo, D.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Chandran, S.

R. K. Gupta, S. Chandran, and B. K. Das, “Wavelength-independent directional couplers for integrated silicon photonics,” J. Light. Technol. 35(22), 4916–4923 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Sánchez-Postigo, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. M. Luque-González, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, C. A. Alonso-Ramos, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “Broadband fiber-chip zero-order surface grating coupler with 0.4 dB efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3013–3016 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, S. Romero-García, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and P. Cheben, “Wavelength independent multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7033–7040 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13470–13477 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

Christowski, L.

H. Yun, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, W. Shi, L. Christowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 broadband adiabatic 3-dB couplers on SOI strip waveguides for TE and TM modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2015), STh1F.8.

Chrostowski, L.

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Ultra-broadband 2 × 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using subwavelengthgrating-assisted silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1935–1938 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Ma, H. Yun, Z. Lu, X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact sub-wavelength grating polarization splitter-rotator for silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7805709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Ma, H. Yun, F. Zhang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Compact broadband directional couplers using subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7101408 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 x 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2x2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

D’Mello, Y.

Y. Wang, L. Xu, A. Kumar, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, E. El-Fiky, and D. V. Plant, “Compact single-etched sub-wavelength grating couplers for O-band application,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30582–30590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tamazin, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, A. Kumar, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband compact adiabatic coupler in silicon-on-insulator for joint operation in the C-and O-bands,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4B.4.

E. El-Fiky, Y. D’Mello, Y. Wang, J. Skoric, M. G. Saber, A. Kumar, A. Samani, L. Xu, R. Li, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband and compact asymmetrical beam splitter enabled by angled sub-wavelength grating MMI,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4A.7.

Dado, M.

Dai, D.

Das, B. K.

R. K. Gupta, S. Chandran, and B. K. Das, “Wavelength-independent directional couplers for integrated silicon photonics,” J. Light. Technol. 35(22), 4916–4923 (2017).
[Crossref]

Delvaux, C.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Deng, Q.

Dumais, P.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

El-Fiky, E.

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, A. Kumar, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, E. El-Fiky, and D. V. Plant, “Compact single-etched sub-wavelength grating couplers for O-band application,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30582–30590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, M. Jacques, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization independent adiabatic 3-dB coupler for silicon-on-insulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2017), SF1I.5.

H. Tamazin, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, A. Kumar, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband compact adiabatic coupler in silicon-on-insulator for joint operation in the C-and O-bands,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4B.4.

E. El-Fiky, Y. D’Mello, Y. Wang, J. Skoric, M. G. Saber, A. Kumar, A. Samani, L. Xu, R. Li, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband and compact asymmetrical beam splitter enabled by angled sub-wavelength grating MMI,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4A.7.

Elshaari, A.

L. Cao, A. Elshaari, A. Aboketaf, and S. Preble, “Adiabatic couplers in SOI waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2010), CThAA2.

Fu, H.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Gao, F.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, “Directional couplers realized on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1671–1673 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geng, D.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

González-Andrade, D.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

Goodwill, D. J.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Gupta, R. K.

R. K. Gupta, S. Chandran, and B. K. Das, “Wavelength-independent directional couplers for integrated silicon photonics,” J. Light. Technol. 35(22), 4916–4923 (2017).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Sánchez-Postigo, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. M. Luque-González, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, C. A. Alonso-Ramos, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “Broadband fiber-chip zero-order surface grating coupler with 0.4 dB efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3013–3016 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, S. Romero-García, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and P. Cheben, “Wavelength independent multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7033–7040 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13470–13477 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Y. He, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, B. Liu, X. Jiang, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon polarization splitter and rotator using a subwavelength grating based directional coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2017), Th1G.6.

Herrero-Bermello, A.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hui, M.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, M. Morsy-Osman, R. Li, M. Hui, M. Parvizi, N. Ben-Hamida, and D. V. Plant, “Ultrabroadband and ultra-compact optical 90° hybrid based on 2x4 MMI Coupler with subwavelength gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2018), M3I.7.

Jacques, M.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, M. Jacques, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization independent adiabatic 3-dB coupler for silicon-on-insulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2017), SF1I.5.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Ultra-broadband 2 × 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using subwavelengthgrating-assisted silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1935–1938 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Ma, H. Yun, Z. Lu, X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact sub-wavelength grating polarization splitter-rotator for silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7805709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Ma, H. Yun, F. Zhang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Compact broadband directional couplers using subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7101408 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 x 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2x2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, W. Shi, L. Christowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 broadband adiabatic 3-dB couplers on SOI strip waveguides for TE and TM modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2015), STh1F.8.

Jafari, Z.

