Abstract

We realized an efficient hybrid tandem warm white organic light-emitting device with extremely stable color purity in forward direction by employing an easy-fabrication charge generation unit (CGU) combining 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11-Hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile with ultrathin bilayers of LiF and Al. The tandem white device exhibits maximum efficiencies of 37.3 cd/A, 23.3 lm/W and still remains at high efficiencies of 34.4 cd/A, 17 lm/W at the luminance of 1000 cd/m2. When the operating current density increases from 5 mA/cm2 to 30 mA/cm2, the variations in Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are only (0.007, 0.003). Moreover, we also studied the cause of color variation in tandem white device by performing systematic optical simulation and discovered the origin of alleviation in efficiency roll-off for tandem white device by applying triplet-polaron quenching (TPQ) model.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (5)

2016 (5)

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu and D. Ma, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 107, 1–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. S. Mirshafieyan, T. S. Luk, and J. Guo, “Zeroth order Fabry-Perot resonance enabled ultra-thin perfect light absorber using percolation aluminum and silicon nanofilms,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(4), 1032–1042 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

R. Coehoorn, H. van Eersel, P. Bobbert, and R. Janssen, “Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(13), 2024–2037 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D.-Y. Zhou, F.-S. Zu, Y.-J. Zhang, X.-B. Shi, H. Aziz, and L.-S. Liao, “Highly stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices with intermediate connectors using lithium amide as n-type dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083301 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Ding, Y. Q. Sun, H. Chen, F. S. Zu, Z. K. Wang, and L. S. Liao, “A novel intermediate connector with improved charge generation and separation for large-area tandem white organic lighting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(48), 10403–10408 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, J. Liu, X. Wen, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, Y. Yin, L. Zhang, and W. Xie, “Angle-stable RGBW top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with Ag/Ge/Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1742–1744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu and J. Wang, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting device with weak viewing angle-dependence,” J. Lumin. 131(11), 2419–2421 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. S. Liao and K. P. Klubek, “Power efficiency improvement in a tandem organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223311 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous Emission from Planar Microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N ‐ vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahamad, T.

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alshehri, S. M.

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aziz, H.

D.-Y. Zhou, F.-S. Zu, Y.-J. Zhang, X.-B. Shi, H. Aziz, and L.-S. Liao, “Highly stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices with intermediate connectors using lithium amide as n-type dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, Q.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bao, S. N.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bobbert, P.

R. Coehoorn, H. van Eersel, P. Bobbert, and R. Janssen, “Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(13), 2024–2037 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

Chen, H.

Z. He, H. Chen, Y.-H. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Tuning the correlated color temperature of white light-emitting diodes resembling Planckian locus,” Opt. Express 26(2), A136–A143 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ding, Y. Q. Sun, H. Chen, F. S. Zu, Z. K. Wang, and L. S. Liao, “A novel intermediate connector with improved charge generation and separation for large-area tandem white organic lighting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(48), 10403–10408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, J. Liu, X. Wen, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, Y. Yin, L. Zhang, and W. Xie, “Angle-stable RGBW top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with Ag/Ge/Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1742–1744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.

Cheng, Y.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiba, T.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coehoorn, R.

R. Coehoorn, H. van Eersel, P. Bobbert, and R. Janssen, “Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(13), 2024–2037 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cong, C.

Cui, H.

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Daicho, H.

Deng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous Emission from Planar Microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

L. Ding, Y. Q. Sun, H. Chen, F. S. Zu, Z. K. Wang, and L. S. Liao, “A novel intermediate connector with improved charge generation and separation for large-area tandem white organic lighting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(48), 10403–10408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

Duan, L.

Enomoto, K.

Fan, Q.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

Feezella, D.

D. Feezella and S. Nakamura, “Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting,” C. R. Phys. 19(3), 113–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, E.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, M. K.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, J.

Guo, Y.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, G.

J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

Hongawa, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N ‐ vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

Hu, L.

