Abstract

We report two designs of silicon photonic dual-drive Michelson interferometric modulators (MIMs) suitable for four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) that do not require digital-to-analog converters or digital signal processing. The PN junctions in MIM-1 have an asymmetric geometry and 4 doping concentrations, while those in MIM-2 have a symmetric geometry and 6 doping concentrations. We simulate and experimentally demonstrate that MIM-2 has a larger modulation efficiency and a better electro-optic (EO) bandwidth than MIM-1. The measured VπLπ of MIM-2 at −2 V bias is 0.8 V-cm, and the measured 3-dB EO bandwidth at 0 V bias is 9.3 GHz. By carefully choosing the bias conditions of the device and the driving binary radio-frequency signals applied on each phase shifter, PAM-4 signals with even spacings are generated. Successful 56 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 2 km of standard single mode fiber is presented, with an estimated bit error rate below the hard-decision forward error correction threshold of 3.8 × 10−3.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
400 Gb/s O-band silicon photonic transmitter for intra-datacenter optical interconnects

Eslam El-Fiky, Alireza Samani, David Patel, Maxime Jacques, Mohamed Sowailem, and David V. Plant
Opt. Express 27(7) 10258-10268 (2019)

100 Gb/s PAM4 transmission system for datacenter interconnects using a SiP ME-MZM based DAC-less transmitter and a VSB self-coherent receiver

Zhenping Xing, Alireza Samani, Meng Xiang, Eslam El-Fiky, Thang M. Hoang, David Patel, Rui Li, Meng Qiu, Md. Ghulam Saber, Mohamed Morsy-Osman, and David V. Plant
Opt. Express 26(18) 23969-23979 (2018)

Experimental parametric study of 128 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission system using a multi-electrode silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulator

Alireza Samani, David Patel, Mathieu Chagnon, Eslam El-Fiky, Rui Li, Maxime Jacques, Nicolás Abadía, Venkat Veerasubramanian, and David V. Plant
Opt. Express 25(12) 13252-13262 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Cisco Visual Networking white paper, “Cisco global cloud index: forecast and methodology, 2015-2020,” (Cisco, 2016), https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/global-cloud-index-gci/white-paper-c11-738085.pdf
  2. E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. IEEE P802.3bs 40GbE and 100GbE Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/ba/index.html
  4. E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. IEEE P802.3bs 400GbE Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/index.html
  6. J. E. Bowers and A. Y. Liu, “A comparison of four approaches to photonic integration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2B.4.
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Dubé-Demers, C. S. Park, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “60 Gb/s PAM-4 operation with a silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 153–154.
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4H.3.
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Zheng, J. Ding, S. Shao, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Silicon PAM-4 optical modulator driven by two binary electrical signals with different peak-to-peak voltages,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2213–2216 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Shao, J. Ding, L. Zheng, K. Zou, L. Zhang, F. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Optical PAM-4 signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23003–23013 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
    [Crossref]
  19. M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3400308 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.
  22. S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Verbist, J. Lamprecht, M. Verplaetse, J. V. Kerrebrouck, A. Srinivasan, P. D. Heyn, T. D. Keulenaer, X. Yin, J. V. Campenhout, G. Roelkens, and J. Bauwelinck, “DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmitter at 112 Gb/s with two parallel GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2017), paper. Th.PDP.C.5.
  24. M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 using a silicon photonic dual-drive Michelson interferometric modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W4D.1.
  27. G. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems (John Wiley, 2005), Ch. 5.
  28. M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. A. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design (Cambridge University, 2015).
  34. H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics North 2013 8915, 89150V (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Z. Lu, J. Jhoja, J. Klein, X. Wang, A. Liu, J. Flueckiger, J. Pond, and L. Chrostowski, “Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability,” Opt. Express 25(9), 9712–9733 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2017 (9)

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zheng, J. Ding, S. Shao, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Silicon PAM-4 optical modulator driven by two binary electrical signals with different peak-to-peak voltages,” Opt. Lett. 42(11), 2213–2216 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shao, J. Ding, L. Zheng, K. Zou, L. Zhang, F. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Optical PAM-4 signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23003–23013 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, J. Jhoja, J. Klein, X. Wang, A. Liu, J. Flueckiger, J. Pond, and L. Chrostowski, “Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability,” Opt. Express 25(9), 9712–9733 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3400308 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abadia, N.

