Abstract

We report on the synthesis of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a LiNbO3 crystal (AgNP:LN) by ion implantation and its application as an efficient broadband saturable absorber (SA) to realize Q-switched pulsed laser generation at both visible and near-infrared wavelength bands. The nonlinear optical response of AgNP:LN is considered as a synergistic effect between Ag NPs and LiNbO3. We apply the AgNP:LN as visible-near-infrared broadband saturable absorbers (SAs) into Pr:LuLiF4 bulk and Nd:YVO4 waveguide laser cavity, achieving efficient passively Q-switched laser at 639 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. This work paves a new way to tailor the nonlinear optical response of LiNbO3 crystals by using plasmonic Ag NPs, manifesting the significant potential as broadband SAs in the aspect of pulsed lasing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (12)

A. Rao and S. Fathpour, “Compact lithium niobate electrooptic modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 3400114 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Cheng, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “6.5 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional materials as saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11321–11330 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photonics 3(8), 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Choi, T. Calmano, F. Rotermund, and C. Kränkel, “2-GHz carbon nanotube mode-locked Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5140–5145 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Exploring the Emergence of the Self-Q-Switching in Diode-Pumped Yb:KGW Monolithic Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1601106 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Wu, X. Guan, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Luo, and Z. Cai, “Efficient continuous-wave and short-pulse Ho3+-doped fluorozirconate glass all-fiber lasers operating in the visible spectral range,” Nanoscale 10(11), 5272–5279 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Härkönen, S. Suomalainen, A. Rantamäki, J. Nikkinen, Y. Wang, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “1.34 μm VECSEL mode-locked with a GaSb-based SESAM,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3353–3356 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ming, S. Tao, W. Yang, Q. Chen, R. Sun, C. Wang, S. Wang, B. Man, and H. Zhang, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9017–9026 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tian, H. Luo, R. Wei, C. Zhu, Q. Guo, D. Yang, F. Wang, J. Li, and J. Qiu, “Low-loss saturable absorbers based on tapered fibers embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 30(31), 1801021 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, Z. Liang, L. Wu, Y. Chen, Y. Song, S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, B. Dong, Y. Xiang, F. Xing, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer Bismuthene: Sonochemical Exfoliation, Nonlinear Optics and Applications for Ultrafast Photonics with Enhanced Stability,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700221 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (12)

Z. Li, C. Cheng, N. Dong, C. Romero, Q. Lu, J. Wang, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Q-switching of waveguide lasers based on graphene/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Photon. Res. 5(5), 406–410 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, M. AI Araimi, A. Dmitriev, P. Lutsyk, S. Li, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, M. Sumetsky, and S. Turitsyn, “Low-loss saturable absorbers based on tapered fibers embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composites,” APL Photonics 2(12), 126103 (2017).

P. H. Tuan, C. C. Chang, F. L. Chang, C. Y. Lee, C. L. Sung, C. Y. Cho, Y. F. Chen, and K. W. Su, “Modelling end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd-doped crystal lasers: manifestation by a Nd:YVO4/Cr4+:YAG system with a concave-convex resonator,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1710–1722 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Solntsev, T. Liu, A. Boes, T. G. Nguyen, C. W. Wu, F. Setzpfandt, A. Mitchell, D. N. Neshev, and A. A. Sukhorukov, “Towards on-chip photon-pair bell tests: Spatial pump filtering in a LiNbO3 adiabatic coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(26), 261108 (2017).
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Y. Sun, Y. Bai, D. Li, L. Hou, B. Bai, Y. Gong, L. Yu, and J. Bai, “946 nm Nd: YAG double Q-switched laser based on monolayer WSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21037–21048 (2017).
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A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
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D. Brüske, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Efficient ridge waveguide amplifiers and lasers in Er-doped lithium niobate by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29374–29379 (2017).
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X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging low-dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 1605886 (2017).
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P. A. Hernley, S. A. Chavez, J. P. Quinn, and S. Linic, “Engineering the optical and catalytic properties of co-catalyst/semiconductor photocatalysts,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 979–985 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Alkhaldi, F. Kremer, P. Mota-Santiago, A. Nadzri, D. Schauries, N. Kirby, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Morphology of ion irradiation induced nano-porous structures in Ge and Si1-xGex,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(11), 115705 (2017).
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P. Mota-Santiago, F. Kremer, A. Nadzri, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Elongation of metallic nanoparticles at the interface of silicon dioxide and silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 409, 328–332 (2017).
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Z. Li and F. Chen, “Ion beam modification of two-dimensional materials: Characterization, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(1), 011103 (2017).
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2016 (8)

