Abstract

This work theoretically investigates the frequency noise (FN) characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) through a three-level rate equation model, which takes into account both the carrier noise and the spontaneous emission noise through the Langevin approach. It is found that the power spectral density of the FN exhibits a broad peak due to the carrier noise induced carrier variation in the upper laser level, which is enhanced by the stimulated emission process. The peak amplitude is strongly dependent on the gain stage number and the linewidth broadening factor. In addition, an analytical formula of the intrinsic spectral linewidth of QCLs is derived based on the FN analysis. It is demonstrated that the laser linewidth can be narrowed by reducing the gain coefficient and/or accelerating the carrier scattering rates of the upper and the lower laser levels.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2016 (4)

C. Wang, J. P. Zhuang, F. Grillot, and S. C. Chan, “Contribution of off-resonant states to the phase noise of quantum dot lasers,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29872–29881 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. F. Pereira, “The linewidth enhancement factor of intersubband lasers: From a two-level limit to gain without inversion conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 222102 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, M. Carras, K. Shires, and F. Grillot, “Linewidth broadening factor and gain compression in quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9755, 97550F (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Juretzka, H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of midinfrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: II. Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2300208 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of mid-infrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: I. Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, F. Grillot, V. Kovanis, and J. Even, “Rate equation analysis of injection-locked quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, F. Grillot, V. I. Kovanis, J. D. Bodyfelt, and J. Even, “Modulation properties of optically injection-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1975–1977 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Liu, K. E. Lee, and Q. J. Wang, “Importance of the microscopic effects on the linewidth enhancement factor of quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27804–27815 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

2011 (4)

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Liu and Q. J. Wang, “Fundamental frequency noise and linewidth broadening caused by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 125322 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, “Monte Carlo study of intrinsic linewidths in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25922–25927 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4801–4807 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. D. Grant, S. R. Laframboise, R. Dudek, M. Graf, A. Bezinger, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz free space communications demonstration with quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 45(18), 952–954 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Y. Takagi, N. Kumazaki, M. Ishihara, K. Kasahara, A. Sugiyama, N. Akikusa, and T. Edamura, “Relative intensity noise measurements of 5 μm quantum cascade laser and 1.55 μm semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 860–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum-cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. von Staden, T. Gensty, W. Elsässer, G. Giuliani, C. Mann, and C. Mann, “Measurements of the α factor of a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser by an optical feedback self-mixing technique,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2574–2576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. Gensty and W. Elsäßer, “Semiclassical model for the relative intensity noise of intersubband quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Commun. 256(1–3), 171–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Gensty, W. Elsäßer, and C. Mann, “Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2032–2039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Kim, M. Lerttamrab, S. L. Chuang, D. L. Sivco, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1663–1674 (2003).

2002 (5)

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Rana and R. J. Ram, “Current noise and photon noise in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125313 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Kikuchi, “Effect of 1/f-type FM noise on semiconductor-laser linewidth residual in high-power limit,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(4), 684–688 (1989).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

C. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

C. Harder, J. Katz, S. Margalit, J. Shacham, and A. Yariv, “Noise equivalent circuit of a semiconductor laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 333–337 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abgrall, M.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aellen, T.

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Akikusa, N.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum-cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Takagi, N. Kumazaki, M. Ishihara, K. Kasahara, A. Sugiyama, N. Akikusa, and T. Edamura, “Relative intensity noise measurements of 5 μm quantum cascade laser and 1.55 μm semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 860–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Argence, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bezinger, A.

P. D. Grant, S. R. Laframboise, R. Dudek, M. Graf, A. Bezinger, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz free space communications demonstration with quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 45(18), 952–954 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bielsa, F.

Bismuto, A.

Blaser, S.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bodyfelt, J. D.

Bogris, A.

C. Juretzka, H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of midinfrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: II. Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2300208 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of mid-infrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: I. Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breuer, S.

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cancio, P.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cannon, B. D.

Capasso, F.

J. Kim, M. Lerttamrab, S. L. Chuang, D. L. Sivco, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1663–1674 (2003).

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1844–1846 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1396–1398 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cappelli, F.

Carras, M.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, M. Carras, K. Shires, and F. Grillot, “Linewidth broadening factor and gain compression in quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9755, 97550F (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castrillo, A.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, S. C.

Chanteau, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, C.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Kim, M. Lerttamrab, S. L. Chuang, D. L. Sivco, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1663–1674 (2003).

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1844–1846 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1396–1398 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. L.

J. Kim, M. Lerttamrab, S. L. Chuang, D. L. Sivco, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1663–1674 (2003).

Colombelli, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Curl, R. F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Darquié, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Daussy, C.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

De, P.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Natale, P.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Destic, F.

Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Di Domenico, G.

