Abstract

We present a hybrid fiber link combining effective optical frequency transfer and evaluation of performances with a self-synchronized two-way comparison. It enables us to detect the round-trip fiber noise and each of the forward and backward one-way fiber noises simultaneously. The various signals acquired with this setup allow us to study quantitatively several properties of optical fiber links. We check the reciprocity of the accumulated noise forth and back over a bi-directional fiber to the level of 3.1(±3.9) × 10−20 based on a 160000s continuous data. We also analyze the noise correlation between two adjacent fibers and show the first experimental evidence of interferometric noise at very low Fourier frequency. We estimate redundantly and consistently the stability and accuracy of the transferred optical frequency over 43 km at 4 × 10−21 level after 16 days of integration and demonstrate that a frequency comparison with instability as low as 8 × 10−18 would be achievable with uni-directional fibers in urban area.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison

Nicola Chiodo, Nicolas Quintin, Fabio Stefani, Fabrice Wiotte, Emilie Camisard, Christian Chardonnet, Giorgio Santarelli, Anne Amy-Klein, Paul-Eric Pottie, and Olivier Lopez
Opt. Express 23(26) 33927-33937 (2015)

Tackling the limits of optical fiber links

Fabio Stefani, Olivier Lopez, Anthony Bercy, Won-Kyu Lee, Christian Chardonnet, Giorgio Santarelli, Paul-Eric Pottie, and Anne Amy-Klein
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5) 787-797 (2015)

Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network

Olivier Lopez, Adil Haboucha, Bruno Chanteau, Christian Chardonnet, Anne Amy-Klein, and Giorgio Santarelli
Opt. Express 20(21) 23518-23526 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251km,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3056–3058 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Riehle, “Towards a redefinition of the second based on optical atomic clocks,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 506–515 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibres,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).
  20. A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.
  25. S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Benkler, C. Lisdat, and U. Sterr, “On the relation between uncertainties of weighted frequency averages and the various types of Allan deviations,” Metrologia 52(4), 565–574 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. Defraigne, N. Guyennon, and C. Bruyninx, “GPS time and frequency transfer: PPP and phase-only analysis,” Int. J. Navig. Obs. 2008, 175468 (2008).
  30. S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. OFTEN, “Optical frequency transfer - a European network,” http://www.ptb.de/emrp/often_home.html .

2017 (4)

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Riehle, “Towards a redefinition of the second based on optical atomic clocks,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 506–515 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibres,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Benkler, C. Lisdat, and U. Sterr, “On the relation between uncertainties of weighted frequency averages and the various types of Allan deviations,” Metrologia 52(4), 565–574 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Defraigne, N. Guyennon, and C. Bruyninx, “GPS time and frequency transfer: PPP and phase-only analysis,” Int. J. Navig. Obs. 2008, 175468 (2008).

2007 (3)

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251km,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3056–3058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Abgrall, M.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Al-Masoudi, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argence, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, P.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Barrett, M. D.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baynes, F. N.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Beloy, K.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Benkler, E.

E. Benkler, C. Lisdat, and U. Sterr, “On the relation between uncertainties of weighted frequency averages and the various types of Allan deviations,” Metrologia 52(4), 565–574 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertacco, E.

Bilicki, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binczewski, A.

K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.

Bloom, B. J.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bogacki, W.

K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.

Bookjans, E.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowden, W.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bregolin, F.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Brown, R. C.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bruyninx, C.

P. Defraigne, N. Guyennon, and C. Bruyninx, “GPS time and frequency transfer: PPP and phase-only analysis,” Int. J. Navig. Obs. 2008, 175468 (2008).

Calonico, D.

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Calosso, C. E.

Camisard, E.

Campbell, S. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cantoni, E.

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cernigliaro, A.

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chanteau, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

Chardonnet, Ch.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiodo, N.

Clivati, C.

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Coq, Y. L.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Costanzo, G. A.

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Darquié, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Das, M.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref]

Defraigne, P.

P. Defraigne, N. Guyennon, and C. Bruyninx, “GPS time and frequency transfer: PPP and phase-only analysis,” Int. J. Navig. Obs. 2008, 175468 (2008).

Delva, P.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denker, H.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Dörscher, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dossy, C.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falke, S.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fantino, G.

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fasano, R. J.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frittelli, M.

Gerginov, V.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gill, P.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godone, A.

Grebing, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grosche, G.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibres,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grotti, J.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Guerlin, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guyennon, N.

P. Defraigne, N. Guyennon, and C. Bruyninx, “GPS time and frequency transfer: PPP and phase-only analysis,” Int. J. Navig. Obs. 2008, 175468 (2008).

Haboucha, A.

Häfner, S.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Hagemann, C.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, I. R.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinkley, N.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hobson, R.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huntemann, N.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hutson, R. B.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jungner, P.

Katori, H.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kéfélian, F.

Koczwara, A.

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibres,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koller, S.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Krehlik, P.

K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.

Kronjäger, J.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuhl, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. -K.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lemke, N.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levi, F.

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Lipphardt, B.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lisdat, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Benkler, C. Lisdat, and U. Sterr, “On the relation between uncertainties of weighted frequency averages and the various types of Allan deviations,” Metrologia 52(4), 565–574 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Lodewyck, J.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, O.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludlow, A. D.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, L. S.

Margolis, H. S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Marra, G.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marti, G. E.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref]

McGrew, W. F.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

McNally, R. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meynadier, F.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milani, G.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mun, J. C.