Absil, P.

Alloatti, L.

Amann, M.-C.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bakopoulos, P.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baudot, C.

Bauwelinck, J.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

Beausoleil, R. G.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Bennett, B.

R. A. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boeuf, F.

Bogaerts, W.

Chagnon, M.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charbonnier, B.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Crozat, P.

D’Mello, Y.

Descos, A.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dubé-Demers, R.

R. Dubé-Demers, C. S. Park, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “60 Gb/s PAM-4 operation with a silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 153–154.
[Crossref]

Dubray, O.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

El-Fiky, E.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Fard, M. M. P.

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3400308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Gagné, J.-F.

Ghosh, S.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hai, M. S.

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3400308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hirtzlin, T.

Hochberg, M.

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jhoja, J.

Kaur, K. S.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klein, J.

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Kwong, D. L.

LaRochelle, S.

R. Dubé-Demers, C. S. Park, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “60 Gb/s PAM-4 operation with a silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 153–154.
[Crossref]

Latrasse, C.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lessard, S.

Leuthold, J.

Li, C.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

Li, Q.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Li, Y.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3400308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E.-J.

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

Liu, A.

Liu, Y.

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Lu, Z.

Ma, Y.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magill, P.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Menezo, S.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

Messaoudène, S.

Moazeni, S.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morsy-Osman, M.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

Osman, M.

Padmaraju, K.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Painchaud, Y.

Palermo, S.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

Paquet, C.

Park, C. S.

R. Dubé-Demers, C. S. Park, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “60 Gb/s PAM-4 operation with a silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 153–154.
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perez-Galacho, D.

Plant, D.

Plant, D. V.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pond, J.

Popovic, M.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Poulin, M.

Ram, R. J.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roshan-Zamir, A.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

Saber, M. G.

Samani, A.

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyedi, M. A.

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

Shao, S.

Shi, W.

R. Dubé-Demers, C. S. Park, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “60 Gb/s PAM-4 operation with a silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 153–154.
[Crossref]

Soenen, W.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Soref, R.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sowailem, M.

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiga, S.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tao, S. H.

Telaprolu, S.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vaernewyck, R.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Veerasubramanian, V.

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Vulliet, N.

Wade, M.

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xing, Z.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Z.

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Yu, K.

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

Yu, M. B.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, L.

Zhong, Q.

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zou, K.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Hai, M. M. P. Fard, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A ring-based 25 Gb/s DAC-less PAM-4 modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 3400308 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Moazeni, S. Lin, M. Wade, L. Alloatti, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 40-Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter based on a ring-resonator optical DAC in 45-nm SOI CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 52(12), 3503–3516 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, E. El-Fiky, D. Patel, and D. V. Plant, “A silicon photonic PAM-4 modulator based on dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800610 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Samani, M. Chagnon, D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, M. Morsy-Osman, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “A low-voltage 35-GHz silicon photonic modulator-enabled 112-Gb/s transmission system,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 7901413 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

E. El-Fiky, M. Chagnon, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “168-Gb/s single carrier PAM4 transmission for intra-data center optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(3), 314–317 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Soenen, R. Vaernewyck, X. Yin, S. Spiga, M.-C. Amann, K. S. Kaur, P. Bakopoulos, and J. Bauwelinck, “40 Gb/s PAM-4 transmitter IC for long-wavelength VCSEL links,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(4), 344–347 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic ring-assisted MZI for 50 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(12), 1046–1049 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(23), 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon travelling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, J. Jhoja, J. Klein, X. Wang, A. Liu, J. Flueckiger, J. Pond, and L. Chrostowski, “Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability,” Opt. Express 25(9), 9712–9733 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, T. Y. Liow, M. B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15304–15311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm,” Opt. Express 22(17), 21018–21036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed compact silicon photonic Michelson interferometric modulator,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26788–26802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shao, J. Ding, L. Zheng, K. Zou, L. Zhang, F. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Optical PAM-4 signal generation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23003–23013 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. El-Fiky, M. Osman, M. Sowailem, A. Samani, D. Patel, R. Li, M. G. Saber, Y. Wang, N. Abadia, Y. D’Mello, and D. V. Plant, “200 Gb/s transmission using a dual-polarization O-Band silicon photonic intensity modulator for Stokes vector direct detection applications,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30336–30348 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Patel, S. Ghosh, M. Chagnon, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14263–14287 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, M. Morsy-Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13222–13229 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (14)

