Abstract

We demonstrated the growth of crack-free high-quality GaN-based UV vertical LEDs (VLEDs) (λ = 365 nm) on 6-inch sapphire substrates by using an ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layer (NL) and compared their performance with that of UV VLEDs with an in situ low temperature (LT) AlGaN NL. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the ex-situ AlN sample contained lower densities of screw-type and edge-type threading dislocations than the in situ AlGaN NL sample. The micro-Raman results revealed that the ex-situ AlN sample was under more compressive stress than the in situ AlGaN sample. As the current was increased, the electroluminescence peaks of both of the samples blue-shifted, reached a minimum wavelength at 1000 mA, and then slightly red-shifted. Packaged VLEDs with the ex-situ AlN NL yielded 6.5% higher light output power at 500 mA than that with the in situ AlGaN NL. The maximum EQEs of the VLED with the in situ AlGaN and ex-situ AlN NLs were 43.7% and 48.2%, respectively. Based on the XRD and Raman results, the improved light output power of the ex-situ AlN sample is attributed to the lower density of TDs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  2. A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2 (2), 77–84 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. A. Pounce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “In situ monitoring and Hall measurements of GaN grown with GaN buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5543–5549 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. C. Chang, Y. A. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, “Spatial correlation between efficiency and crystal structure in GaN-based light-emitting diodes prepared on high-aspect ratio patterned sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(7), 2443–2447 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. S.-W. Chen, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers,” AIP Adv. 6(4), 045311 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S.-Y. Huang and J.-R. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy observation of dislocations in GaN grown on (0001) sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7998–8002 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. W. Chen, Y. F. Chen, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Cross-sectional Raman spectra of InN epi films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 041907 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Yu, D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, “Growth of high crystalline quality semi-insulating GaN layers for high electron mobility transistor applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033501 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Karpov, “Suppression of phase separation in InGaN due to elastic strain,” MRS Int. J. Nitride Semiconductor Res. 3, e16 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  31. J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. C.-F. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of pre-strained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

S.-W. Chen, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers,” AIP Adv. 6(4), 045311 (2016).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Chang, Y. A. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, “Spatial correlation between efficiency and crystal structure in GaN-based light-emitting diodes prepared on high-aspect ratio patterned sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(7), 2443–2447 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2 (2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Huang and J.-R. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy observation of dislocations in GaN grown on (0001) sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7998–8002 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C.-F. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of pre-strained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

H. Yu, D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, “Growth of high crystalline quality semi-insulating GaN layers for high electron mobility transistor applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. W. Chen, Y. F. Chen, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Cross-sectional Raman spectra of InN epi films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 041907 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Karpov, “Suppression of phase separation in InGaN due to elastic strain,” MRS Int. J. Nitride Semiconductor Res. 3, e16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. A. Pounce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “In situ monitoring and Hall measurements of GaN grown with GaN buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5543–5549 (1992).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Airey, R. J.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2 (2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bell, A.

M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

F. A. Pounce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Caliskan, D.

H. Yu, D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, “Growth of high crystalline quality semi-insulating GaN layers for high electron mobility transistor applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, L. C.

L. C. Chang, Y. A. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, “Spatial correlation between efficiency and crystal structure in GaN-based light-emitting diodes prepared on high-aspect ratio patterned sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(7), 2443–2447 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-J.

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
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Chen, C.-H.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-F. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of pre-strained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
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J. W. Chen, Y. F. Chen, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Cross-sectional Raman spectra of InN epi films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 041907 (2005).
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S.-W. Chen, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers,” AIP Adv. 6(4), 045311 (2016).
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Chen, W.-K.

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
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Chen, Y. A.

L. C. Chang, Y. A. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, “Spatial correlation between efficiency and crystal structure in GaN-based light-emitting diodes prepared on high-aspect ratio patterned sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(7), 2443–2447 (2014).
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Chen, Y. F.

J. W. Chen, Y. F. Chen, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Cross-sectional Raman spectra of InN epi films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 041907 (2005).
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C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
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Chiang, C.-Y.

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
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C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.-H.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, M. W.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
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Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Comming, P.

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
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Cullis, A. G.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
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J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
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J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
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David, J. P. R.

