Abstract

A multi-diameter p-i-n junction GaAs nanowire (NW) array architecture is proposed for high-performance solar cells. Coupled three-dimensional optoelectronic simulations are performed to investigate the photovoltaic properties. The NW diameters are randomly selected within the range of 220–400 nm, following the Gaussian distribution. The results show that the absorption strongly depends on the diameter, and the multi-diameter NW array exhibits higher optical absorption, in comparison with the uniform-diameter counterpart. This is because of the superposition of multiple absorption peaks. Moreover, the multi-diameter NW array can efficiently enhance the effective absorption; that is, the depletion region absorption, which directly leads to increased photocurrent. A remarkable efficiency of 17% is obtained for a 16-diameter NW array solar cell with a full width at half maximum of the diameter distribution of 75 nm, higher than the best value (16.1%) of uniform-diameter device with an optimum diameter of 310 nm. This work demonstrates that the native diameter nonuniformity of self-organized nanowires is beneficial for high-performance photovoltaics with low cost and a simple fabrication process.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

D. Wu, X. Tang, K. Wang, and X. Li, “An analytic approach for optimal geometrical design of GaAs nanowires for maximal light harvesting in photovoltaic cells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46504 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Yan, X. Zhang, and X. Ren, “Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1603–A1612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mariani, Z. Zhou, A. Scofield, and D. L. Huffaker, “Direct-bandgap epitaxial core-multishell nanopillar photovoltaics featuring subwavelength optical concentrators,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1632–1637 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2894–2900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

N. Tajik, Z. Peng, P. Kuyanov, and R. R. LaPierre, “Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells,” Nanotechnology 22(22), 225402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Gu, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, and B. Nabet, “On optical properties of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell periodic nanowire arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064314 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Bierman and S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Aagesen, M.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aberg, I.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Åberg, I.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ai, L.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alcubilla, R.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2894–2900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anttu, N.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arab, S.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asoli, D.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2894–2900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, A.

Beard, M. C.

O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernechea, M.

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bierman, M. J.

M. J. Bierman and S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bjork, M.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Björk, M. T.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bleuse, J.

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
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Borg, B. M.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
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M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
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Borgström, M. T.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
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Burgess, T.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
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C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
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Calle, E.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
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Cao, W.

X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
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Cao, Y.

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
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C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
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Chen, C.

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
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Chen, H.-Y.

O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
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M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
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O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
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Chueh, Y. L.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, S.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creazzo, T.

Cronin, S. B.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlgren, A.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
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M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2894–2900 (2012).
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Demichel, O.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deppert, K.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimroth, F.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Dubrovski, V. G.

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
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Ergen, O.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Ferry, V. E.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2894–2900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontcuberta I Morral, A.

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
[Crossref]

Friedl, M.

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
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Fuss-Kailuweit, P.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
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Gao, Q.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garín, M.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
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Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
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Gilboy, J. P.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
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Z. Gu, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, and B. Nabet, “On optical properties of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell periodic nanowire arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064314 (2011).
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Guo, H.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
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H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
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X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Guo, Y. N.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heiss, M.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. C.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohn, O.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Holm, J. V.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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Honsberg, C.

Huang, H.

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Huang, N.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Huffaker, D. L.

G. Mariani, Z. Zhou, A. Scofield, and D. L. Huffaker, “Direct-bandgap epitaxial core-multishell nanopillar photovoltaics featuring subwavelength optical concentrators,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1632–1637 (2013).
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G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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Huffman, M.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jagadish, C.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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M. J. Bierman and S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
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P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Katzenmeyer, A. M.

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
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Konstantatos, G.

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
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Krogstrup, P.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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N. Tajik, Z. Peng, P. Kuyanov, and R. R. LaPierre, “Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells,” Nanotechnology 22(22), 225402 (2011).
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Lagier, M.

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N. Tajik, Z. Peng, P. Kuyanov, and R. R. LaPierre, “Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells,” Nanotechnology 22(22), 225402 (2011).
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Léonard, F.

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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D. Wu, X. Tang, K. Wang, and X. Li, “An analytic approach for optimal geometrical design of GaAs nanowires for maximal light harvesting in photovoltaic cells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46504 (2017).
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L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
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H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
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X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
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H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
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M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
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Z. Gu, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, and B. Nabet, “On optical properties of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell periodic nanowire arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064314 (2011).
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H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
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X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
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O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
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M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
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J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
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Mariani, G.

G. Mariani, Z. Zhou, A. Scofield, and D. L. Huffaker, “Direct-bandgap epitaxial core-multishell nanopillar photovoltaics featuring subwavelength optical concentrators,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1632–1637 (2013).
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G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
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Mariette, H.

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
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M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Nabet, B.

