Abstract

Microstructured polymer optical fibers (MPOFs) have long attracted great interest due to their wide range of applications in biological and chemical sensing. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel technique of manufacturing MPOF via a single-step procedure by means of a 3D printer. A suspended-core polymer optical fiber has been extruded and directly drawn from a micro-structured 3D printer nozzle by using an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer. Near-field imaging at the fiber facet performed at the wavelength λ~1550 nm clearly indicates guidance in the fiber core. The propagation loss has been experimentally demonstrated to be better than α = 1.1 dB/cm. This work points toward direct MPOFs manufacturing of varieties of materials and structures of optical fibers from 3D printers using a single manufacturing step.

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  17. W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Canning, M. A. Hossain, C. Han, L. Chartier, K. Cook, and T. Athanaze, “Drawing optical fibers from three-dimensional printers,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5551–5554 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, “Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(10), 423–425 (1970).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2007 (1)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and M. C. J. Large, “Extruded high-NA microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 133–137 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Extruded singlemode, high-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41(15), 835–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, “Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(10), 423–425 (1970).
[Crossref]

Abokhamis Mousavi, S.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alice, V. A. S.

V. A. S. Alice, L. S. Cruz, C. L. Barbosa, and M. A. R. Francoi, “3D Printed Hollow Core Fiber with Negative Curvature for Terahertz Applications,” J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 14, 9 (2015).

Alonso, M. B.

Argyros, A.

Asimakis, S.

Athanaze, T.

Balle, G.

Barbosa, C. L.

V. A. S. Alice, L. S. Cruz, C. L. Barbosa, and M. A. R. Francoi, “3D Printed Hollow Core Fiber with Negative Curvature for Terahertz Applications,” J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 14, 9 (2015).

Bassett, I.

Beresna, M.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisbee, D. L.

Bradley, T. D.

Brambilla, G.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canning, J.

Chartier, L.

Chen, Y.

Comatti, E.

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

Comatti, J. E.

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

Comatti, J.-E.

Cook, J. C. K.

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

Cook, K.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. L. Thiago, H. R. Marques, J. H. Osório, L. E. Da Silva, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “3D Printed Microstructured Optical Fibers,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2017).

Cruz, L. S.

V. A. S. Alice, L. S. Cruz, C. L. Barbosa, and M. A. R. Francoi, “3D Printed Hollow Core Fiber with Negative Curvature for Terahertz Applications,” J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 14, 9 (2015).

Da Silva, L. E.

B. M. L. Thiago, H. R. Marques, J. H. Osório, L. E. Da Silva, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “3D Printed Microstructured Optical Fibers,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2017).

de Sterke, C. M.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

Fleming, S.

Fokoua, E. N.

Frampton, K.

Frampton, K. E.

Francoi, M. A. R.

V. A. S. Alice, L. S. Cruz, C. L. Barbosa, and M. A. R. Francoi, “3D Printed Hollow Core Fiber with Negative Curvature for Terahertz Applications,” J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 14, 9 (2015).

Gouveia, M. A.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, D. R.

Guerboukha, H.

Han, C.

Hayes, J.

Hossain, M. A.

Hossain, M. D. A.

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

Ismaeel, R.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Issa, N.

Jasion, G. T.

Kapron, F. P.

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, “Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(10), 423–425 (1970).
[Crossref]

Keck, D. B.

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, “Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(10), 423–425 (1970).
[Crossref]

Koizumi, F.

Large, M.

Large, M. C. J.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and M. C. J. Large, “Extruded high-NA microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 133–137 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, K. Li, L. Wang, L. Ren, W. Zhao, R. Miao, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Casting preforms for microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5541–5547 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leong, J. Y. Y.

Leon-Saval, S.

K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J.-E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3966–3969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

Li, J.

Li, K.

Luo, Y.

K. Cook, G. Balle, J. Canning, L. Chartier, T. Athanaze, M. A. Hossain, C. Han, J.-E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Step-index optical fiber drawn from 3D printed preforms,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4554–4557 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J.-E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3966–3969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

Manos, S.

Marques, H. R.

B. M. L. Thiago, H. R. Marques, J. H. Osório, L. E. Da Silva, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “3D Printed Microstructured Optical Fibers,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2017).

Marques, T. H. R.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, R. D.

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, “Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(10), 423–425 (1970).
[Crossref]

McPhedran, R.

Miao, R.

Monro, T.

Monro, T. M.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and M. C. J. Large, “Extruded high-NA microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 133–137 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. H. V. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. C. Moore, K. E. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “High-Nonlinearity Dispersion-Shifted Lead-Silicate Holey Fibers for Efficient 1-um Pumped Supercontinuum Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 183–190 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Extruded singlemode, high-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41(15), 835–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moore, R.

Moore, R. C.

Mousavi, S. M.

Nallappan, K.

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Osório, J. H.