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
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Dawson, M. D.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
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Dong, K.

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Ferguson, I.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
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Fischer, A. M.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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Follstaedt, D. M.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujii, K.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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Gong, Z.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goto, H.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goto, T.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
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Gradecak, S.

S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
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Gu, E.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gui, C.

H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, E.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ha, J. S.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
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Hanada, T.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
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C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
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Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
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Hsu, E.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C.-F. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of pre-strained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
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Huang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Huang and J.-R. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy observation of dislocations in GaN grown on (0001) sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7998–8002 (2008).
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Hwang, J. M.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hyo-Jong Lee, J. S.

H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
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Ide, K.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
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Ilegems, M.

S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
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Iwaya, M.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
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Izumi, Y.

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
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Jeong, H.

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
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Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Jou, M. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
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Karpov, S.

S. Karpov, “Suppression of phase separation in InGaN due to elastic strain,” MRS Int. J. Nitride Semiconductor Res. 3, e16 (1998).
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Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2 (2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ke, W.-C.

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2 (2), 77–84 (2008).
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Knauer, A.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ko, T.-K.

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kueller, V.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. H.

L. C. Chang, Y. A. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, “Spatial correlation between efficiency and crystal structure in GaN-based light-emitting diodes prepared on high-aspect ratio patterned sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(7), 2443–2447 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
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Lai, W.-C.

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C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
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Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, F.-W.

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
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Lee, H. J.

H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
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Lee, H.-J.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
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S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
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Lee, K. B.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
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Lee, S. R.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
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Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
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H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. I.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. B.

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

S.-W. Chen, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers,” AIP Adv. 6(4), 045311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, H. D.

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. Y.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, Z.-Y.

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limb, J.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, B. C.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.-C.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, R.-M.

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
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C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
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J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
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Liu, J. P.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
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T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
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Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.-C.

S.-W. Chen, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers,” AIP Adv. 6(4), 045311 (2016).
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M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
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T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
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M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “In situ monitoring and Hall measurements of GaN grown with GaN buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5543–5549 (1992).
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S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “In situ monitoring and Hall measurements of GaN grown with GaN buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5543–5549 (1992).
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J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
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S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
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Ranalli, F.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
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Rodriguez, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Ross, I. M.

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
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Ryou, J.-H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
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Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
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Sawaki, N.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
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J. W. Chen, Y. F. Chen, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Cross-sectional Raman spectra of InN epi films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 041907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “In situ monitoring and Hall measurements of GaN grown with GaN buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5543–5549 (1992).
[Crossref]

Seong, T.-Y.

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-O.

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
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S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stevens, M.

M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
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M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, Y.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
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Tsai, M. T.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tu, P. M.

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

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C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, V.

S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
[Crossref]

Waldrip, K. E.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-K.

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

West, A. M.

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.-i.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

C.-F. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of pre-strained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-R.

S.-Y. Huang and J.-R. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy observation of dislocations in GaN grown on (0001) sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7998–8002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-Y.

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, T.

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yen, C.-H.

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoo, D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, “Growth of high crystalline quality semi-insulating GaN layers for high electron mobility transistor applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. X.

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

W.-C. Ke, F.-W. Lee, C.-Y. Chiang, Z.-Y. Liang, W.-K. Chen, and T.-Y. Seong, “InGaN-based LEDs grown on a micro-/nano-scale hybrid patterned sapphire substrate,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(50), 34520–34529 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

S.-W. Chen, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers,” AIP Adv. 6(4), 045311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Gradečak, P. Stadelmann, V. Wagner, and M. Ilegems, “Bending of dislocations in GaN during epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4648–4650 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chen, Y. F. Chen, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Cross-sectional Raman spectra of InN epi films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(4), 041907 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. R. Lee, A. M. West, A. A. Allerman, K. E. Waldrip, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, D. D. Koleske, and C. R. Abernathy, “Effect of threading dislocations on the Bragg peak widths of GaN, AlGaN, and AlN Heterolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241904 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Stevens, A. Bell, M. R. McCartney, F. A. Ponce, H. Marui, and S. Tanaka, “Effect of layer thickness on the electrostatic potential in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4651–4653 (2004).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-F. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, C.-F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of pre-strained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. W. Lee, J. S. Ha, H.-J. Lee, H.-J. Lee, H. Goto, T. Hanada, T. Goto, K. Fujii, M. W. Cho, and T. Yao, “Lattice strain in bulk GaN epilayers grown on CrN/sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 082105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, T. Wei, E. Guo, X. Yi, L. Wang, J. Wang, G. Wang, Y. Shi, I. Ferguson, and J. Li, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 091104 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AIN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. Chang, D. Chen, J. Xue, K. Dong, B. Liu, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “AlGaN-based multiple quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 1600207 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