Z. Gu, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, and B. Nabet, “On optical properties of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell periodic nanowire arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064314 (2011).
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I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
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P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
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M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
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Peng, Z.

N. Tajik, Z. Peng, P. Kuyanov, and R. R. LaPierre, “Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells,” Nanotechnology 22(22), 225402 (2011).
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Piazza, V.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
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M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
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M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
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C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
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Prather, D. W.

Prete, P.

Z. Gu, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, and B. Nabet, “On optical properties of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell periodic nanowire arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064314 (2011).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Y. Wu, X. Yan, X. Zhang, and X. Ren, “Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1603–A1612 (2015).
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Repo, P.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
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M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
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Samuelson, L.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
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J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
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H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, H.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scofield, A.

G. Mariani, Z. Zhou, A. Scofield, and D. L. Huffaker, “Direct-bandgap epitaxial core-multishell nanopillar photovoltaics featuring subwavelength optical concentrators,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1632–1637 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semonin, O. E.

O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyedi, M. A.

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, J.

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

Siefer, G.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, D.

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stavrinadis, A.

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
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Sun, W.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundvall, C.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Svensson, J.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, K. E.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tajik, N.

N. Tajik, Z. Peng, P. Kuyanov, and R. R. LaPierre, “Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells,” Nanotechnology 22(22), 225402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H. H.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, X.

D. Wu, X. Tang, K. Wang, and X. Li, “An analytic approach for optimal geometrical design of GaAs nanowires for maximal light harvesting in photovoltaic cells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46504 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tchernycheva, M.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Theiss, J.

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tütüncüoglu, G.

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vainorius, N.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vescovi, G.

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vijver, M.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

von Gastrow, G.

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vukajlovic-Plestina, J.

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallentin, J.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

D. Wu, X. Tang, K. Wang, and X. Li, “An analytic approach for optimal geometrical design of GaAs nanowires for maximal light harvesting in photovoltaic cells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46504 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Wang, Y.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, W.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, L.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wernersson, L. E.

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirths, S.

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Witzigmann, B.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, P.-S.

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, X. Tang, K. Wang, and X. Li, “An analytic approach for optimal geometrical design of GaAs nanowires for maximal light harvesting in photovoltaic cells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46504 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Yan, X. Zhang, and X. Ren, “Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1603–A1612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xercavins, G.

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. Q.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H. Y.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, X.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Yan, X. Zhang, and X. Ren, “Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1603–A1612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, M.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, X.

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Yeh, T. W.

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, X. Yan, X. Zhang, and X. Ren, “Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1603–A1612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Zhao, Z.

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

G. Mariani, Z. Zhou, A. Scofield, and D. L. Huffaker, “Direct-bandgap epitaxial core-multishell nanopillar photovoltaics featuring subwavelength optical concentrators,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1632–1637 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, J.

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Li, R. Zhang, N. Huang, T. Lü, and W. Cao, “Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.33PbTiO(3) single crystal poled along [111](c),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 242906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wen, Z. Zhao, X. Li, Y. Shen, H. Guo, and Y. Wang, “Theoretical analysis and modeling of light trapping in high efficicency GaAs nanowire array solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143116 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Demichel, M. Heiss, J. Bleuse, H. Mariette, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Impact of surfaces on the optical properties of GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201907 (2010).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

M. J. Bierman and S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovolt. (2)

I. Åberg, G. Vescovi, D. Asoli, U. Naseem, J. P. Gilboy, C. Sundvall, A. Dahlgren, K. E. Svensson, N. Anttu, M. T. Björk, and L. Samuelson, “A GaAs nanowire array solar cell with 15.3% efficiency at 1 sun,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 6(1), 185–190 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Borgstrom, M. H. Magnusson, F. Dimroth, G. Siefer, O. Hohn, H. Riel, H. Schmid, S. Wirths, M. Bjork, I. Aberg, W. Peijnenburg, M. Vijver, M. Tchernycheva, V. Piazza, and L. Samuelson, “Towards nanowire tandem junction solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Gu, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, and B. Nabet, “On optical properties of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell periodic nanowire arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 064314 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (9)

