Abstract

Twisted light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), which featuring helical phase front, has shown its potential applications in diverse areas, especially in optical communications in free space and specially designed fibers, e.g. a vortex fiber. Instead of specially designed fibers extensively used in the reported OAM-based fiber transmission experiments, here we demonstrate the viability of a conventional graded-index multi-mode fiber (MMF) for OAM multiplexing transmission with less digital signal processing (DSP) complexity. We demonstrate a 120-Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal transmission in an 8.8-km OM4 MMF by using OAM mode multiplexing with all the modes in the first two mode-groups (OAM01L, OAM01R, OAM+11L, OAM+11R, OAM11L, OAM11R) with only 2×2 and 4×4 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) equalization. Moreover, we demonstrate the data-carrying two OAM mode groups multiplexing transmission over the 8.8-km MMF without MIMO equalization. These demonstrations may open up new perspectives to enable the realistic use of OAM-based MMF solution in data centers and super-computers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber

Long Zhu, Andong Wang, Shi Chen, Jun Liu, Qi Mo, Cheng Du, and Jian Wang
Opt. Express 25(21) 25637-25645 (2017)

Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber

Andong Wang, Long Zhu, Shi Chen, Cheng Du, Qi Mo, and Jian Wang
Opt. Express 24(11) 11716-11726 (2016)

Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes

Guoxuan Zhu, Ziyang Hu, Xiong Wu, Cheng Du, Wenyong Luo, Yujie Chen, Xinlun Cai, Jie Liu, Jiangbo Zhu, and Siyuan Yu
Opt. Express 26(2) 594-604 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Spiral phase contrast imaging in microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(3), 689–694 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Anhäuser, R. Wunenburger, and E. Brasselet, “Acoustic rotational manipulation using orbital angular momentum transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 034301 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Zhu, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16934–16944 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. G. Milione, E. Ip, Y. Huang, P. Ji, T. Wang, M. Li, J. Stone, and G. Peng, “1.2-Tb/s MIMO-less transmission over 1 km of four-core elliptical-core few-mode fiber with 125-μm diameter cladding,” in Proceedings of Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2016), paper PD2–1.
  30. L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “MIMO-Free transmission over six vector modes in a polarization maintaining elliptical ring core fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.2.
    [Crossref]
  31. L. Wang, J. Ai, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Fu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “MDM transmission of CAP-16 signals over 1.1-km elliptical-core few-mode fiber in passive optical networks,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22991–23002 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. O. Arik and D. Askarov, znd J. M. KahnY, “MIMO DSP complexity in mode-division multiplexing,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th1D.1.
    [Crossref]
  35. F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  40. K. Benyahya, C. Simonneau, A. Ghazisaeidi, N. Barré, P. Jian, J. Morizur, G. Labroille, M. Bigot, P. Sillard, J. G. Provost, H. Debrégeas, J. Renaudier, and G. Charlet, “Multiterabit Transmission over OM2 Multimode Fiber with Wavelength and Mode Group Multiplexing and Direct Detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(2), 355–360 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  41. S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

2016 (5)

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16934–16944 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

A. Anhäuser, R. Wunenburger, and E. Brasselet, “Acoustic rotational manipulation using orbital angular momentum transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 034301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6×6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Spiral phase contrast imaging in microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(3), 689–694 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adhikari, S.

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ai, J.

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amezcua Correa, R.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anhäuser, A.

A. Anhäuser, R. Wunenburger, and E. Brasselet, “Acoustic rotational manipulation using orbital angular momentum transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 034301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonio Lopez, E.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, S.

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barré, N.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benyahya, K.

Bernet, S.

Bigot, M.

Birnbaum, K. M.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bolle, C.

Bowman, R.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brasselet, E.

A. Anhäuser, R. Wunenburger, and E. Brasselet, “Acoustic rotational manipulation using orbital angular momentum transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 034301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burrows, E. C.

Businaro, L.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, J.

Castro, J. M.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Charlet, G.

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cojoc, D.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Courtial, J.

Cvijetic, N.

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Debrégeas, H.

Deng, L.

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

Di Fabrizio, E.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S. J.

Du, C.

Du, J.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudley, A.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Erkmen, B. I.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, E.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, F.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

Forbes, A.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Fu, S.

Fürhapter, S.

Garbin, V.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ghazisaeidi, A.

Gibson, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

Guan, B.

Gustavsson, J. S.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hanik, N.

Huang, B.

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huijskens, F. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inan, B.

Ip, E.

Jansen, S. L.

Jensen, J.

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

Jian, P.

Kanonakis, K.

Karinou, F.

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

Koonen, A. M. J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kose, B.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuschnerov, M.

Labroille, G.

Lane, B.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Larsson, A.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lengyel, T.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, M. J.

Li, M.-J.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

Liu, J.

Lobato, A.

Lopez, R.

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCurdy, A. H.

McLaren, M.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Milione, G.

E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Monroy, I.

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Morizur, J.

Mumtaz, S.

Neifeld, M. A.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nolan, D. A.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okonkwo, C. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pas’ko, V.

Peckham, D. W.

Peng, G.

Pimpinella, R.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prieto, X.

Prince, K.

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Provost, J. G.

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Renaudier, J.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Romanato, F.

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Schülzgen, A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shubochkin, R.

Sierra, A.

Sillard, P.

Simonneau, C.

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Speirits, F. C.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spinnler, B.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, J.

Sun, Y.

