Abstract

Active metasurfaces, which are tunable and reconfigurable nanophotonic structures with active materials, have been in spotlight as a versatile platform to control the profiles of scattered light. These nanoscale structures show surpassing functionalities compared to the conventional metasurfaces. They also play an important role in a wide range of applications for imaging, sensing, and data storage. Hence, the expansion of functionalities has been highly desired, in order to overcome the limited space constraints and realize the integration of several optical devices on a single compact platform. In this context, an electrically tunable metasurface that enables respective modulation of the phase and amplitude of reflected light, depending on the angle of incidence at the targeted wavelength, is proposed. This resonance-based device with hyperbolic metamaterial substrate excites different kinds of highly confined modes, according to the incident angle. Indium tin oxide is employed to offer electrically tunable optical properties in the near-infrared regime. At the wavelength of 1450 nm, the proposed device modulates the phase of reflected light with ~207 degrees of modulation depth for normal incidence, whereas it shows ~86% of relative reflectance change for oblique incidence of 60 degrees. In principle, the proposed scheme might provide a path to applications for the next-generation ultracompact integrated systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (10)

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, B. Xu, B. Hsu, L. Stan, Z. Yang, and Y. Mei, “Reconfigurable vanadium dioxide nanomembranes and microtubes with controllable phase transition temperatures,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 3017–3023 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yu, J. Li, S. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. Schütz, C.-W. Qiu, M. Hirscher, and N. Liu, “Dynamic Janus metasurfaces in the visible spectral region,” Nano Lett. 18(7), 4584–4589 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (>300°) phase tunablity,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, Y. K. Srivastava, H. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and R. Singh, “All-optical active THz metasurfaces for ultrafast polarization switching and dynamic beam splitting,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 28 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Cai, S. Chen, C. Zou, Q. Huang, Y. Liu, X. Hu, Z. Fu, Y. Zhao, H. He, and Y. Lu, “Multifunctional hybrid metasurfaces for dynamic tuning of terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800257 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Alam, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of nanoantennas coupled to an epsilon-near-zero material,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 79–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J.-H. Kang, H. Yuan, J. Park, Y. Cui, H. Y. Hwang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning of plasmons in transparent conductive oxides by carrier accumulation,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1493–1498 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

L. Cong, P. Pitchappa, Y. Wu, L. Ke, C. Lee, N. Singh, H. Yang, and R. Singh, “Active multifunctional microelectromechanical system metadevices: applications in polarization control, wavefront deflection, and holograms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600716 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable metasurface for multifunctional control of electromagnetic waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S.-J. Kim, H. Park, and B. Lee, “Metamaterials and metasurfaces for sensor applications,” Sensors (Basel) 17(8), 1726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-J. Kim, H. Yun, K. Park, J. Hong, J.-G. Yun, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. J. Jeong, S.-E. Mun, J. Sung, Y. W. Lee, and B. Lee, “Active directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons using a phase transition material,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 43723 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: past, present, perspectives,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600295 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Huang, Z. Dong, S. Mei, L. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, H. Zhu, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. K. W. Yang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Silicon multi-meta-holograms for the broadband visible light,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(3), 500–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Jeong, A. G. Mark, and P. Fischer, “Magnesium plasmonics for UV applications and chiral sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 52(82), 12179–12182 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev and E. Plum, “Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 16–22 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Aberration-free and functionality-switchable meta-lenses based on tunable metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193506 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

