Abstract

The effect of employing an AlGaN cap layer in the active region of green c-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was studied. Each quantum well (QW) and barrier in the active region consisted of an InGaN QW and a thin Al0.30Ga0.70N cap layer grown at a relatively low temperature and a GaN barrier grown at a higher temperature. A series of experiments and simulations were carried out to explore the effects of varying the Al0.30Ga0.70N cap layer thickness and GaN barrier growth temperature on LED efficiency and electrical performance. We determined that the Al0.30Ga0.70N cap layer should be around 2 nm and the growth temperature of the GaN barrier should be approximately 75° C higher than the growth temperature of the InGaN QW to maximize the LED efficiency, minimize the forward voltage, and maintain good morphology. Optimized Al0.30Ga0.70N cap growth conditions within the active region resulted in high efficiency green LEDs with a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 40.7% at 3 A/cm2. At a normal operating condition of 20 A/cm2, output power, EQE, forward voltage, and emission wavelength were 13.8 mW, 29.5%, 3.5 V, and 529.3 nm, respectively.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  31. S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  33. L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bulashevich, A. V. Kulik, and S. Y. Karpov, “Optimal ways of colour mixing for high-quality white-light LED sources,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 914–919 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. T. Chen, U. Forsberg, and E. Janzén, “Impact of residual carbon on two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193506 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c -Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-Compensated Effect on the Growth of InGaN / AlGaN Multi-Quantum Well by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 33501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 23522 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. M. G. Craford, N. Holonyak, and F. A. Kish, “In Pursuit of the ULTIMATE LAMP,” Sci. Am. 284(2), 62–67 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus Piezoelectric Polarization in III-V Nitrides: Conceptual Aspects and Practical Consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination of Localized Excitons in InGaN Single- and Multiquantum-Well Structures,” MRS Proc. 449, 653–658 (1996).

1993 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “P-GaN / N-InGaN / N-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abare, A.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

Allerman, A. A.

A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-Compensated Effect on the Growth of InGaN / AlGaN Multi-Quantum Well by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, A.

A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Asamizu, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination of Localized Excitons in InGaN Single- and Multiquantum-Well Structures,” MRS Proc. 449, 653–658 (1996).

Baker, T. J.

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 23522 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus Piezoelectric Polarization in III-V Nitrides: Conceptual Aspects and Practical Consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blavette, D.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bryant, B. N.

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bulashevich, K. A.

K. A. Bulashevich, A. V. Kulik, and S. Y. Karpov, “Optimal ways of colour mixing for high-quality white-light LED sources,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 914–919 (2015).
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Butté, R.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
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Callsen, G.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
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L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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J. T. Chen, U. Forsberg, and E. Janzén, “Impact of residual carbon on two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193506 (2013).
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Cheng, Y.

Chichibu, S.

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Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
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D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
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Craford, J. M. G.

J. M. G. Craford, N. Holonyak, and F. A. Kish, “In Pursuit of the ULTIMATE LAMP,” Sci. Am. 284(2), 62–67 (2001).
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Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
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Crawford, M. H.

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
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A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
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M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
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Cross, K. C.

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
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Cruz, S. C.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
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Dalmasso, S.

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
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Damilano, B.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
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N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
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David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 33501 (2010).
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De Mierry, P.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
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DenBaars, S. P.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
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C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Doi, T.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-Compensated Effect on the Growth of InGaN / AlGaN Multi-Quantum Well by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elsass, C. R.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Farrell, R. M.

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus Piezoelectric Polarization in III-V Nitrides: Conceptual Aspects and Practical Consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
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Fischer, A. J.

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
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Forsberg, U.

J. T. Chen, U. Forsberg, and E. Janzén, “Impact of residual carbon on two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193506 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujito, K.

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Galler, B.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gil, B.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giraud, E.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 33501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ha, J. S.

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, R.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c -Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, T. A.

A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hernández-Maldonado, D.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Holonyak, N.

J. M. G. Craford, N. Holonyak, and F. A. Kish, “In Pursuit of the ULTIMATE LAMP,” Sci. Am. 284(2), 62–67 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honda, Y.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-Compensated Effect on the Growth of InGaN / AlGaN Multi-Quantum Well by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsiung, C.-L.

