Abstract

By designing an appropriate defect potential in a nonresonantly pumped exciton-polariton condensate, the polariton dyad consisting of two spatially separated condensates with phase locking can be realized. We use the phase coupling of the polariton dyad to investigate the existence of both dark and anti-dark solitons in the condensates. Surprisingly, these dissipative solitons appear to be stable and are not affected by the noise both from the initial condition and from the propagation. We show that these stable solitons are transformed from a spontaneously created metastable states by choosing the state with the highest particle number.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(2), 3314–3317 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  3. J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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  5. E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Terahertz Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and Abrupt Decay of a Quasistationary Dark Soliton in a Polariton Condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. X. K. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and Manipulation of Stable Dark Solitons and Vortices in Microcavity Polariton Condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. V. Kartashov and D. V. Skryabin, “Two-dimensional lattice solitons in polariton condensates with spin-orbit coupling,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5043–5046 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Dissipative Solitons (Springer, 2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensate of Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007), URL.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Wouters and V. Savona, “Stochastic classical field model for polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 165302 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Matuszewski and E. Witkowska, “Universality in nonequilibrium condensation of exciton-polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 155318 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).
  28. A. Janot, T. Hyart, P. R. Eastham, and B. Rosenow, “Superfluid Stiffness of a Driven Dissipative Condensate with Disorder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230403 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. R. Eastham, “Mode locking and mode competition in a nonequilibrium solid-state condensate,” Phys. Rev. B,  78035319 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  30. D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. K. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and Manipulation of Stable Dark Solitons and Vortices in Microcavity Polariton Condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Y. V. Kartashov and D. V. Skryabin, “Two-dimensional lattice solitons in polariton condensates with spin-orbit coupling,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5043–5046 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. Matuszewski and E. Witkowska, “Universality in nonequilibrium condensation of exciton-polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 155318 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and Abrupt Decay of a Quasistationary Dark Soliton in a Polariton Condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

E. A. Ostrovskaya, J. Abdullaev, M. D. Fraser, A. S. Desyatnikov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-Localization of Polariton Condensates in Periodic Potentials”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Janot, T. Hyart, P. R. Eastham, and B. Rosenow, “Superfluid Stiffness of a Driven Dissipative Condensate with Disorder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230403 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Terahertz Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

O. A. Egorov, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and F. Lederer, “Bright Cavity Polariton Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 153904 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wouters and V. Savona, “Stochastic classical field model for polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 165302 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. R. Eastham, “Mode locking and mode competition in a nonequilibrium solid-state condensate,” Phys. Rev. B,  78035319 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensate of Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007), URL.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(2), 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdullaev, J.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, J. Abdullaev, M. D. Fraser, A. S. Desyatnikov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-Localization of Polariton Condensates in Periodic Potentials”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adrados, C.

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Dissipative Solitons (Springer, 2005).
[Crossref]

Amo, A.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andre, R.

F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

André, R.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andreoli, D.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Dissipative Solitons (Springer, 2005).
[Crossref]

Anton, C.

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(2), 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Askitopoulos, A.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baas, A.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, G.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastard, G.

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J.

A. V. Kavokin, J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berloff, N. G.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Biermann, K.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bloch, J.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boulier, T.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bradley, R. A.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
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A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Butté, R.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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Carlin, J.-F.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
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M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
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A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115303 (2005).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Dang, Le Si

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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E. A. Ostrovskaya, J. Abdullaev, M. D. Fraser, A. S. Desyatnikov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-Localization of Polariton Condensates in Periodic Potentials”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170407 (2013).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
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D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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A. Janot, T. Hyart, P. R. Eastham, and B. Rosenow, “Superfluid Stiffness of a Driven Dissipative Condensate with Disorder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230403 (2013).
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P. R. Eastham, “Mode locking and mode competition in a nonequilibrium solid-state condensate,” Phys. Rev. B,  78035319 (2008).
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X. K. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and Manipulation of Stable Dark Solitons and Vortices in Microcavity Polariton Condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
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Feltin, E.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
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Fontanesi, L.

F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
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G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
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Fraser, M. D.

E. A. Ostrovskaya, J. Abdullaev, M. D. Fraser, A. S. Desyatnikov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-Localization of Polariton Condensates in Periodic Potentials”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170407 (2013).
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G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
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Freegarde, T.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Giacobino, E.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
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A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
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Glazov, M. M.

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Terahertz Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
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M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Grandjean, N.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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Gregory, R. L.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Grousson, R.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Grundy, A.

S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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Guda, K.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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Gulevich, D. R.

D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
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Hartley, R.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Hey, R.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Hivet, R.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
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A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Hofling, S.

G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
[Crossref]

Houdre, R.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Hyart, T.