Szczerba, K.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, B. C.

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

van den Borne, D.

van Uden, R. G. H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, J. Ai, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Fu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “MDM transmission of CAP-16 signals over 1.1-km elliptical-core few-mode fiber in passive optical networks,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22991–23002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16934–16944 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westbergh, P.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, T. D.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wunenburger, R.

A. Anhäuser, R. Wunenburger, and E. Brasselet, “Acoustic rotational manipulation using orbital angular momentum transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 034301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, C.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (3)

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Mode properties and propagation effects of optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in a ring fiber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 535–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Micro. Eng. (1)

D. Cojoc, V. Garbin, E. Ferrari, L. Businaro, F. Romanato, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Laser trappping and micro-manipulation using optical vortices,” Micro. Eng. 78, 125–131 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (5)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. Antonio Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16934–16944 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fürhapter, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Spiral phase contrast imaging in microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(3), 689–694 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Supermode fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) transmission,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18736–18745 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, J. Ai, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Fu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “MDM transmission of CAP-16 signals over 1.1-km elliptical-core few-mode fiber in passive optical networks,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22991–23002 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Anhäuser, R. Wunenburger, and E. Brasselet, “Acoustic rotational manipulation using orbital angular momentum transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 034301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (4)

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. O. Arik and D. Askarov, znd J. M. KahnY, “MIMO DSP complexity in mode-division multiplexing,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th1D.1.
[Crossref]

G. Milione, E. Ip, Y. Huang, P. Ji, T. Wang, M. Li, J. Stone, and G. Peng, “1.2-Tb/s MIMO-less transmission over 1 km of four-core elliptical-core few-mode fiber with 125-μm diameter cladding,” in Proceedings of Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC, 2016), paper PD2–1.

L. Wang, R. M. Nejad, A. Corsi, J. Lin, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “MIMO-Free transmission over six vector modes in a polarization maintaining elliptical ring core fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2J.2.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of OAM mode multiplexing transmission in a conventional MMF. Inset is the refractive index profile of an ideal conventional graded-index MMF.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) First two OAM mode groups and corresponding neff in OM4 MMF. (b) Refractive index profiles of the mode coupler/filter. (c) Supported modes and corresponding neff in mode coupler/filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of OAM mode multiplexing in a conventional MMF with partial MIMO. (a) Transmitter (Tx) for signal generation. (b) Receiver (Rx) for heterodyne coherent detection. (c) OAM mode multiplexing (Mux) and demultiplexing (Demux). ECL: external cavity laser; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; IQ: in-phase/quadrature; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; VOA: variable optical attenuator; OC: optical coupler; LO: local oscillator; PC: polarization controller; ADC: analog-to-digital converter; PD: photodetector; Col.: collimator; Pol.: polarizer; HWP: half-wave plate; QWP: quarter-wave plate; SLM: spatial light modulator; PBS: polarization beam splitter; BS: beam splitter; L: lens (f = 100 mm); OL: objective lens; MMF: multi-mode fiber; MIMO-DSP: multiple input multiple output digital signal processing; QPSK: quadrature phase-shift keying.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured intensity profiles for OAM multiplexing transmission over 8.8-km MMF. (a) Intensity profiles of  OA M 01 L , OA M 01 R , OA M +11 L , OA M +11 R , OA M 11 L , OA M 11 R modes at the input of MMF. (b) Demodulated Gaussian-like intensity profiles of  OA M 01 L , OA M 01 R , OA M +11 L , OA M +11 R , OA M 11 L , OA M 11 R at the output of MMF. (c) Interferograms of  OA M 01 L , OA M 01 R , OA M +11 L , OA M +11 R , OA M 11 L , OA M 11 R at the output of MMF.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode transfer matrix of the 8.8-km conventional MMF.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BER curves versus received OSNR. (a) Single OAM mode transmission over the 8.8-km MMF using OA M 01 L and  OA M 11 L . (b) OAM mode group multiplexing ( OA M 01 L and  OA M 11 L ) transmission without using MIMO-DSP. Insets show constellations of QPSK signals.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured BER versus received OSNR for OAM modes (OAM01 and OAM ± 11 mode groups) multiplexing transmission over the 8.8-km MMF with partial MIMO. Insets show constellations of QPSK signals at OSNR of 15.7 dB after MIMO-DSP.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ OA M +11 L =H E 21 odd iH E 21 even OA M 11 L =T E 01 +iT M 01 OA M +11 R =T E 01 iT M 01 OA M 11 R =H E 21 odd +iH E 21 even ,{ L P 11a x =T M 01 H E 21 odd L P 11b x =T E 01 +H E 21 even L P 11a y =T E 01 H E 21 even L P 11b y =T M 01 +H E 21 odd .
{ OA M +n1 L =H E ( n+1 )1 odd iH E ( n+1 )1 even OA M n1 L =E H ( n1 )1 odd +iE H ( n1 )1 even OA M +n1 R =E H ( n1 )1 odd iE H ( n1 )1 even OA M n1 R =H E ( n+1 )1 odd +iH E ( n+1 )1 even ,{ L P n1a x =E H ( n1 )1 even H E ( n+1 )1 odd L P n1b x =E H ( n1 )1 odd +H E ( n+1 )1 even L P n1a y =E H ( n1 )1 odd H E ( n+1 )1 even L P n1b y =E H ( n1 )1 even +H E ( n+1 )1 odd .

Metrics