M. Yao, N. Huang, S. Cong, C. Y. Chi, M. A. Seyedi, Y. T. Lin, Y. Cao, M. L. Povinelli, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3293–3303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mariani, P.-S. Wong, A. M. Katzenmeyer, F. Léonard, J. Shapiro, and D. L. Huffaker, “Patterned radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2490–2494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, S. Cong, S. Arab, N. Huang, M. L. Povinelli, S. B. Cronin, P. D. Dapkus, and C. Zhou, “Tandem solar cells using GaAs nanowires on Si: design, fabrication, and observation of voltage addition,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7217–7224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chang, C. Y. Chi, M. Yao, N. Huang, C. C. Chen, J. Theiss, A. W. Bushmaker, S. Lalumondiere, T. W. Yeh, M. L. Povinelli, C. Zhou, P. D. Dapkus, and S. B. Cronin, “Electrical and optical characterization of surface passivation in GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4484–4489 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2894–2900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Svensson, N. Anttu, N. Vainorius, B. M. Borg, and L. E. Wernersson, “Diameter-Dependent photocurrent in InAsSb nanowire infrared photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1380–1385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vukajlovic-Plestina, W. Kim, V. G. Dubrovski, G. Tütüncüoğlu, M. Lagier, H. Potts, M. Friedl, and A. Fontcuberta I Morral, “Engineering the Size Distributions of Ordered GaAs Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4101–4108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Mariani, Z. Zhou, A. Scofield, and D. L. Huffaker, “Direct-bandgap epitaxial core-multishell nanopillar photovoltaics featuring subwavelength optical concentrators,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1632–1637 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (3)

H. Y. Xu, Y. N. Guo, W. Sun, Z. M. Liao, T. Burgess, H. F. Lu, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and J. Zou, “Quantitative study of GaAs nanowires catalyzed by Au film of different thicknesses,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 589 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guo, L. Wen, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Analysis of optical absorption in GaAs nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 617 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. Ai, X. Yan, Y. Wu, W. Wei, M. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Photovoltaic performance of pin junction nanocone array solar cells with enhanced effective optical absorption,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 13(1), 306 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

N. Tajik, Z. Peng, P. Kuyanov, and R. R. LaPierre, “Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells,” Nanotechnology 22(22), 225402 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y. L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

H. Savin, P. Repo, G. von Gastrow, P. Ortega, E. Calle, M. Garín, and R. Alcubilla, “Black silicon solar cells with interdigitated back-contacts achieve 22.1% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(7), 624–628 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Bernechea, N. C. Miller, G. Xercavins, D. So, A. Stavrinadis, and G. Konstantatos, “Solution-processed solar cells based on environmentally friendly AgBiS2 nanocrystals,” Nat. Photonics 10(8), 521–525 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jørgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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Opt. Express (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Wu, X. Tang, K. Wang, and X. Li, “An analytic approach for optimal geometrical design of GaAs nanowires for maximal light harvesting in photovoltaic cells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46504 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

O. E. Semonin, J. M. Luther, S. Choi, H.-Y. Chen, J. Gao, A. J. Nozik, and M. C. Beard, “Peak external photocurrent quantum efficiency exceeding 100% via MEG in a quantum dot solar cell,” Science 334(6062), 1530–1533 (2011).
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J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuli Xuebao (1)

X. Ye, H. Huang, X. Ren, J. Guo, Y. Huang, Q. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Growths of InAs/GaAs and InAs/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures,” Wuli Xuebao 60(3), 036103 (2011).

Other (1)

M. Levinshtein, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, Handbook series on semiconductor parameters: ternary and quaternary III–V compounds (World Scientific, 1996).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3-D schematics and top views of one unit cell of uniform-diameter (a), 4-diameter (b), and 16-diameter (c) NWA solar cells.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The dependence of absorption on wavelength for uniform-diameter NWAs with different diameter. (b) The J-V characteristics of uniform-diameter NWAs with different diameter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorption of five different 4-diameter NWAs. (b) Absorption vs. wavelength for the uniform-diameter NWA with a diameter of 310 nm and 4-diameter NWA with 4 random diameters (285 nm, 300 nm, 317 nm, 332 nm). (c) Absorption vs. wavelength for each diameter NWs in the 4-diameter NWA. (d) The J-V characteristics of the uniform-diameter and 4-diameter NWA solar cells.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Statistics of the selected 16 diameters and the fitted Gaussian distribution curve.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Absorption spectra of the 16-diameter NWA with 16 random diameters (265, 277, 278, 288, 292, 303, 304, 311, 313, 321, 327, 332, 343, 344, 356, 381) nm, the 4-diameter NWA with 4 random diameters (285, 300, 317, 332) nm, and the uniform-diameter NWA with a diameter of 310 nm. (b) Absorption spectra of each diameter NWs in the 16-diameter NWA. (c) –(f) Absorption spectra of NWs in the 16-diameter NWA with similar absorption peaks.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Vertical cross sections of optical generation profiles of the uniform-diameter NWA with a diameter of 310 nm and the 16-diameter NWA at wavelength of (a) 760 nm and (b) 820 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The J-V characteristics of the 16-diameter, 4-diameter, and uniform-diameter NWA solar cells.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main parameters of the reported GaAs p(i)n junction NWA solar cells.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G p h = | P | 2 ω = ε ' ' | E | 2 2
R ( λ ) , T ( λ ) = 0.5 r e a l { P ( λ ) m o n i t o r } d S P i n ( λ )
A ( λ ) = 1 R ( λ ) T ( λ )

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