A. Janot, T. Hyart, P. R. Eastham, and B. Rosenow, “Superfluid Stiffness of a Driven Dissipative Condensate with Disorder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230403 (2013).
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Iorsh, I. V.

D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
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C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(2), 3314–3317 (1992).
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A. Janot, T. Hyart, P. R. Eastham, and B. Rosenow, “Superfluid Stiffness of a Driven Dissipative Condensate with Disorder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230403 (2013).
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Jeambrun, P.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Johne, R.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Kartashov, Y. V.

Kasprzak, J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Kavokin, A.

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
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Kavokin, A. V.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Terahertz Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri Höger von Högersthal, A. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, A. V. Kavokin, J. J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Room-Temperature Polariton Lasing in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 126405 (2007).
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A. V. Kavokin, J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).
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Keeling, J. M. J.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Kivshar, Y. S.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
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E. A. Ostrovskaya, J. Abdullaev, M. D. Fraser, A. S. Desyatnikov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-Localization of Polariton Condensates in Periodic Potentials”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170407 (2013).
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Krizhanovskii, D. N.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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Kundermann, S.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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Lagoudakis, P.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
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Lagoudakis, P. G.

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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
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J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
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Mai, L.

J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
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R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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A. V. Kavokin, J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).
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F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Martin, M. D.

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
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Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and Abrupt Decay of a Quasistationary Dark Soliton in a Polariton Condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
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M. Matuszewski and E. Witkowska, “Universality in nonequilibrium condensation of exciton-polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 155318 (2014).
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C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(2), 3314–3317 (1992).
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Ohadi, H.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
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Ostatnicky, T.

P. Cilibrizzi, H. Ohadi, T. Ostatnicky, A. Askitopoulos, W. Langbein, and P. Lagoudakis, “Linear Wave Dynamics Explains Observations Attributed to Dark Solitons in a Polariton Quantum Fluid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103901 (2014).
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L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
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E. A. Ostrovskaya, J. Abdullaev, M. D. Fraser, A. S. Desyatnikov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-Localization of Polariton Condensates in Periodic Potentials”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170407 (2013).
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F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
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D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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Pigeon, S.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Pisanello, F.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Plumhof, J. D.

J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
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Richard, M.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Ritchie, D. A.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
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Royall, B.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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Rubo, Y. G.

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Sagnes, I.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Sala, V. G.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Santos, P. V.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Sanvitto, D.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Savona, V.

F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
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M. Wouters and V. Savona, “Stochastic classical field model for polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 165302 (2009).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Scherf, U.

J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
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Schumacher, S.

X. K. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and Manipulation of Stable Dark Solitons and Vortices in Microcavity Polariton Condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
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Senellart, P.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Shelykh, I. A.

D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
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A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Terahertz Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
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Sich, M.

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Skolnick, M. S.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and Le Si Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Skryabin, D. V.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
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Y. V. Kartashov and D. V. Skryabin, “Two-dimensional lattice solitons in polariton condensates with spin-orbit coupling,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5043–5046 (2016).
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M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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O. A. Egorov, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and F. Lederer, “Bright Cavity Polariton Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 153904 (2009).
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Smirnov, L. A.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, D. A.

L. A. Smirnov, D. A. Smirnova, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dynamics and stability of dark solitons in exciton-polariton condensates,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Solnyshkov, D. D.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Staehli, J. L.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stöferle, T.

J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
[Crossref]

Szymanska, M. H.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanese, D.

R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taylor, T.

A. V. Kavokin, I. A. Shelykh, T. Taylor, and M. M. Glazov, “Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Terahertz Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 197401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tinkler, L.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vina, L.

C. Adrados, T. C. H. Liew, A. Amo, M. D. Martin, D. Sanvitto, C. Anton, E. Giacobino, A. Kavokin, A. Bramati, and L. Vina, “Motion of Spin Polariton Bullets in Semiconductor Microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, P. M.

P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(2), 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wertz, E.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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Whittaker, D. M.

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F. Manni, K. G. Lagoudakis, B. Pietka, L. Fontanesi, M. Wouters, V. Savona, R. Andre, and B. Deveaud-Pledran, “Polariton Condensation in a One-Dimensional Disordered Potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 176401 (2011).
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M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensate of Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007), URL.
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Y. Xue and M. Matuszewski, “Creation and Abrupt Decay of a Quasistationary Dark Soliton in a Polariton Condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216401 (2014).
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G. Roumpos, M. D. Fraser, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Single vortex-antivortex pair in an exciton-polariton condensate,” Nature Phys. 7, 129–133 (2011).
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Yudin, D.