B. M. L. Thiago, H. R. Marques, J. H. Osório, L. E. Da Silva, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “3D Printed Microstructured Optical Fibers,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2017).

Pearson, A. D.

Peng, G.-D.

K. Cook, G. Balle, J. Canning, L. Chartier, T. Athanaze, M. A. Hossain, C. Han, J.-E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Step-index optical fiber drawn from 3D printed preforms,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4554–4557 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J.-E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3966–3969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

Petrovich, M.

Poletti, F.

Price, J. H. V.

Reid, Z.

K. Cook, J. Canning, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J.-E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Air-structured optical fiber drawn from a 3D-printed preform,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 3966–3969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

Ren, L.

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

Sandoghchi, S. R.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Sandoghchi, M. Petrovich, D. R. Gray, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, T. D. Bradley, N. H. L. Wong, G. T. Jasion, J. Hayes, E. N. Fokoua, M. B. Alonso, S. M. Mousavi, D. J. Richardson, and F. Poletti, “Optical side scattering radiometry for high resolution, wide dynamic range longitudinal assessment of optical fibers,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27960–27974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Talataisong, W.

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiago, B. M. L.

B. M. L. Thiago, H. R. Marques, J. H. Osório, L. E. Da Silva, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “3D Printed Microstructured Optical Fibers,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2017).

Tynes, A. R.

van Eijkelenborg, M.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and M. C. J. Large, “Extruded high-NA microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 133–137 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, K. Li, L. Wang, L. Ren, W. Zhao, R. Miao, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Casting preforms for microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5541–5547 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wheeler, N. V.

Wong, N. H. L.

Zagari, J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, and R. D. Maurer, “Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(10), 423–425 (1970).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Extruded singlemode, high-nonlinearity, tellurite glass holey fibre,” Electron. Lett. 41(15), 835–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. (1)

V. A. S. Alice, L. S. Cruz, C. L. Barbosa, and M. A. R. Francoi, “3D Printed Hollow Core Fiber with Negative Curvature for Terahertz Applications,” J. Microw. Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl. 14, 9 (2015).

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H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, and M. C. J. Large, “Extruded high-NA microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 273(1), 133–137 (2007).
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Opt. Express (6)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5082–5087 (2004).
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M. van Eijkelenborg, M. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, “Microstructured polymer optical fibre,” Opt. Express 9(7), 319–327 (2001).
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Y. Zhang, K. Li, L. Wang, L. Ren, W. Zhao, R. Miao, M. C. J. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Casting preforms for microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5541–5547 (2006).
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P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3568–3573 (2003).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Talataisong, R. Ismaeel, T. H. R. Marques, S. Abokhamis Mousavi, M. Beresna, M. A. Gouveia, S. R. Sandoghchi, T. Lee, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-IR Hollow-core microstructured fiber drawn from a 3D printed PETG preform,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8113 (2018).
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B. M. L. Thiago, H. R. Marques, J. H. Osório, L. E. Da Silva, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “3D Printed Microstructured Optical Fibers,” International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2017).

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A. L. S. Cruz, A. Argyros, X. Tang, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and M. A. R. Franco, “3D-printed terahertz Bragg fiber,” in 2015 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz), 2015), 1–2.
[Crossref]

J. Canning, K. Cook, Y. Luo, S. Leon-Saval, G.-D. Peng, E. Comatti, M. D. A. Hossain, and Z. Reid, “3D printing of optical fibre preforms,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), (Hong Kong, 2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. K. Cook, S. Leon-Saval, Z. Reid, M. A. Hossain, J. E. Comatti, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical fibre fabricated from a 3D-printed preform,” in Australia NZ Conf. Optics & Photonics (ANZCOP), (Adelaide, Australia, 2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Structured nozzle design including a 3D model, a side- and a bottom-view cross-sections, from left to right respectively. Green arrows and green colours represent the direction of filament moving and cross-section of extruded polymer from structured nozzle. (b-d) Micromachined structured nozzle: (b) body, (c) body + cover, (d) after MPOF drawing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Extruded structures with different filament feeding speeds at T = 240 °C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic and (b) photograph of the experimental setup used to extrude MPOF. (c) Fiber drawn from the heated structured nozzle. (d) MPOF wrapped onto the 3D printed spoolconnected to the stepper motor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a,b) Microscope images of the fiber cross-section at different diameters. (c) Near field image (�� = 1550 nm) at the fiber output for a full turn bending (R~12.5 mm)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup used to measure propagation loss, (b) Relationship between OSSR scattered power at λ = 1557 nm and distance, (c) Normalized transmitted intensity at different bend radii (R) at �� = 1550 nm. (d) Intensity profile of the mode supported by fiber core in the simulated fiber structure at λ ~1550 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Conclusion of MPOF drawing parameters, fiber geometry and optical properties

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