Z. Jafari and A. Zarifkar, “Dispersion flattened single etch-step waveguide based on subwavelength grating,” Opt. Commun. 393, 219–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13470–13477 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, “Directional couplers realized on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1671–1673 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Jiang, X.

Y. He, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, B. Liu, X. Jiang, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon polarization splitter and rotator using a subwavelength grating based directional coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2017), Th1G.6.

Kumar, A.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, A. Kumar, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, E. El-Fiky, and D. V. Plant, “Compact single-etched sub-wavelength grating couplers for O-band application,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30582–30590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tamazin, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, A. Kumar, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband compact adiabatic coupler in silicon-on-insulator for joint operation in the C-and O-bands,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4B.4.

E. El-Fiky, Y. D’Mello, Y. Wang, J. Skoric, M. G. Saber, A. Kumar, A. Samani, L. Xu, R. Li, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband and compact asymmetrical beam splitter enabled by angled sub-wavelength grating MMI,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4A.7.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
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L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
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A. Sánchez-Postigo, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. M. Luque-González, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, C. A. Alonso-Ramos, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “Broadband fiber-chip zero-order surface grating coupler with 0.4 dB efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3013–3016 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13470–13477 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Shen, L.

Shi, W.

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2x2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, W. Shi, L. Christowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 broadband adiabatic 3-dB couplers on SOI strip waveguides for TE and TM modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2015), STh1F.8.

Skoric, J.

E. El-Fiky, Y. D’Mello, Y. Wang, J. Skoric, M. G. Saber, A. Kumar, A. Samani, L. Xu, R. Li, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband and compact asymmetrical beam splitter enabled by angled sub-wavelength grating MMI,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4A.7.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Light. Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

Y. He, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, B. Liu, X. Jiang, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon polarization splitter and rotator using a subwavelength grating based directional coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2017), Th1G.6.

Sterckx, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Su, Y.

Y. He, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, B. Liu, X. Jiang, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon polarization splitter and rotator using a subwavelength grating based directional coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2017), Th1G.6.

Tamazin, H.

H. Tamazin, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, A. Kumar, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband compact adiabatic coupler in silicon-on-insulator for joint operation in the C-and O-bands,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4B.4.

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Tu, X.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Vachon, M.

Velasco, A. V.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

Wang, J.

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

Y. Wang, M. Ma, H. Yun, Z. Lu, X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact sub-wavelength grating polarization splitter-rotator for silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7805709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. He, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, B. Liu, X. Jiang, C. Qiu, Y. Su, and R. Soref, “Silicon polarization splitter and rotator using a subwavelength grating based directional coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2017), Th1G.6.

Wang, Y.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, A. Kumar, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, E. El-Fiky, and D. V. Plant, “Compact single-etched sub-wavelength grating couplers for O-band application,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30582–30590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Ma, H. Yun, F. Zhang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Compact broadband directional couplers using subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7101408 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, M. Ma, H. Yun, Z. Lu, X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact sub-wavelength grating polarization splitter-rotator for silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7805709 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 x 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2x2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Tamazin, E. El-Fiky, Y. Wang, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, A. Kumar, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband compact adiabatic coupler in silicon-on-insulator for joint operation in the C-and O-bands,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4B.4.

H. Yun, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, W. Shi, L. Christowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 broadband adiabatic 3-dB couplers on SOI strip waveguides for TE and TM modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2015), STh1F.8.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, M. Jacques, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization independent adiabatic 3-dB coupler for silicon-on-insulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2017), SF1I.5.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, M. Morsy-Osman, R. Li, M. Hui, M. Parvizi, N. Ben-Hamida, and D. V. Plant, “Ultrabroadband and ultra-compact optical 90° hybrid based on 2x4 MMI Coupler with subwavelength gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2018), M3I.7.

E. El-Fiky, Y. D’Mello, Y. Wang, J. Skoric, M. G. Saber, A. Kumar, A. Samani, L. Xu, R. Li, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband and compact asymmetrical beam splitter enabled by angled sub-wavelength grating MMI,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4A.7.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 2201010 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Sánchez-Postigo, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, J. M. Luque-González, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, C. A. Alonso-Ramos, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, and A. Ortega-Moñux, “Broadband fiber-chip zero-order surface grating coupler with 0.4 dB efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3013–3016 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, S. Romero-García, D. Pérez-Galacho, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and P. Cheben, “Wavelength independent multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7033–7040 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13470–13477 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(19), 1406–1408 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

P. Dumais, Y. Wei, M. Li, F. Zhao, X. Tu, J. Jiang, D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, H. Fu, D. Geng, and E. Bernier, “2×2 multimode interference coupler with low loss using 248 nm photolithography,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2016), W2A.19.

Winroth, G.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Wu, S.

Xiao, J.

Xiao, X.