Huang, S.

J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huffaker, D. L.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous Emission from Planar Microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Janssen, R.

R. Coehoorn, H. van Eersel, P. Bobbert, and R. Janssen, “Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(13), 2024–2037 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kido, J.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N ‐ vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Klubek, K. P.

L. S. Liao and K. P. Klubek, “Power efficiency improvement in a tandem organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Köhnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, S. L.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Langer, N.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S.

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

Lei, C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous Emission from Planar Microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lennartz, C.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Liao, L. S.

L. Ding, Y. Q. Sun, H. Chen, F. S. Zu, Z. K. Wang, and L. S. Liao, “A novel intermediate connector with improved charge generation and separation for large-area tandem white organic lighting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(48), 10403–10408 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. S. Liao and K. P. Klubek, “Power efficiency improvement in a tandem organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.-S.

D.-Y. Zhou, F.-S. Zu, Y.-J. Zhang, X.-B. Shi, H. Aziz, and L.-S. Liao, “Highly stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices with intermediate connectors using lithium amide as n-type dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous Emission from Planar Microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, J. Liu, X. Wen, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, Y. Yin, L. Zhang, and W. Xie, “Angle-stable RGBW top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with Ag/Ge/Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1742–1744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, J. Liu, X. Wen, Y. Liu, Z. Chen, Y. Yin, L. Zhang, and W. Xie, “Angle-stable RGBW top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with Ag/Ge/Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1742–1744 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, X. K.

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lu, P.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

Luo, Y.

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

Z. Wu and D. Ma, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 107, 1–42 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

H. Liu, Q. Bai, W. Li, Y. Guo, L. Yao, Y. Gao, J. Li, P. Lu, B. Yang, and Y. Ma, “Efficient deep-blue non-doped organic light-emitting diode with improved roll-off of efficiency based on hybrid local and charge-transfer excited state,” RSC Advances 6(74), 70085–70090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Matsuishi, S.

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, “White organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 233–248 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirshafieyan, S. S.

Miyazaki, R.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Molt, O.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motoyama, T.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N ‐ vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

D. Feezella and S. Nakamura, “Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting,” C. R. Phys. 19(3), 113–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, K.-i.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Okuyama, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N ‐ vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piao, X.

J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pu, Y.-J.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qing, J.

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, Y.

Qiu, Z.-J.

Quan, B.

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rakic, A. D.

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyazaki, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Ultra-high efficiency by multiple emission from stacked organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 710–715 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawa, H.

Shi, X.

J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, X.-B.

D.-Y. Zhou, F.-S. Zu, Y.-J. Zhang, X.-B. Shi, H. Aziz, and L.-S. Liao, “Highly stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices with intermediate connectors using lithium amide as n-type dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083301 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sui, G.

Sun, J.

Sun, Y. Q.

L. Ding, Y. Q. Sun, H. Chen, F. S. Zu, Z. K. Wang, and L. S. Liao, “A novel intermediate connector with improved charge generation and separation for large-area tandem white organic lighting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(48), 10403–10408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takamatsu, J.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thachoth Chandran, H.

X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomschke, M.

S. Reineke, M. Thomschke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(3), 1245–1293 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

Tong, S. W.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsuboi, T.

van Eersel, H.

R. Coehoorn, H. van Eersel, P. Bobbert, and R. Janssen, “Kinetic Monte Carlo Study of the Sensitivity of OLED Efficiency and Lifetime to Materials Parameters,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(13), 2024–2037 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagenblast, G.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu and J. Wang, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting device with weak viewing angle-dependence,” J. Lumin. 131(11), 2419–2421 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. D.

S. D. Wang, M. K. Fung, S. L. Lai, S. W. Tong, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, H. J. Zhang, and S. N. Bao, “Experimental study of a chemical reaction between LiF and Al,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 169–173 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. K.