G. T. Papadakis and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect induced tunability in hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(18), 184101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. L. Koshelev and A. A. Bogdanov, “Temperature-tunable semiconductor metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(8), 085305 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Valente, J.-Y. Ou, E. Plum, I. J. Youngs, and N. I. Zheludev, “A magneto-electro-optical effect in a plasmonic nanowire material,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7021 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Sterl, N. Strohfeldt, R. Walter, R. Griessen, A. Tittl, and H. Giessen, “Magnesium as novel material for active plasmonics in the visible wavelength range,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7949–7955 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Minovich, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Y. Bykov, T. V. Murzina, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Functional and nonlinear optical metasurfaces,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 195–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generation optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Calzolari, A. Ruini, and A. Catellani, “Transparent conductive oxides as near-IR plasmonic materials: the case of Al-doped ZnO derivatives,” ACS Photonics 1(8), 703–709 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Zhukovsky, O. Kidwai, and J. E. Sipe, “Physical nature of volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14982–14987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Bogdanov and R. A. Suris, “Effect of the anisotropy of a conducting layer on the dispersion law of electromagnetic waves in layered metal-dielectric structures,” JETP Lett. 96(1), 49–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and nitrides as alternative plasmonic materials in the optical range,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(6), 1090–1099 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, and V. Podolskiy, “Highly confined optical modes in nanoscale metal-dielectric multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(24), 241402 (2007).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of nanoantennas coupled to an epsilon-near-zero material,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 79–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (>300°) phase tunablity,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Papadakis and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect induced tunability in hyperbolic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(18), 184101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avrutsky, I.

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, and V. Podolskiy, “Highly confined optical modes in nanoscale metal-dielectric multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(24), 241402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boehm, G.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bogdanov, A. A.

K. L. Koshelev and A. A. Bogdanov, “Temperature-tunable semiconductor metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(8), 085305 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Bogdanov and R. A. Suris, “Effect of the anisotropy of a conducting layer on the dispersion law of electromagnetic waves in layered metal-dielectric structures,” JETP Lett. 96(1), 49–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

Boyd, R. W.

M. Z. Alam, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of nanoantennas coupled to an epsilon-near-zero material,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 79–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generation optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brar, V. W.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene-gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

X. Liu, J.-H. Kang, H. Yuan, J. Park, Y. Cui, H. Y. Hwang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning of plasmons in transparent conductive oxides by carrier accumulation,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1493–1498 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, S. J. Kim, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dynamic reflection phase and polarization control in metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 407–413 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J.-H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically tunable epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metafilm absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bykov, A. Y.

A. E. Minovich, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Y. Bykov, T. V. Murzina, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Functional and nonlinear optical metasurfaces,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 195–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

H. Cai, S. Chen, C. Zou, Q. Huang, Y. Liu, X. Hu, Z. Fu, Y. Zhao, H. He, and Y. Lu, “Multifunctional hybrid metasurfaces for dynamic tuning of terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cai, T.

H.-X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Luo, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Aberration-free and functionality-switchable meta-lenses based on tunable metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193506 (2016).
[Crossref]

Calzolari, A.

A. Calzolari, A. Ruini, and A. Catellani, “Transparent conductive oxides as near-IR plasmonic materials: the case of Al-doped ZnO derivatives,” ACS Photonics 1(8), 703–709 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(1), 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catellani, A.

A. Calzolari, A. Ruini, and A. Catellani, “Transparent conductive oxides as near-IR plasmonic materials: the case of Al-doped ZnO derivatives,” ACS Photonics 1(8), 703–709 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chae, B. G.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chavel, P.

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: past, present, perspectives,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600295 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheah, K.-W.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-W.

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-K.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.-Y.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

H. Cai, S. Chen, C. Zou, Q. Huang, Y. Liu, X. Hu, Z. Fu, Y. Zhao, H. He, and Y. Lu, “Multifunctional hybrid metasurfaces for dynamic tuning of terahertz waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800257 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-Y.

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

H. Yang, X. Cao, F. Yang, J. Gao, S. Xu, M. Li, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and S. Li, “A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35692 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, M.-K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T.-T. Huang, J.-H. Wang, R.-M. Lin, C.-H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, C. H.

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, L.

L. Cong, Y. K. Srivastava, H. Zhang, X. Zhang, J. Han, and R. Singh, “All-optical active THz metasurfaces for ultrafast polarization switching and dynamic beam splitting,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 28 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, P. Pitchappa, Y. Wu, L. Ke, C. Lee, N. Singh, H. Yang, and R. Singh, “Active multifunctional microelectromechanical system metadevices: applications in polarization control, wavefront deflection, and holograms,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600716 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, L.

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, J.-H. Kang, H. Yuan, J. Park, Y. Cui, H. Y. Hwang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Tuning of plasmons in transparent conductive oxides by carrier accumulation,” ACS Photonics 5(4), 1493–1498 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Leon, I.