Xie, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, G. Winroth, S. Locorotondo, G. Murdoch, A. Milenin, C. Delvaux, P. Ong, S. Pathak, W. Xie, G. Sterckx, G. Lepage, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, J. V. Campenhout, and P. Absil, “193nm immersion lithography for high-performance silicon photonic circuits,” Proc. SPIE 9052, 90520F (2014).

Xing, J.

Xing, Z.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, A. Kumar, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, E. El-Fiky, and D. V. Plant, “Compact single-etched sub-wavelength grating couplers for O-band application,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30582–30590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, M. Jacques, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization independent adiabatic 3-dB coupler for silicon-on-insulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2017), SF1I.5.

Xiong, K.

Xiong, Y.

Xu, D.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, H.

Xu, L.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Kumar, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization beam splitter based on MMI coupler with SWG birefringence engineering on SOI,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 403–406 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Xu, A. Kumar, Y. D’Mello, D. Patel, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, E. El-Fiky, and D. V. Plant, “Compact single-etched sub-wavelength grating couplers for O-band application,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30582–30590 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, R. Li, M. G. Saber, M. Jacques, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization independent adiabatic 3-dB coupler for silicon-on-insulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2017), SF1I.5.

E. El-Fiky, Y. D’Mello, Y. Wang, J. Skoric, M. G. Saber, A. Kumar, A. Samani, L. Xu, R. Li, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “Ultra-broadband and compact asymmetrical beam splitter enabled by angled sub-wavelength grating MMI,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2018), STh4A.7.

L. Xu, Y. Wang, D. Patel, M. Morsy-Osman, R. Li, M. Hui, M. Parvizi, N. Ben-Hamida, and D. V. Plant, “Ultrabroadband and ultra-compact optical 90° hybrid based on 2x4 MMI Coupler with subwavelength gratings on silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (OFC, 2018), M3I.7.

Xu, Y.

Ye, W. N.

Yu, J.

Yu, Y.

Yun, H.

Y. Wang, L. Xu, H. Yun, M. Ma, A. Kumar, E. El-Fiky, R. Li, N. Abadíacalvo, L. Chrostowski, N. A. F. Jaeger, and D. V. Plant, “Polarization-independent mode-evolution-based coupler for the silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 4900410 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Ultra-broadband 2 × 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using subwavelengthgrating-assisted silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1935–1938 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Ma, H. Yun, Z. Lu, X. Wang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact sub-wavelength grating polarization splitter-rotator for silicon-on-insulator platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7805709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Ma, H. Yun, F. Zhang, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Compact broadband directional couplers using subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 7101408 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 x 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2x2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yun, Z. Lu, Y. Wang, W. Shi, L. Christowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 broadband adiabatic 3-dB couplers on SOI strip waveguides for TE and TM modes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO, 2015), STh1F.8.

Zarifkar, A.

Z. Jafari and A. Zarifkar, “Dispersion flattened single etch-step waveguide based on subwavelength grating,” Opt. Commun. 393, 219–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zavargo-Peche, L.

A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Maese-Novo, R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D. Pérez-Galacho, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. Xu, and S. Janz, “An ultra-compact multimode interference coupler with a subwavelength grating slot,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 12–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler (upper), along with the conventional adiabatic 3-dB coupler (lower) without the SWG slot.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated neven and nodd as a function of position in the mode-evolution region at the wavelength of 1500 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated λeven as a function of normalized wavevector at the left end of the mode-evolution region. (b) Simulated Bragg wavelength as a function of Λ.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated nodd as a function of wavelength at the left end of the mode-evolution region, along with the cutoff effective index defined by n SiO 2 and indicated by the red dashed line.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated minimum and average modal transmission over a 100 nm spectral range centered at 1550 nm as a function of LE, for (a) SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler and (b) conventional adiabatic 3-dB coupler. The probability plot is used to visualize the small change of transmission at large values of LE.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated electric field distributions at the wavelength of 1550 nm, when light is launched into the Input 1 (upper plot) and the Input 2 (lower plot): (a) input view; (b) top view; (c) output view.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated (a) power splitting ratio and (b) IL as a function of wavelength from 1500 nm to 1600 nm for the designed SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulated (a) power splitting ratio, (b) IL and (c) relative phase shift between the two outputs as a function of wavelength from 1260 nm to 2000 nm for the designed SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) SEM image of the fabricated SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler. (b) Zoom-in of the SWG slot in the mode-evolution region (Region III). (c) Zoom-in of Region I and II. (d) Zoom-in of Region IV.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Measured straight-through MZI transmission spectrum and (b) calculated power splitting ratio for the fabricated SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler from 1500 nm to 1600 nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of design parameters for the SWG-slot adiabatic 3-dB coupler.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the performance of our device with previous experimental demonstration of adiabatic 3-dB couplers fabricated on the SOI platform.

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