Abstract

Weakly coupled-mode division multiplexing (MDM) over few-mode fibers (FMF) for short-reach transmission has attracted great interest, which can avoid multiple-input-multiple-output digital signal processing (MIMO-DSP) by greatly suppressing modal crosstalk. In this paper, step-index FMF supporting 4 linearity polarization (LP) modes for MIMO-free transmission is designed and fabricated for the first time, to our knowledge. Modal crosstalk of the fiber is suppressed by increasing the mode effective refractive index differences. The same fabrication method as standard single-mode fiber is adopted so that it is practical and cost-effective. The mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) consists of cascaded mode-selective couplers (MSCs), which are designed and fabricated by tapering the proposed FMF with single-mode fiber (SMF). The mode MUX and DEMUX achieve very low modal crosstalk not only for the multiplexing/demultiplexing but also for the coupling to/from the FMF. Based on the fabricated FMF and mode MUX/DEMUX, we successfully demonstrate the first simultaneous 4-modes (LP01, LP11, LP21 & LP31) 10-km FMF transmission with 10-Gb/s intensity modulation and MIMO-free direct detection (IM/DD). The modal crosstalk of the whole transmission link is successfully suppressed to less than −16.5 dB. The experimental results indicate that FMF with simple step-index structure supporting 4 weakly-coupled modes is feasible.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

A. Li, J. Ye, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Fabrication of a Low-Loss Fused Fiber Spatial-Mode Coupler for Few-Mode Transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1985–1988 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

1973 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Coupled Mode Theory of Round Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52(6), 817–842 (1973).
[Crossref]

Al Amin, A.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Astruc, M. B.

Bai, N.

Barré, N.

Bickham, S.

Bigo, S.

Bigot-Astruc, M.

Bolle, C.

Boutin, A.

Brambilla, G.

Bramerie, L.

Brindel, P.

Burrows, E. C.

Chand, N.

Charlet, G.

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Denolle, B.

Du, C.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Fontaine, N.

Fu, S.

Gao, G.

Gnauch, A. H.

Hanik, N.

He, Y.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, T.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-K.

Insou, X.

Ip, E.

Ismaeel, R.

Jian, P.

Jung, Y.

Ke, Y.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koebele, C.

Kuschnerov, M.

Labroille, G.

Lankl, B.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, T.

Lenglé, K.

Li, A.

Li, G.

Li, J.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-J.

Li, Z.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

Liu, D.

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lobato, A.

Love, J. D.

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Man Chung, K.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Coupled Mode Theory of Round Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52(6), 817–842 (1973).
[Crossref]

Mardoyan, H.

Mateo, E.

Mo, Q.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liang, Q. Mo, S. Fu, M. Tang, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Design and fabrication of elliptical-core few-mode fiber for MIMO-less data transmission,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3058–3061 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Molin, D.

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mumtaz, S.

Oduro, B.

Peng, G.-D.

Prieto, X.

Provost, L.

Randel, S.

Ren, F.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D.

Riesen, N.

Ryf, R.

Salsi, M.

Shieh, W.

Shum, P.

Sierra, A.

Sillard, P.

Sleiffer, V.

Sperti, D.

Tam, H.-Y.

Tang, M.

Tang, R.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ten, S.

Tran, P.

Tse, V.

Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

Verluise, F.

Wang, T.

Wen, H.

Xia, C.

Yaman, F.

Yang, Z.

Ye, J.

A. Li, J. Ye, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Fabrication of a Low-Loss Fused Fiber Spatial-Mode Coupler for Few-Mode Transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1985–1988 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

Zhu, B.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, “Coupled Mode Theory of Round Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52(6), 817–842 (1973).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Cascaded Mode Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Based on Low Mode-Crosstalk FMF and Mode MUX/DEMUX,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 7903509 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Hu, J. Li, F. Ren, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Demonstration of Bidirectional PON Based on Mode Division Multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(11), 1201–1204 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Li, J. Ye, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Fabrication of a Low-Loss Fused Fiber Spatial-Mode Coupler for Few-Mode Transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1985–1988 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (6)

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lenglé, X. Insou, P. Jian, N. Barré, B. Denolle, L. Bramerie, and G. Labroille, “4×10 Gbit/s bidirectional transmission over 2 km of conventional graded-index OM1 multimode fiber using mode group division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28594–28605 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Transmission of 107-Gb/s mode and polarization multiplexed CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8808–8814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Al Amin, A. Li, S. Chen, X. Chen, G. Gao, and W. Shieh, “Dual-LP11 mode 4×4 MIMO-OFDM transmission over a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16672–16679 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ismaeel, T. Lee, B. Oduro, Y. Jung, and G. Brambilla, “All-fiber fused directional coupler for highly efficient spatial mode conversion,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11610–11619 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

L. Rechtman and D. M. Marom, “Rectangular versus circular fiber core designs: New opportunities for mode division multiplexing?” in Proceedings of OFC (2017), paper Th2A. 10.
[Crossref]

F. Ren, J. Li, T. Hu, R. Tang, J. Yu, Q. Mo, Y. He, Z. Chen, and Z. Li, “Experimental Demonstration of 3-mode MDM-PON Transmission Over 7.4-km Low-mode-crosstalk FMF,” in Proceedings of OFC (2016), paper W2A.58.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The relationship between V and neff for the first 6 modes in FMF, (b) The relationship between Δn and Δneff at the core radius of 8 μm
Figure 2
Figure 2 (a) The relationship between r and Δneff for the 4 modes used as MDM channels, (b) The measured and simulated refractive index distribution of the designed FMF
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The photograph of mode MUX and DEMUX.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup of 4-mode 10 km transmission.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Impulse responses of each mode after 10 km FMF transmission.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Mode patterns of point A and B in Fig. 4.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Eyediagrams of B2B and 10-km FMF transmission.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 BER performance of 200-m and 10-km transmission.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical parameters of the fabricated FMF

Tables Icon

Table 2 The measured modal crosstalk among LP01, LP11, LP21 and LP31 for B2B and 10 km transmission

Tables Icon

Table 3 Insertion Losses for the Mode MUX, DEMUX and FMF

Metrics