M. Z. Alam, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of nanoantennas coupled to an epsilon-near-zero material,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 79–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generation optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Demmerle, F.

J. Lee, S. Jung, P.-Y. Chen, F. Lu, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, A. Alù, and M. A. Belkin, “Ultrafast electrically tunable polaritonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(11), 1057–1063 (2014).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R.

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.

K. Huang, Z. Dong, S. Mei, L. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Liu, H. Zhu, J. Teng, B. Luk’yanchuk, J. K. W. Yang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Silicon multi-meta-holograms for the broadband visible light,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(3), 500–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elser, J.

I. Avrutsky, I. Salakhutdinov, J. Elser, and V. Podolskiy, “Highly confined optical modes in nanoscale metal-dielectric multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(24), 241402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Evans, P. G.

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, E. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, S. Han, and A. Faraon, “Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13682 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feigenbaum, E.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
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Fischer, P.

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Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Tittl, A.-K. U. Michel, M. Schäferling, X. Yin, B. Gholipour, L. Cui, M. Wuttig, T. Taubner, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “A switchable mid-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability,” Adv. Mater. 27(31), 4597–4603 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device schematic of an electrically tunable multifunctional optical modulator constructed from a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor and hyperbolic metamaterial. The reflected light is controlled by electrically tuning the carrier density of ITO as an active semiconductor layer. (a) Phase of the reflected light is modulated with normal incidence and (b) amplitude of the reflected light is controlled in case of oblique incidence.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of unit cell of the proposed device. The Au nanograting is placed on the Au-HfO2-ITO capacitor, and the HMM that consists of the 3 sets of Au-HfO2 multilayer is under the capacitor as a substrate. Unit cell dimensions are chosen as follows: width of grating w = 230 nm, and periodicity of unit cell p = 530 nm. Each thickness of grating, ITO, Au, and HfO2 is tg = 50 nm, ts = 20 nm, tm = 20 nm, to = 10 nm. (b) Spatial distribution of carrier density and (c) the real value part of permittivity of ITO at wavelength of 1450 nm as a function of position from HfO2-ITO interface for different voltages. The charge accumulation region dependent on the voltage is divided into 13 layers in order to simulate the real condition accurately as much as possible (red rectangles). Gray area highlights the spatial region where the real value of permittivity acquires values between −1 and 1 representing the ENZ region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Real and imaginary parts of effective permittivity of Au-HfO2 HMM calculated using effective medium theory. The dielectric permittivity tensor components in the parallel direction and the normal direction are depicted as solid and dashed lines, respectively. (b) Three kinds of high-k modes. The spatial distribution of y-component of magnetic field at gap plasmon (Left panel), bulk plasmon (Center panel), and surface plasmon (Right panel) resonance. (c) Dispersion relation of the proposed structure. Color map of the simulated reflectance versus wavevector and wavelength for the proposed structure (Left panel) and the structure without HMM in the proposed one (Right panel). The various types of resonance are named (Inset: structure diagrams).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 For normal incidence, (a) Color map of the reflectance versus wavelength and applied voltages. (b) Calculated complex reflectance as a function of applied voltages for the wavelength of 1450 nm. Applied voltage increases along the clockwise direction. (c) Simulated phase shift and intensity as a function of applied voltages at target wavelength of 1450 nm. (d) The spatial distribution of y-component of magnetic field of reflected light when the applied voltage is −2 V (Left panel) and 3 V (Right panel).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The reflectance spectra (a) for the multiple Au-HfO2 sets in HMM with normal incidence and (b) as a function of the incident angles with the proposed structure. Several resonances are classified by types.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 For oblique incidence of 60°, (a) Color map of the reflectance versus wavelength and applied voltages. (b) Calculated complex reflectance as a function of applied voltages for target wavelength of 1450 nm. Applied voltage increases along the clockwise direction. (c) Simulated phase shift and intensity as a function of applied voltages at operating wavelength of 1450 nm. (d) The intensity of magnetic field of reflected light when the applied voltage is −2 V (Left panel) and 3 V (Right panel).

Equations (2)

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Δn=Δε/2 ε .
ε ITO = ε ω p 2 ω 2 +iΓω , ω p = N e 2 ε 0 m * .

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