Di Francesco, J.

L. Tombez, S. Schilt, J. Di Francesco, T. Fuhrer, B. Rein, T. Walther, G. Di Domenico, D. Hofstetter, and P. Thomann, “Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 407–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douillet, A.

Drzewietzki, L.

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dudek, R.

P. D. Grant, S. R. Laframboise, R. Dudek, M. Graf, A. Bezinger, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz free space communications demonstration with quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 45(18), 952–954 (2009).
[Crossref]

Edamura, T.

Y. Takagi, N. Kumazaki, M. Ishihara, K. Kasahara, A. Sugiyama, N. Akikusa, and T. Edamura, “Relative intensity noise measurements of 5 μm quantum cascade laser and 1.55 μm semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 860–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum-cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ellison, B.

Elsäßer, W.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, M. Carras, K. Shires, and F. Grillot, “Linewidth broadening factor and gain compression in quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9755, 97550F (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Juretzka, H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of midinfrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: II. Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2300208 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of mid-infrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: I. Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elsässer, W.

Elsäßer, W.

T. Gensty, W. Elsäßer, and C. Mann, “Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 13(6), 2032–2039 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gensty and W. Elsäßer, “Semiclassical model for the relative intensity noise of intersubband quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Commun. 256(1–3), 171–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

Even, J.

C. Wang, F. Grillot, V. Kovanis, and J. Even, “Rate equation analysis of injection-locked quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063104 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, F. Grillot, V. I. Kovanis, J. D. Bodyfelt, and J. Even, “Modulation properties of optically injection-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1975–1977 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, M.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fuhrer, T.

L. Tombez, S. Schilt, J. Di Francesco, T. Fuhrer, B. Rein, T. Walther, G. Di Domenico, D. Hofstetter, and P. Thomann, “Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 407–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum-cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Galli, I.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gensty, T.

Gianfrani, L.

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giuliani, G.

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

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A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
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Lopez, O.

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L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
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Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 22–29 (2011).
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F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
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M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
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B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
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F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
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R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
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S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
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H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
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Pawlus, R.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
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L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, M. Carras, K. Shires, and F. Grillot, “Linewidth broadening factor and gain compression in quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9755, 97550F (2016).
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M. F. Pereira, “The linewidth enhancement factor of intersubband lasers: From a two-level limit to gain without inversion conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 222102 (2016).
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Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 22–29 (2011).
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L. Tombez, S. Schilt, J. Di Francesco, T. Fuhrer, B. Rein, T. Walther, G. Di Domenico, D. Hofstetter, and P. Thomann, “Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 407–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
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H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schad, F.

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schilt, S.

Semenov, A. D.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
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Sergent, A. M.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shacham, J.

C. Harder, J. Katz, S. Margalit, J. Shacham, and A. Yariv, “Noise equivalent circuit of a semiconductor laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 333–337 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, S. W.

Shires, K.

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, M. Carras, K. Shires, and F. Grillot, “Linewidth broadening factor and gain compression in quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9755, 97550F (2016).
[Crossref]

Simos, H.

C. Juretzka, H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of midinfrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: II. Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2300208 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of mid-infrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: I. Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Kim, M. Lerttamrab, S. L. Chuang, D. L. Sivco, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1663–1674 (2003).

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1844–1846 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1396–1398 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, K.

So, S.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, A.

Y. Takagi, N. Kumazaki, M. Ishihara, K. Kasahara, A. Sugiyama, N. Akikusa, and T. Edamura, “Relative intensity noise measurements of 5 μm quantum cascade laser and 1.55 μm semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 860–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

Syvridis, D.

C. Juretzka, H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of midinfrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: II. Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2300208 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of mid-infrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: I. Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takagi, Y.

Y. Takagi, N. Kumazaki, M. Ishihara, K. Kasahara, A. Sugiyama, N. Akikusa, and T. Edamura, “Relative intensity noise measurements of 5 μm quantum cascade laser and 1.55 μm semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 860–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taubman, M. S.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1844–1846 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terazzi, R.

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thomann, P.

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tombez, L.

L. Tombez, S. Schilt, J. Di Francesco, T. Fuhrer, B. Rein, T. Walther, G. Di Domenico, D. Hofstetter, and P. Thomann, “Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 407–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Unterrainer, K.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Valenzuela, T.

Villares, G.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Staden, J.

Walther, T.

L. Tombez, S. Schilt, J. Di Francesco, T. Fuhrer, B. Rein, T. Walther, G. Di Domenico, D. Hofstetter, and P. Thomann, “Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 407–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, Q. J.

Weidmann, D.

Whittacker, E. A.

R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, E. A.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. M.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1844–1846 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wysocki, G.