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-Y.

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hussain, S.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c -Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
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Ikeda, M.

Ikenaga, K.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
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Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
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Ito, T.

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
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Janzén, E.

J. T. Chen, U. Forsberg, and E. Janzén, “Impact of residual carbon on two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193506 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpov, S. Y.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. A. Bulashevich, A. V. Kulik, and S. Y. Karpov, “Optimal ways of colour mixing for high-quality white-light LED sources,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 914–919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kempisty, J. M.

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
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Kim, C. M.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
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Kim, E. H.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. G.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kimura, S.

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kish, F. A.

J. M. G. Craford, N. Holonyak, and F. A. Kish, “In Pursuit of the ULTIMATE LAMP,” Sci. Am. 284(2), 62–67 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koslow, I.

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kotula, P. G.

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kulik, A. V.

K. A. Bulashevich, A. V. Kulik, and S. Y. Karpov, “Optimal ways of colour mixing for high-quality white-light LED sources,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 914–919 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kure, T.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laügt, M.

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, I. H.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. R.

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leem, S. J.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lefebvre, W.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lekhal, K.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leroux, M.

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, Z.

Lin, Y.-D.

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Lugauer, H.-J.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mack, M.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mancini, L.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mangyo, H.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
[Crossref]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, K.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Melo, T.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, Y.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mughal, A.

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “P-GaN / N-InGaN / N-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 23522 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination of Localized Excitons in InGaN Single- and Multiquantum-Well Structures,” MRS Proc. 449, 653–658 (1996).

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “P-GaN / N-InGaN / N-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nenstiel, C.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ngo, H. T.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nippert, F.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nunoue, S.

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c -Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okada, A.

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okada, N.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Onuma, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C. C.

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Petroff, P. M.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rigutti, L.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A. E.

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 23522 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rosales, D.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rosner, S. J.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Saifaddin, B.

Saito, S.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c -Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “P-GaN / N-InGaN / N-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y. C.

S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shioda, T.

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sonoda, J.

C. C. Pan, I. Koslow, J. Sonoda, H. Ohta, J. S. Ha, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Vertical stand transparent light-emitting diode architecture for high-efficiency and high-power light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 80210 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Recombination of Localized Excitons in InGaN Single- and Multiquantum-Well Structures,” MRS Proc. 449, 653–658 (1996).

Speck, J. S.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 23522 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Straßburg, M.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, N.

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tachibana, K.

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tadatomo, K.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, A.

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uesugi, K.

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Van De Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vennéguès, P.

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vurpillot, F.

L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M. R.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, P.

Wierer, J. J.

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. H.

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-Compensated Effect on the Growth of InGaN / AlGaN Multi-Quantum Well by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, S.

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamane, K.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yano, Y.

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

Y.-D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C.-Y. Huang, C.-L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High quality InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 82001 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c -Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

K. Lekhal, B. Damilano, H. T. Ngo, D. Rosales, P. De Mierry, S. Hussain, P. Vennéguès, and B. Gil, “Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. H. Wu, C. R. Elsass, A. Abare, M. Mack, S. Keller, P. M. Petroff, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. J. Rosner, “Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(6), 692–694 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Armstrong, A. A. Allerman, T. A. Henry, and M. H. Crawford, “Influence of growth temperature on AlGaN multiquantum well point defect incorporation and photoluminescence efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 162110 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 33501 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. Delille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 31101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. T. Chen, U. Forsberg, and E. Janzén, “Impact of residual carbon on two-dimensional electron gas properties in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193506 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kioupakis, Q. Yan, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Interplay of polarization fields and Auger recombination in the efficiency droop of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231107 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

N. Grandjean, B. Damilano, S. Dalmasso, M. Leroux, M. Laügt, and J. Massies, “Built-in electric-field effects in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3714–3720 (1999).
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L. Rigutti, L. Mancini, D. Hernández-Maldonado, W. Lefebvre, E. Giraud, R. Butté, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, D. Blavette, and F. Vurpillot, “Statistical correction of atom probe tomography data of semiconductor alloys combined with optical spectroscopy: The case of Al0.25Ga0.75N,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(10), 105704 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 23522 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Kimura, H. Yoshida, K. Uesugi, T. Ito, A. Okada, and S. Nunoue, “Performance enhancement of blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on Si substrates by inserting thin AlGaN interlayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(11), 113104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