C.-H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, Y.-Y. Yang, C.-K. Wang, T.-K. Ko, S.-J. Hon, and S.-J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 294–296 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

L. C. Chang, Y. A. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, “Spatial correlation between efficiency and crystal structure in GaN-based light-emitting diodes prepared on high-aspect ratio patterned sapphire substrate with sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 61(7), 2443–2447 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. Comming, P. J. Parbrook, J. P. R. David, and A. G. Cullis, “Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure by using a high-temperature AlN buffer on sapphire substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(2), 023513 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “In situ monitoring and Hall measurements of GaN grown with GaN buffer layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(11), 5543–5549 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, D. Caliskan, and E. Ozbay, “Growth of high crystalline quality semi-insulating GaN layers for high electron mobility transistor applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033501 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

J. Bai, T. Wang, P. J. Parbrook, I. M. Ross, and A. G. Cullis, “V-shaped pits formed at the GaN/AlN interface,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 63–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, Y. H. Liu, Y. B. Lee, Y. Izumi, H. D. Li, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “Fabrication of high performance of AlGaN/GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 235(1–4), 177–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, Y. W. Lin, M. T. Tsai, B. C. Lin, Z. Y. Li, P. M. Tu, S. C. Huang, E. Hsu, W. Y. Uen, W. I. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “Improved output power of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes sputtered AlN nucleation layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 414, 258–262 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Wang, K. B. Lee, J. Bai, P. J. Parbrook, F. Ranalli, Q. Wang, R. J. Airey, A. G. Cullis, H. X. Zhang, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “The 310-340nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes grown using a thin GaN interlayer on a high temperature AlN buffer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094003 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-Y. Huang and J.-R. Yang, “Transmission electron microscopy observation of dislocations in GaN grown on (0001) sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7998–8002 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

J. Han, D. Lee, B. Jin, H. Jeong, J.-O. Song, and T.-Y. Seong, “Optimizing n-type contact design and chip size for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based thin-film vertical LED,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 31(1), 153–159 (2015).
[Crossref]

MRS Int. J. Nitride Semiconductor Res. (1)

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Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

C.-Y. Lee, A.-J. Tzou, B.-C. Lin, Y.-P. Lan, C.-H. Chiu, G.-C. Chi, C.-H. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, R.-M. Lin, and C.-Y. Chang, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 505 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2 (2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

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F. A. Pounce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386(6623), 351–359 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

H. Goto, S. W. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. S. Hyo-Jong Lee, “Chemical lift-off GaN epitaxial films grown on c-sapphire substrates with CrN buffer layers,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6), 1659–1661 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Hu, S. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Gao, C. Gui, and S. Liu, “Effects of GaN/AlGaN/Sputtered AlN nucleation layers on performance of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44627 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical micrograph of crack-free GaN-based VLEDs fabricated on a 6-inch metal supporter. (b) A VLED chip and (c) an emission image obtained at 2 mA are shown right.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XRD rocking curves for (a) the (002) and (b) (102) planes of in situ AlGaN and ex-situ AlN NL samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Raman spectra obtained from the in situ AlGaN and ex-situ AlN NL samples. (b) Enlarged E2 (high) spectra.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The peak wavelengths and (b) FWHMs of the EL spectra of LEDs with the in situ AlGaN and ex-situ AlN NLs as a function of injection current. (c) The EL spectra measured at an injection current of 500 mA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The light output-current power-drive current characteristics and (b) EQE of fully packaged UV LEDs fabricated with the in situ AlGaN and ex-situ AlN NLs. (b) The EQE of packaged VLEDs with the in situ AlGaN and ex-situ AlN NLs as a function of the forward current.

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