L. Ding, Y. Q. Sun, H. Chen, F. S. Zu, Z. K. Wang, and L. S. Liao, “A novel intermediate connector with improved charge generation and separation for large-area tandem white organic lighting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(48), 10403–10408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

H. Sasabe, J. Takamatsu, T. Motoyama, S. Watanabe, G. Wagenblast, N. Langer, O. Molt, E. Fuchs, C. Lennartz, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency blue and white organic light-emitting devices incorporating a blue iridium carbene complex,” Adv. Mater. 22(44), 5003–5007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

Wu, Q.

G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
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J. Liu, J. Wang, S. Huang, X. Shi, X. Wu, and G. He, “A highly efficient, transparent and stable charge generation unit based on a p-doped monolayer,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1337–1343 (2013).
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Z. Wu and D. Ma, “Recent advances in white organic light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 107, 1–42 (2016).
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Z. Wu and J. Wang, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting device with weak viewing angle-dependence,” J. Lumin. 131(11), 2419–2421 (2011).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
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J. Ma, X. Piao, J. Liu, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, M. Liu, T. Li, W. Xie, and H. Cui, “Optical simulation and optimization of ITO-free top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices for lighting or display,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 923–935 (2011).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, Y. Luo, L. Zhao, Q. Wu, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(1), 264–269 (2011).
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G. Xie, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, S. Zhang, L. Zhao, Y. Luo, P. Chen, B. Quan, Y. Zhao, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with improved contrast and reduced angular dependence for active matrix displays,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 2055–2059 (2010).
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X. K. Liu, W. Chen, H. Thachoth Chandran, J. Qing, Z. Chen, X. H. Zhang, and C. S. Lee, “High-Performance, Simplified Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Allowing Complete Triplet Harvesting,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(39), 26135–26142 (2016).
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J. Wang, J. Chen, X. Qiao, S. M. Alshehri, T. Ahamad, and D. Ma, “Simple-Structured Phosphorescent Warm White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Power Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10093–10097 (2016).
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Q. Wang, J. Ding, Z. Zhang, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, “A high-performance tandem white organic light-emitting diode combining highly effective white-units and their interconnection layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 076101 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The brief schematic diagram of fabrication process for the tandem WOLED.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Molecular structures of all organic materials (b) Energy levels diagram and the device structure of the tandem WOLED.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Luminance-current density and (b) Voltage-current density characteristics of tandem WOLED and two single-unit devices.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The EL spectra of tandem WOLED at different current densities. (b) The spectra of tandem white device at different viewing angles. Inset: the angular distribution pattern at 20mA/cm2. (c) The simulated spectra and practical spectra of tandem white device at different viewing angles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Current efficiency-luminance- luminous efficiency of tandem white device. (b) External quantum efficiency-current density (EQE-J) dependence of yellow single-unit device together with TPQ fitting. (c) Current density-voltage characteristics of the carrier-only devices.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Voltage and luminance of three devices at constant current density.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The color coordinates and correlated color temperature of the tandem white device

Tables Icon

Table 3 Main efficiency property of tandem white device.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i 4π d i n i ( λ ) λ φ top ( 0, λ ) φ bot ( 0, λ )=2mπ
i 4π d i n i ( λ + Δλ )cos θ i λ + Δλ φ top ( θ top , λ + Δλ ) φ bot ( θ bot , λ + Δλ )=2mπ
Δλ= 1 Δϕ { i 4π d i [ n i ( λ+Δλ )cos θ i n i ( λ ) ]λ( Δ φ top +Δ φ bot ) }
Δϕ = 2mπ + φ top ( θ top , λ + Δλ ) bot ( θ bot ,λ +Δλ )
Δ φ top top ( θ top ,λ +Δλ ) φ top ( 0,λ )
Δ φ bot bot ( θ bot ,λ +Δλ ) φ bot ( 0,λ )
η η 0 = 1 1+ ( J J 0 ) 1 1+m

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