Abstract

Through a process of efficient dielectric to metallic waveguide mode conversion, we calculate a >400-fold field intensity enhancement in a silicon photonics compatible nanofocusing device. A metallic slot waveguide sits on top of the silicon slab waveguide with nanofocusing being achieved by tapering the slot width gradually. We evaluate the conversion between the numerous photonic modes of the planar silicon waveguide slab and the most confined plasmonic mode of a 20 x 50 nm2 slot in the metallic film. With an efficiency of ~80%, this system enables remarkably effective nanofocusing, although the small amount of inter-mode coupling shows that this structure is not quite adiabatic. In order to couple photonic and plasmonic modes efficiently, in-plane focusing is required, simulated here by curved input grating couplers. The nanofocusing device shows how to efficiently bridge the photonic micro-regime and the plasmonic nano-regime whilst maintaining compatibility with the silicon photonics platform.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2017 (4)

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Naghizadeh, A. Afridi, O. Arisev, A. Karasahin, and S. E. Kocabas, “Experimental Investigation of Stub Resonators Built in Plasmonic Slot Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(8), 663–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. P. Nielsen, X. Shi, P. Dichtl, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Giant nonlinear response at a plasmonic nanofocus drives efficient four-wave mixing,” Science 358(6367), 1179–1181 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, S. Gao, K. Wang, H. Li, and E. Skafidas, “Ultra-broadband, compact, and high-reflectivity circular Bragg grating mirror based on 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6653–6663 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 13–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Lafone, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, and R. F. Oulton, “Silicon-based metal-loaded plasmonic waveguides for low-loss nanofocusing,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4356–4359 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

G. Leuchs and M. Sondermann, “Time-reversal symmetry in optics,” Phys. Scr. 85(5), 058101 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Afridi, A.

S. Naghizadeh, A. Afridi, O. Arisev, A. Karasahin, and S. E. Kocabas, “Experimental Investigation of Stub Resonators Built in Plasmonic Slot Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(8), 663–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arisev, O.

S. Naghizadeh, A. Afridi, O. Arisev, A. Karasahin, and S. E. Kocabas, “Experimental Investigation of Stub Resonators Built in Plasmonic Slot Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(8), 663–666 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avanesyan, S. M.

R. B. Davidson, A. Yanchenko, J. I. Ziegler, S. M. Avanesyan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. F. Haglund, “Ultrafast Plasmonic Control of Second Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1477–1481 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bonjour, R.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 13–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bräuer, A.

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, A. P. Vasudev, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics,” Science 333(6050), 1720–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgos, S. P.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, A. P. Vasudev, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics,” Science 333(6050), 1720–1723 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chander, K.

H. W. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale conducting oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6463–6468 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-T.

Chen, R. T.

Choo, H.

H. Choo, M. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal-insulator-metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

Dannberg, P.

Davidson, R. B.

R. B. Davidson, A. Yanchenko, J. I. Ziegler, S. M. Avanesyan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. F. Haglund, “Ultrafast Plasmonic Control of Second Harmonic Generation,” ACS Photonics 3(8), 1477–1481 (2016).
[Crossref]

De Koninck, Y.

Dichtl, P.

M. P. Nielsen, X. Shi, P. Dichtl, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Giant nonlinear response at a plasmonic nanofocus drives efficient four-wave mixing,” Science 358(6367), 1179–1181 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-Coupling of Surface Plasmons onto Metallic Tips: A Nanoconfined Light Source,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahsold, G.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. W. Cornelius, M. E. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 1–3 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

Fleury, K.

Freude, W.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Topview of the hybrid structure indicating the main parameters: gap width w, taper length Lt, taper angle α, grating radius R and taper opening Dstart. (b) Sideview of the structure illustrating the material stack used with t = 220 nm, h = 25 nm, and Au height = 50 nm. The cladding index is n=1.47 mimicking PMMA [28] and the gratings are placed below the SiO2 i.e. in the Si slab. The indices used are: n Si O 2 =1.44 for SiO2, n Au =0.53+ i10.81for Au and n Si =3.48 for Si. The gratings are etched into the Si and covered by SiO2. (c) Sketch of the hybrid taper structure including gratings under illumination. The cross sections at the positions indicated (black rectangles) show the normalized field intensity (equivalent to FE as specified below) profiles in (d)-(f) for taper widths of 4 μm, 2 μm and 40 nm, respectively. The white lines are guidance for the eyes and indicate the metal and upper Si boundaries. The inset in (d) at the lower right shows a close up of the gap region in original scale (Au h = 50 nm, w = 40 nm), highlighted by a white dashed line. (g) Cross sectional sideview along z (through the gap center) showing the field intensity normalized by the intensity in the Si slab only (i.e. without the metal).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Calculated neffin dependence on Si slab thickness (the dashed line indicates the thickness of the HGPW studied) for TE polarization and the regions indicated in (b), calculated via a 2D mode solver using Comsol . (b) Schematics of the the metal loaded region one (R1) and non-metal loaded region two (R2) and its respective position in the structure, superimposed by the according 2D mode solutions in TE and TM polarization. (c), (d) The behavior of the Eikonal parameter (δ) and neff for a taper angle of α = 25°, respectively, both in dependence on gap width and studied for the fundamental mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Power transmitted into the fundamental mode at the waveguide’s cross section for different taper widths. The red curve depicts the case of a fundamental mode which is subject to metal losses alone (extracted from 2D mode solving via Comsol). The blue dotted curve shows the actual power loss of the propagating fundamental mode taking all loss channels into account (extracted from 3D FDTD, Lumerical). The inset shows the propagation length Lm vs. taper gap width of the fundamental mode extracted from 2D mode-solver simulations, considering metal losses only. (b) In-coupling efficiency ( η inc ) into the first 20 modes at the gap start (40 nm gap) obtained from 3D FDTD simulations. The modal cross sections (x-y view) of the five modes into which the main part of the power couples are illustrated on the right according to the respective mode number.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Horizontal cross section just below the SiO2 spacer layer depicting the normalized field intensity in the Si taper and below the gap (w = 40 nm). The beam is coupled in from a grating to the right. The curved wavefront is visible in the in- and out-coupling taper regions. (b) Schematic topview of the waveguide structure, the red dotted line indicates the position and length of the crosssection illustrated in (c). (c) vertical cross section along the gap depicting the normalized field intensity of the 40 nm wide gap structure as shown in (a) illustrating the field confinment in the gap only. The structure of the vertical crosssection plotted in (c) is schematicaly shown in (d). The red dotted line indicates the position of the horizontal crosssection plotted in (a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 In-coupling efficiencies (ηinc) and field intensity enhancement factors (FE) obtained from 3D FDTD simulations for different configurations defined by the gap width (w), the taper opening angle (α) and distance (Dstart) as well as the taper length (Lt). The strong decrease in in-coupling efficiency for the last configuration is due to the breakdown of the Eikonal approximation for this parameter set, where δ is the Eikonal parameter (cf. Figure 2(c)).

Equations (1)

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δ(z)= 1 k 0 | d{ n eff (z) 1 } dz |,

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