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
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X. Lan and Q. Wang, “Self-assembly of chiral plasmonic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 28(47), 10499–10507 (2016).
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A. J. Mercante, P. Yao, S. Shi, G. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, “110 GHz CMOS compatible thin film LiNbO3 modulator on silicon,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15590–15595 (2016).
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C. Paillard, X. Bai, I. C. Infante, M. Guennou, G. Geneste, M. Alexe, J. Kreisel, and B. Dkhil, “Photovoltaics with ferroelectrics: current status, and beyond,” Adv. Mater. 28(26), 5153–5168 (2016).
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A. S. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, A. Klenner, A. R. Johnson, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Offset-free gigahertz midinfrared frequency comb based on optical parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(5), 054009 (2016).
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A. Rao, A. Patil, P. Rabiei, A. Honardoost, R. DeSalvo, A. Paolella, and S. Fathpour, “High-performance and linear thin-film lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators on silicon up to 50 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5700–5703 (2016).
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S. Hakobyan, V. J. Wittwer, K. Hasse, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and T. Calmano, “Highly efficient Q-switched Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser with 5.6 W of average output power,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4715–4718 (2016).
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C. Khurmi, N. B. Hébert, W. Q. Zhang, S. Afshar V, G. Chen, J. Genest, T. M. Monro, and D. G. Lancaster, “Ultrafast pulse generation in a mode-locked Erbium chip waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27177–27183 (2016).
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2015 (10)

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-μm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
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S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation of WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14646 (2015).
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A. Sergeyev, R. Geiss, A. S. Solntsev, A. A. Sukhorukov, F. Schrempel, T. Pertsch, and R. Grange, “Enhancing guided second-harmonic light in lithium niobate nanowires,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 687–691 (2015).
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K. Lengyel, Á. Péter, L. Kovács, G. Corradi, L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, M. Unferdorben, G. Dravecz, I. Hajdara, Z. Szaller, and K. Polgár, “Growth, defect structure, and THz application of stoichiometric lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(4), 040601 (2015).
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D. Z. Wang, D. H. Sun, X. L. Kang, Y. H. Sang, B. X. Yan, H. Liu, and Y. Bi, “Periodically poled self-frequency-doubling green laser fabricated from Nd:Mg:LiNbO3 single crystal,” Opt. Express 23(14), 17727–17738 (2015).
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J. M. Lee, J. Lim, N. Lee, H. I. Park, K. E. Lee, T. Jeon, S. A. Nam, J. Kim, J. Shin, and S. O. Kim, “Synergistic concurrent enhancement of charge generation, dissociation, and transport in organic solar cells with plasmonic metal-carbon nanotube hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1519–1525 (2015).
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S. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Xing, X. Liu, H. Yu, A. D. Lieto, M. Tonelli, T. C. Sum, H. Zhang, and Q. Xiong, “Nonlinear optical response of Au nanorods for broadband pulse modulation in bulk visible lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(16), 161103 (2015).
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D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24071–24076 (2015).
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Y. H. Lin, S. F. Lin, Y. C. Chi, C. L. Wu, C. H. Cheng, W. H. Tseng, J. H. He, C. I. Wu, C. K. Lee, and G. R. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 2(4), 481–490 (2015).
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2014 (6)

X. Wang, Z. Luo, H. Liu, M. Liu, A. Luon, and W. Xu, “Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161107 (2014).
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J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350 (2014).
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X. Ou and S. Facsko, “Crystalline nanostructures on Ge surfaces induced by ion irradiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 341, 13–16 (2014).
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H. Jin, F. M. Liu, P. Xu, J. L. Xia, M. L. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. W. Zhou, Y. X. Gong, W. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 103601 (2014).
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Y. H. Wang, X. X. Yu, F. Liu, and Y. M. Wang, “Nonlinear refraction of lithium niobate crystal doped with different metal nanoparticles,” Mater. Lett. 123, 35–37 (2014).
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G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014).
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2013 (5)

H. Chen, L. Shao, Q. Li, and J. Wang, “Gold nanorods and their plasmonic properties,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(7), 2679–2724 (2013).
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G. Palmer, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, and M. J. Withford, “High slope efficiency and high refractive index change in direct-written Yb-doped waveguide lasers with depressed claddings,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17413–17420 (2013).
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R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yraola, P. Molina, J. L. Plaza, M. O. Ramírez, and L. E. Bausá, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear response enhancement by silver nanoparticles in a Nd3+-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 laser crystal,” Adv. Mater. 25(6), 910–915 (2013).
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S. Sarina, E. R. Waclawik, and H. Zhu, “Photocatalysis on supported gold and silver nanoparticles under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation,” Green Chem. 15(7), 1814 (2013).
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2012 (3)