R. Dubé-Demers, C. S. Park, S. LaRochelle, and W. Shi, “60 Gb/s PAM-4 operation with a silicon microring modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2015), pp. 153–154.
[Crossref]

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4H.3.
[Crossref]

O. Dubray, M. A. Seyedi, C. H. Chen, B. Charbonnier, A. Descos, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, and S. Menezo, “30Gbit/s PAM-4 transmission by modulating a dual silicon ring resonator modulator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 6–7.
[Crossref]

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A two-segmented optical DAC 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 5–6.

Cisco Visual Networking white paper, “Cisco global cloud index: forecast and methodology, 2015-2020,” (Cisco, 2016), https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/global-cloud-index-gci/white-paper-c11-738085.pdf

A. Roshan-Zamir, B. Wang, S. Telaprolu, K. Yu, C. Li, M. A. Seyedi, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, and S. Palermo, “A 40 Gb/s PAM4 silicon microring resonator modulator transmitter in 65nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (IEEE, 2016), pp. 8–9.
[Crossref]

IEEE P802.3bs 400GbE Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/index.html

J. E. Bowers and A. Y. Liu, “A comparison of four approaches to photonic integration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper M2B.4.
[Crossref]

IEEE P802.3bs 40GbE and 100GbE Task Force, http://www.ieee802.org/3/ba/index.html

R. Li, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, Z. Xing, Y. Wang, and D. V. Plant, “56 Gb/s DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 using a silicon photonic dual-drive Michelson interferometric modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper W4D.1.

G. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems (John Wiley, 2005), Ch. 5.

J. Verbist, J. Lamprecht, M. Verplaetse, J. V. Kerrebrouck, A. Srinivasan, P. D. Heyn, T. D. Keulenaer, X. Yin, J. V. Campenhout, G. Roelkens, and J. Bauwelinck, “DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 transmitter at 112 Gb/s with two parallel GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” in Proceedings of European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications (2017), paper. Th.PDP.C.5.

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design (Cambridge University, 2015).

H. Yun, W. Shi, Y. Wang, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “2×2 adiabatic 3-dB coupler on silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics North 2013 8915, 89150V (2013).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) An asymmetric PN junction with 4 doping concentrations [25] and (b) a symmetric PN junction design with 6 doping concentrations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Symmetric PN junction design with 4 doping concentrations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated (a) effective index changes and (b) propagation losses of the PN junctions with asymmetric 4, symmetric 4 and symmetric 6 doping concentrations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated (a) propagation losses at 0 V and −4 V bias voltages, (b) PN junction resistances at −4 V bias voltage with different widths of the P+/N + doping regions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic layout of the SiP dual-drive MIM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Micrographs of the fabricated (a) MIM-1 and (b) MIM-2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured DC transmission spectra when applying reverse bias voltages on (a) arm-1 and (b) arm-2 of MIM-1.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured DC transmission spectra when applying reverse bias voltages on (a) arm-1 and (b) arm-2 of MIM-2.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated (a) phase shifts and (b) VπLπ of each phase shifter on the two MIMs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured DC transmission spectra when applying reverse bias voltages on both phase shifters of (a) MIM-1 and (b) MIM-2.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Measured (a) EE S11 magnitudes and (b) EO S21 magnitudes under 0 V bias voltage.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Measured EO S21 magnitudes under −2.83 V for arm-1 and −5.39 V for arm-2.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Experimental setup for DAC-less and DSP-free PAM-4 using the SiP dual-drive MIMs.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 PAM-4 BERs and eye diagrams of MIM-1.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 (a) PAM-4 BERs and eye diagrams of MIM-2, 28-Gbaud eye diagrams after 2 km of SSMF transmission by tuning on the RF signals on (a) arm-1 and (b) arm-2 of MIM-2.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of previously published DAC-less DSP-free PAM-4 SiP modulators with this work.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated resistances (Ω-cm) of the three PN junctions.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measured 3-dB EE and EO bandwidths.

Metrics