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

M. Yamanishi, “Theory of intrinsic linewidth based on fluctuation-dissipation balance for thermal photons in THz quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28465–28478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum-cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

C. Harder, J. Katz, S. Margalit, J. Shacham, and A. Yariv, “Noise equivalent circuit of a semiconductor laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 333–337 (1982).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, J. P.

AIP Adv. (1)

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, K. Shires, M. Carras, and F. Grillot, “Measurements of the linewidth enhancement factor of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by different optical feedback techniques,” AIP Adv. 6(1), 015212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Tombez, S. Schilt, J. Di Francesco, T. Fuhrer, B. Rein, T. Walther, G. Di Domenico, D. Hofstetter, and P. Thomann, “Linewidth of a quantum cascade laser assessed from its frequency noise spectrum and impact of the current driver,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 407–414 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061115 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Aellen, R. Maulini, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and L. Hvozdara, “Direct measurement of the linewidth enhancement factor by optical heterodyning of an amplitude-modulated quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091121 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. F. Pereira, “The linewidth enhancement factor of intersubband lasers: From a two-level limit to gain without inversion conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 222102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. Martini, C. Bethea, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, E. A. Whittacker, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Free-space optical transmission of multimedia satellite data streams using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 181–183 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. D. Grant, S. R. Laframboise, R. Dudek, M. Graf, A. Bezinger, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz free space communications demonstration with quantum cascade laser and quantum well photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 45(18), 952–954 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Carras, F. Schad, L. Drzewietzki, S. Breuer, C. Juretzka, and W. Elsäßer, “9.5 dB relative intensity noise reduction in quantum cascade laser by detuned loading,” Electron. Lett. 49(24), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Takagi, N. Kumazaki, M. Ishihara, K. Kasahara, A. Sugiyama, N. Akikusa, and T. Edamura, “Relative intensity noise measurements of 5 μm quantum cascade laser and 1.55 μm semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 860–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (10)

H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of mid-infrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: I. Modeling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 98–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Juretzka, H. Simos, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and W. Elsäßer, “Intensity noise properties of midinfrared injection locked quantum cascade lasers: II. Experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51(1), 2300208 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 582–591 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Yamanishi, T. Edamura, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, and H. Kan, “Theory of the intrinsic linewidth of quantum-cascade lasers: Hidden reason for the narrow linewidth and line-broadening by thermal photons,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 12–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Kikuchi, “Effect of 1/f-type FM noise on semiconductor-laser linewidth residual in high-power limit,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(4), 684–688 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, M. Lerttamrab, S. L. Chuang, D. L. Sivco, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Theoretical and experimental study of optical gain and linewidth enhancement factor of type-I quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(12), 1663–1674 (2003).

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De, “Natale, “Frequency-noise dynamics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(7), 984–988 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Harder, J. Katz, S. Margalit, J. Shacham, and A. Yariv, “Noise equivalent circuit of a semiconductor laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 333–337 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

Y. Petitjean, F. Destic, J. C. Mollier, and C. Sirtori, “Dynamic modeling of Terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 22–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Hangauer and G. Wysocki, “Gain compression and linewidth enhancement factor in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1200411 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320×240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Wang, F. Grillot, V. Kovanis, and J. Even, “Rate equation analysis of injection-locked quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Gensty and W. Elsäßer, “Semiclassical model for the relative intensity noise of intersubband quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Commun. 256(1–3), 171–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (8)

C. Wang, F. Grillot, V. I. Kovanis, J. D. Bodyfelt, and J. Even, “Modulation properties of optically injection-locked quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1975–1977 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. von Staden, T. Gensty, W. Elsässer, G. Giuliani, C. Mann, and C. Mann, “Measurements of the α factor of a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser by an optical feedback self-mixing technique,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2574–2576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Williams, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, S. W. Sharpe, M. S. Taubman, J. L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1844–1846 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, R. M. Williams, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Frequency stabilization of quantum-cascade lasers by use of optical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2164–2166 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bielsa, A. Douillet, T. Valenzuela, J. P. Karr, and L. Hilico, “Narrow-line phase-locked quantum cascade laser in the 9.2 μm range,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1641–1643 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, I. Galli, F. Cappelli, A. Bismuto, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, J. Faist, and P. De Natale, “Direct link of a mid-infrared QCL to a frequency comb by optical injection,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1011–1013 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3109–3111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, J. F. Kelly, J. S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1396–1398 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. Rana and R. J. Ram, “Current noise and photon noise in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125313 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Liu and Q. J. Wang, “Fundamental frequency noise and linewidth broadening caused by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 125322 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, L. Gianfrani, and P. De Natale, “Observing the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum-cascade laser: Beyond the Schawlow-Townes limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 083904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Jumpertz, F. Michel, R. Pawlus, W. Elsäßer, M. Carras, K. Shires, and F. Grillot, “Linewidth broadening factor and gain compression in quantum cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9755, 97550F (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers (Oxford, 2013).