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, S. Link, W. S. Chang, D. Natelson, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “A plethora of plasmonics from the laboratory for nanophotonics at rice university,” Adv. Mater. 24(36), 4842–4877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Macario, P. Yao, S. Shi, A. Zablocki, C. Harrity, R. D. Martin, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, “Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23623–23629 (2012).
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G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
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2011 (8)

L. Novotny and N. Van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature 469(7331), 512–515 (2011).
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J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(2), 276–283 (2011).
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M. C. Ridgway, R. Giulian, D. J. Sprouster, P. Kluth, L. L. Araujo, D. J. Llewellyn, A. P. Byrne, F. Kremer, P. F. P. Fichtner, G. Rizza, H. Amekura, and M. Toulemonde, “Role of thermodynamics in the shape transformation of embedded metal nanoparticles induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 095505 (2011).
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X. Ou, R. Kögler, X. Wei, A. Mücklich, X. Wang, W. Skorupa, and S. Facsko, “Fabrication of horizontal silicon nanowire arrays on insulator by ion irradiation,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042174 (2011).
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A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 27(2), 115–145 (2011).

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
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A. López-Suárez, R. Rangel-Rojo, C. Torres-Torres, A. Benami, L. Tamayo-Rivera, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, and A. Oliver, “Enhancement of the optical Kerr effect exhibited by an integrated configuration of silicon quantum dots and silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 274(1), 012145 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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1973 (1)

J. Davenas, A. Perez, P. Thevenard, and C. H. S. Dupuy, “Correlation between absorption bands and implanted alkali ions in LiF,” Phys. Status Solidi 19(2), 679–686 (1973).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Afra, B.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afshar V, S.

Alexe, M.

C. Paillard, X. Bai, I. C. Infante, M. Guennou, G. Geneste, M. Alexe, J. Kreisel, and B. Dkhil, “Photovoltaics with ferroelectrics: current status, and beyond,” Adv. Mater. 28(26), 5153–5168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alkhaldi, H. S.

H. S. Alkhaldi, F. Kremer, P. Mota-Santiago, A. Nadzri, D. Schauries, N. Kirby, M. C. Ridgway, and P. Kluth, “Morphology of ion irradiation induced nano-porous structures in Ge and Si1-xGex,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(11), 115705 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amekura, H.

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Ridgway, R. Giulian, D. J. Sprouster, P. Kluth, L. L. Araujo, D. J. Llewellyn, A. P. Byrne, F. Kremer, P. F. P. Fichtner, G. Rizza, H. Amekura, and M. Toulemonde, “Role of thermodynamics in the shape transformation of embedded metal nanoparticles induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 095505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araimi, M. AI

A. Martinez, M. AI Araimi, A. Dmitriev, P. Lutsyk, S. Li, C. Mou, A. Rozhin, M. Sumetsky, and S. Turitsyn, “Low-loss saturable absorbers based on tapered fibers embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composites,” APL Photonics 2(12), 126103 (2017).

Araujo, L. L.

M. C. Ridgway, R. Giulian, D. J. Sprouster, P. Kluth, L. L. Araujo, D. J. Llewellyn, A. P. Byrne, F. Kremer, P. F. P. Fichtner, G. Rizza, H. Amekura, and M. Toulemonde, “Role of thermodynamics in the shape transformation of embedded metal nanoparticles induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 095505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

Bai, J.

Bai, X.

C. Paillard, X. Bai, I. C. Infante, M. Guennou, G. Geneste, M. Alexe, J. Kreisel, and B. Dkhil, “Photovoltaics with ferroelectrics: current status, and beyond,” Adv. Mater. 28(26), 5153–5168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baron, T.

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bartasyte, A.

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bausá, L. E.

E. Yraola, P. Molina, J. L. Plaza, M. O. Ramírez, and L. E. Bausá, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear response enhancement by silver nanoparticles in a Nd3+-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 laser crystal,” Adv. Mater. 25(6), 910–915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beecher, S. J.

Benami, A.

A. López-Suárez, R. Rangel-Rojo, C. Torres-Torres, A. Benami, L. Tamayo-Rivera, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Crespo-Sosa, and A. Oliver, “Enhancement of the optical Kerr effect exhibited by an integrated configuration of silicon quantum dots and silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 274(1), 012145 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berner, N. C.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Direct observation of degenerate two-photon absorption and its saturation of WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7142–7150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bharuth-Ram, K.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, Y.

Bierschenk, T.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bin Hasan, S.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. Bin Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boes, A.

A. S. Solntsev, T. Liu, A. Boes, T. G. Nguyen, C. W. Wu, F. Setzpfandt, A. Mitchell, D. N. Neshev, and A. A. Sukhorukov, “Towards on-chip photon-pair bell tests: Spatial pump filtering in a LiNbO3 adiabatic coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(26), 261108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Böttger, R.