D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
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O. A. Egorov, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and F. Lederer, “Bright Cavity Polariton Solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 153904 (2009).
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Nature (London) (1)

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and L. S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature (London) 443, 409–414 (2006).
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Nature Mater. (1)

J. D. Plumhof, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, U. Scherf, and R. F. Mahrt, “Room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of cavity exciton-polaritons in a polymer,” Nature Mater. 13, 247–252 (2014).
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Nature Photon. (1)

M. Sich, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, A. V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. V. Skryabin, E. A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, and P. V. Santos, “Observation of bright polariton solitons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature Photon. 6, 50–55 (2012).
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Nature Phys. (4)

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, and P. Senellart, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nature Phys. 6, 860–864 (2010).
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R. Hivet, H. Flayac, D. D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, T. Boulier, D. Andreoli, E. Giacobino, J. Bloch, A. Bramati, G. Malpuech, and A. Amo, “Half-solitons in a polariton quantum fluid behave like magnetic monopoles,” Nature Phys. 8, 724–728 (2012).
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X. K. Ma, O. A. Egorov, and S. Schumacher, “Creation and Manipulation of Stable Dark Solitons and Vortices in Microcavity Polariton Condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157401 (2017).
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P. M. Walker, L. Tinkler, B. Royall, D. V. Skryabin, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, M. S. Skolnick, and D. N. Krizhanovskii, “Dark Solitons in High Velocity Waveguide Polariton Fluids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 097403 (2017)
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

H. Ohadi, R. L. Gregory, T. Freegarde, Y. G. Rubo, A. V. Kavokin, N. G. Berloff, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Nontrivial Phase Coupling in Polariton Multiplets,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 031032 (2016).

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. R. Gulevich, D. Yudin, D. V. Skryabin, I. V. Iorsh, and I. A. Shelykh, “Exploring nonlinear topological states of matter with exciton-polaritons: Edge solitons in kagome lattice,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1780 (2017)
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Science (1)

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton Superfluids Reveal Quantum Hydrodynamic Solitons,” Science 332, 1167–1170 (2011).
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Other (2)

A. V. Kavokin, J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, and F. P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University, 2007).
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N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Dissipative Solitons (Springer, 2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Temporal evolution of polariton density |ψ(x, t)|2 towards polariton dyad in a 1D wire with defect potential, starting from a small initial noise. (b) Spatial profile of the corresponding density of Fig. 1(a) at t=10000ps (greed dashed line) and the external potential (red dotted line). (c) The initial noise
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The dynamical evolution from the in-phase state with a pair of dark solitons to the anti-phase state with only one stable dark solion. Spatial profile of the density (green dashed line) and the corresponding phase jump (red dotted line) for the dark solitons, respectively, at t=3000ps (b) and t=10000ps (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The oscillating dark soliton in the defect potential. Although it is a stable state, for better visual effects, we plot it only from t=6000ps to t=8000ps. (b) Corresponding density (green dashed line) and phase jump (red dotted line) at t=7000ps for the moving dark soliton.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Observation of the anti-dark soliton (the figure and the inset have the same axis unit), (b) Spatial profile of the density (green dashed line) for the anti-dark state and the external potential V(x) (red dotted line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The dynamical evolution from the in-phase state to the anti-phase state with different noise. (a) and (b): The initial seed is increased up to |ψ| = 0.1 with 100% noise ratio, the propagation quantum noise is 1%; (c) and (d): The initial seed is |ψ| = 0.01 with 100% noise ratio, the propagation quantum noise is added up to 10%.

Equations (6)

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d ψ = [ 2 m * 2 ψ x 2 ( i + D 0 n R ) + 1 2 ( R 1 D n R γ C ) R ψ i ( g C 1 D | ψ | 2 + g R 1 D n R + V ( x ) ψ ) ] d t + d W n R t = D 1 2 n R x 2 + P ( x ) ( γ R + R 1 D | ψ | 2 ) n R
< d W ( x ) d W ( x ) > = 0 , < d W ( x ) d W * ( x ) > = d t 2 d x ( R 1 D n R + γ C ) δ x , x
μ = 2 2 m * ( d d x S ( x ) ) 2 + g C 1 D ρ ( x ) + g R 1 D n R + V 0 2 2 m * ( d d x S ( x ) ) 2 + g C 1 D P 0 γ C + g R 1 D γ C g C 1 D γ R R 1 D + V 0
ψ ˜ ( x ) = ψ ( x + a 2 ) + e i θ ψ ( x a 2 )
I = | ψ ˜ ( x ) | 2 d x 2 ρ ( x ) d x + k c | ψ ( k c ) | 2 J 0 ( k c a ) cos ( θ ) / π
V ( x ) = { 0 | x | a V 0 | x | > a

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