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mashanovitch, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).

S. Schilt, L. Tombez, G. Di Domenico, and D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise and linewidth of mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers: An overview,” in The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications (SPIE, 2013).

J. Ohtsubo, Semiconductor Lasers: Stability, Instability, and Chaos (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of three-level electronic structure of QCLs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 FN spectra at various pump currents. The dashed line is without carrier noise at 2.0 × Ith.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Carrier responses due to the noise perturbation at 2.0 × Ith.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) FN spectra with various gain stage numbers, and (b) with various LBFs at 2.0 × Ith.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Effects of (a) the gain coefficient G0, (b) scattering time τ32 and (c) scattering time τ21 on the intrinsic linewidth. The pump current for (a) and for the insets of (b) and (c) is 2.0 × Ith.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 QCL material and optical parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Zeros and poles of the FN at 2.0 × Ith

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d N 3 dt =η I q N 3 τ 32 N 3 τ 31 G 0 SΔN+ F 3 (t)
d N 2 dt = N 3 τ 32 N 2 τ 21 + G 0 SΔN+ F 2 (t)
d N 1 dt = N 3 τ 31 + N 2 τ 21 N 1 τ out + F 1 (t)
dS dt =( m G 0 ΔN 1 τ p )S+mβ N 3 τ sp + F S (t)
dϕ dt = α H 2 ( m G 0 ΔN 1 τ p )+ F ϕ (t)
F i (t) F j (t') = U i j δ(tt')
U 33 =2( G 0 N 3 S+ N 3 / τ 32 + N 3 / τ 31 ); U 22 =2( G 0 N 3 S+ N 3 / τ 32 ) U SS =2m( G 0 N 3 S+β N 3 / τ sp ); U ϕϕ =2m( G 0 N 3 S+β N 3 / τ sp )/(4 S 2 ) U 32 =( G 0 N 3 S+ G 0 N 2 S+ N 3 / τ 32 ); U 3S =( G 0 N 3 S+ G 0 N 2 S+β N 3 / τ sp ) U 2S =( G 0 N 3 S+ G 0 N 2 S+β N 3 / τ sp ); U 3ϕ = U 2ϕ = U Sϕ =0
δ N 3,2,1 (t)= n 3,2,1 e jωt ; δS(t)=s e jωt ; δϕ(t)=φ e jωt
[ jω+ γ 11 γ 12 0 γ 14 0 γ 21 jω+ γ 22 0 γ 24 0 γ 31 γ 32 jω 0 0 γ 41 γ 42 0 jω+ γ 44 0 γ 51 γ 52 0 0 jω ][ n 3 ( ω ) n 2 ( ω ) n 1 ( ω ) s( ω ) φ( ω ) ]=[ F 3 ( ω ) F 2 ( ω ) F 1 ( ω ) F s ( ω ) F ϕ ( ω ) ]
γ 11 = G 0 S+1/ τ 32 +1/ τ 31 ; γ 12 = G 0 S; γ 14 = G 0 ΔN γ 21 = G 0 S+1/ τ 32 ; γ 22 = G 0 S+1/ τ 21 ; γ 24 = G 0 ΔN γ 31 =1/ τ 31 ; γ 32 =1/ τ 21 ; γ 41 =m G 0 S+mβ/ τ sp γ 42 =m G 0 S; γ 44 =1/ τ p m G 0 ΔN γ 51 =m α H G 0 /2; γ 52 =m α H G 0 /2
FN(ω)= | jωφ/(2π) | 2
Δ v IL D =( v g 2 α T α m 4π P 0 n sp hυ )( 1+ α H 2 )
Δ v ST C 2πFN(ω) =m N 3 G 0 S+β/ τ sp 4π S 2 m G 0 N 3 4πS
Δ v IL C 2πFN(ω0) =Δ v ST C ( 1+ α H 2 ) m G 0 N 3 4πS ( 1+ α H 2 )
Δ v IL C = v g α T G 0 4π τ 32 τ 32 τ 21 ( hv v g α m G 0 P 0 + τ 21 )( 1+ α H 2 )
Δ v IL C = v g α T G 0 4π η τ 1 τ 32 1 + τ 31 1 ( 1 I 0 / I th 1 +1 η τ )( 1+ α H 2 )
η τ = τ 31 ( τ 32 τ 21 ) τ 32 ( τ 31 + τ 21 ) I th = τ 32 + τ 31 τ 31 ( τ 32 τ 21 ) q η v g α T m G 0
Δ v ILmin C = v g α T G 0 4π τ 32 τ 21 τ 32 τ 21 ( 1+ α H 2 )

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