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium niobate crystal with embedded au nanoparticles: a new saturable absorber for efficient mode-locking of ultrafast laser pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(16), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. J. Nie, Y. X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, R. Li, R. Y. He, N. N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Q. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boulet, P.

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brown, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-μm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brüske, D.

Bussières, F.

E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature 469(7331), 512–515 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrne, A. P.

M. C. Ridgway, R. Giulian, D. J. Sprouster, P. Kluth, L. L. Araujo, D. J. Llewellyn, A. P. Byrne, F. Kremer, P. F. P. Fichtner, G. Rizza, H. Amekura, and M. Toulemonde, “Role of thermodynamics in the shape transformation of embedded metal nanoparticles induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(9), 095505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Z.

W. Li, J. Wu, X. Guan, Z. Zhou, H. Xu, Z. Luo, and Z. Cai, “Efficient continuous-wave and short-pulse Ho3+-doped fluorozirconate glass all-fiber lasers operating in the visible spectral range,” Nanoscale 10(11), 5272–5279 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24071–24076 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calmano, T.

Chang, C.

N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14646 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

Chang, F. L.

Chang, W. S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, S. Link, W. S. Chang, D. Natelson, J. H. Hafner, and P. Nordlander, “A plethora of plasmonics from the laboratory for nanophotonics at rice university,” Adv. Mater. 24(36), 4842–4877 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chavez, S. A.

P. A. Hernley, S. A. Chavez, J. P. Quinn, and S. Linic, “Engineering the optical and catalytic properties of co-catalyst/semiconductor photocatalysts,” ACS Photonics 4(4), 979–985 (2017).
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Other (1)

M. Bache and R. Schiek, “Review of measurements of Kerr nonlinearities in lithium niobate: the role of the delayed Raman response,” arXiv:1211.1721 (2012).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental setup of the open and closed aperture Z-scan system. Insert is schematic diagram of Ag+ ion implantation process.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the Q-switched waveguide laser generation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a-d) XTEM images of samples 1-4. Upper inserts are the diameter distributions of NPs obtained from the XTEM images. Lower inserts are FFT images of implanted regions. (e-h) HRTEM images of Samples 1-4. Upper inserts show interplanar spacing d of single NP. Lower inserts are FFT analysis of single Ag NP. SAED of implanted region (i,k) and single NP (j,l) of Sample 2 and Sample 4. (m-p) Element Mappings of Samples 1-4.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Ag+ ion distribution simulated by the SRIM code. (b) Mean and the deviation of the NPs vs fluence
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured absorption spectra of AgNP:LN with different fluences. (b) Absorption spectra calculated by Mie theory. (c) Measured transmission spectra of samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Results of closed-aperture Z-scan at excitation of 515 nm. Closed-aperture measurements and fitting results of (a) pure LiNbO3 and (b) Sample 2 at different energies. (c) Closed-aperture measured results and fitting results of Samples 1-4 at 150 nJ, and corresponding nonlinear refractive index is shown in (d). Insert is the displacement per atom (DPA) calculated by the SRIM software.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured and fitting results of nonlinear transmittance of pure LiNbO3 at different energies. (b) Measured results of Sample 2 at 100 nJ, 150 nJ, 200 nJ. (c) Divided saturable absorption peaks of Ag NPs and two-photon absorption of LiNbO3 substrate from Sample 2 at 100 nJ, 150 nJ, 200 nJ. Separation of the results of open-aperture Z-scan of Sample 2 at energy of (d) 100 nJ, (e) 150 nJ, (f) 200 nJ.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Results of open-aperture Z-scan of samples with different fluences at 100 nJ. (b) The output power of 639 nm Q-switched laser as a function of launched power. (c) Emission spectrum at 639nm. Insert shows the typical pulse train.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Open-aperture Z-scan results of (a) Samples 1-3 and (b) Sample 4 under 340 fs at 1030 nm. (c) The output power as a function of launched power of Q-switched pulsed laser. (d) Emission spectrum at 1064 nm. Insert shows the typical pulse train.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Nonlinear parameters at different pulse energies.

Equations (5)

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γ= 18πp ε d 3/2 λ 0 ε m '' | ε m +2 ε d | 2
T Norm (z)= 1 1 4x (1+ x 2 ) 2 Δ Φ 0 + 4 (1+ x 2 ) 3 Δ Φ 0 2
dI dz =( α 0 +βI)I
T Norm (z)= ln[1+ q 0 (z)] q 0 (z)
dI dz = α 0 I 1+ I I s

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