D. D. Koleske, S. R. Lee, M. H. Crawford, K. C. Cross, M. E. Coltrin, and J. M. Kempisty, “Connection between GaN and InGaN growth mechanisms and surface morphology,” J. Cryst. Growth 391, 85–96 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, B. N. Bryant, P. G. Kotula, and J. J. Wierer, “On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530–590nm with AlGaN interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 415, 57–64 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43(35), 354002 (2010).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (1 0 −1 0) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, K. Yamane, H. Mangyo, Y. Kobayashi, H. Ono, K. Ikenaga, Y. Yano, and K. Matsumoto, “Performance of InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes grown using NH3 with oxygen-containing impurities with oxygen-containing impurities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 81001 (2014).
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S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “P-GaN / N-InGaN / N-GaN Double-Heterostructure Blue-Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), L8–L11 (1993).
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T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-Compensated Effect on the Growth of InGaN / AlGaN Multi-Quantum Well by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
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MRS Proc. (1)

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Nat. Mater. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,Ga)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Status Solidi (3)

T. Shioda, H. Yoshida, K. Tachibana, N. Sugiyama, and S. Nunoue, “Enhanced light output power of green LEDs employing AlGaN interlayer in InGaN/GaN MQW structure on sapphire (0001) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 473–476 (2012).
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K. A. Bulashevich, A. V. Kulik, and S. Y. Karpov, “Optimal ways of colour mixing for high-quality white-light LED sources,” Phys. Status Solidi 212(5), 914–919 (2015).
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F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Spontaneous versus Piezoelectric Polarization in III-V Nitrides: Conceptual Aspects and Practical Consequences,” Phys. Status Solidi 216(1), 391–398 (1999).
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J. M. G. Craford, N. Holonyak, and F. A. Kish, “In Pursuit of the ULTIMATE LAMP,” Sci. Am. 284(2), 62–67 (2001).
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S. J. Leem, Y. C. Shin, E. H. Kim, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, Y. Moon, I. H. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well layers by a two-step varied-barrier-growth temperature method,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125039 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sectional schematics of (a) a full MQW LED structure with an AlGaN cap layer of varying thickness and (b) a simplified SQW LED structure for simulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Dependence of EQE on current density, (b) dependence of voltage on injection current density, (c) normalized electroluminescence at 20 A/cm2 for LEDs with various AlGaN cap layer thicknesses, and (d) dependence of EL peak wavelength on current density.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated energy band diagrams and ground state electron and hole wavefunctions under forward bias (J = 20 A/cm2) for SQW LEDs with 1 nm (blue line) and 4.5 nm (red line) AlGaN cap layers. (b) Simulated electric field within the active region for both SQW LEDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of measured light output power at 20 A/cm2 on AlGaN cap layer thickness for MQW LEDs and dependence of simulated square of wavefunction overlap on AlGaN cap layer thickness for simplified SQW LED structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Dependence of EQE on current density, (b) dependence of voltage on current density, (c) Dependence of WPE on current density and (d) normalized electroluminescence spectra at 20 A/cm2 for LEDs with different AlGaN cap layer annealing temperatures. The inset shows the EL peak wavelength dependence on current density
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 AFM images of a GaN/InGaN/AlGaN SQW where the AlGaN cap annealing temperature is increased relative to the InGaN layer by (a) ∆T = 0 °C, (b) ∆T = 50 °C, (c) ∆T = 75 °C and (d) ∆T = 100 °C. All scans are 5 μm x 5 μm in size and 15 nm z-range.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) APT reconstruction and (b) HAADF-STEM image of a green LED with a five period InGaN/AlGaN/GaN MQW. The inset shows higher magnification of one period of the active region
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Dependence of light output power and forward voltage on current density. The inset shows a green LED under forward bias (J = 2 A/cm2) mounted on a header in a transparent vertical packaging geometry. (b) Dependence of EQE and WPE on current density for an optimized green LED with an active area of 0.1 mm2. The inset shows the EL peak wavelength dependence on current density

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 EL results of the green LEDs with different AlGaN cap layer thicknesses at 20 A/cm2

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