W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mura, A.

Nemitz, N.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, T. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nicolodi, D.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oates, C. W.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ohkubo, T.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohmae, N.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ozimek, F.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C. Y.

W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peik, E.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, N. B.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pizzocaro, M.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Poncin-Lafitte, C. L.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pottie, P. -E.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pottie, P.-E.

Predeh, K.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quintin, N.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rauf, B.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Raupach, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raupach, S. M. F.

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibres,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Optical frequency transfer via a 660 km underground fiber link using a remote Brillouin amplifier,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26537–26547 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riehle, F.

F. Riehle, “Towards a redefinition of the second based on optical atomic clocks,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 506–515 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rolland, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Roncin, V.

Safronova, M. S.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sanner, C.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

Schioppo, M.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schnatz, H.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sesia, I.

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sherman, J. A.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Signorile, G.

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sliwczynski, L.

K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.

Stefani, F.

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Chiodo, N. Quintin, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, E. Camisard, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, P.-E. Pottie, and O. Lopez, “Cascaded optical fiber link using the internet network for remote clocks comparison,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33927–33937 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W. -K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Benkler, C. Lisdat, and U. Sterr, “On the relation between uncertainties of weighted frequency averages and the various types of Allan deviations,” Metrologia 52(4), 565–574 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Strouse, G. F.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Takamoto, M.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tamm, Chr.

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tampellini, A.

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Targat, R. L.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tavella, P.

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tew, W. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thoumany, P.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Timmen, L.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Turza, K.

K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.

Udem, Th.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ushijima, I.

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ushima, I.

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vallet, G.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Voigt, C.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Weyers, S.

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Williams, P. A.

Wiotte, F.

Ye, J.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. H.

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, D. -H.

W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zampaolo, M.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

Zhang, W.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zucco, M.

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

App. Phy. B (1)

W. -K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P. -E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber link for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” App. Phy. B 123(5), 161 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

F. Riehle, “Towards a redefinition of the second based on optical atomic clocks,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 506–515 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control (2)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Sesia, E. Cantoni, A. Cernigliaro, G. Signorile, G. Fantino, and P. Tavella, “An efficient and configurable preprocessing algorithm to improve stability analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Control 63(4), 575–581 (2016).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Navig. Obs. (1)

P. Defraigne, N. Guyennon, and C. Bruyninx, “GPS time and frequency transfer: PPP and phase-only analysis,” Int. J. Navig. Obs. 2008, 175468 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Metrologia (3)

W. -K. Lee, D. -H. Yu, C. Y. Park, and J. C. Mun, “The uncertainty associated with the weighted mean frequency of a phase-stabilized signal with white phase noise,” Metrologia 47(1), 24–32 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Benkler, C. Lisdat, and U. Sterr, “On the relation between uncertainties of weighted frequency averages and the various types of Allan deviations,” Metrologia 52(4), 565–574 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tampellini, C. Clivati, F. Levi, A. Mura, and D. Calonico, “Effect of a timebase mismatch in two-way optical frequency transfer,” Metrologia 54(6), 805–809 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (4)

I. Ushima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photon. 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Schioppo, R. C. Brown, W. F. McGrew, N. Hinkley, R. J. Fasano, K. Beloy, T. H. Yoon, G. Milani, D. Nicolodi, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles,” Nat. Photon. 11(1), 48–52 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Nemitz, T. Ohkubo, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, M. Das, N. Ohmae, and H. Katori, “Frequency ratio of Yb and Sr clocks with 5 × 10−17 uncertainty at 150 seconds averaging time,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 258–261 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, Ch. Chardonnet, C. Dossy, B. Darquié, Y. L. Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photon. 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. Falke, N. Lemke, C. Grebing, B. Lipphardt, S. Weyers, V. Gerginov, N. Huntemann, C. Hagemann, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Häfner, S. Vogt, U. Sterr, and C. Lisdat, “A strontium lattice clock with 3 × 10−17 inaccuracy and its frequency,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073023 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, P. -E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparison over 100 km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90(6), 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 × 10−20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibres,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, Th. Udem, K. Predeh, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Huntemann, C. Sanner, B. Lipphardt, Chr. Tamm, and E. Peik, “Single-Ion atomic clock with 3 × 10−18 systematic uncertainty,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. L. Targat, P. -E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. L. Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W. -K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(22), 221102 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. Grotti, S. Koller, S. Vogt, S. Häfner, U. Sterr, C. Lisdat, H. Denker, C. Voigt, L. Timmen, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, M. Zampaolo, P. Thoumany, M. Pizzocaro, B. Rauf, F. Bregolin, A. Tampellini, P. Barbieri, M. Zucco, G. A. Costanzo, C. Clivati, F. Levi, and D. Calonico, “Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock,” Nat. Phys. (to be published).

K. Turza, A. Binczewski, W. Bogacki, P. Krehlik, and L. Śliwczyński, “Time and frequency transfer in modern DWDM telecommunication networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Joint Conference on European Frequency and Time Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2017), pp. 368–370.

OFTEN, “Optical frequency transfer - a European network,” http://www.ptb.de/emrp/often_home.html .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental scheme for the hybrid fiber links. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PD, photodiode; PLL, phase-locked loop; bi-EDFA, bi-directional erbium-doped fiber amplifier; p-FM, partial Faraday mirror; PC, polarization controller.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurements of frequency data acquired only at SYRTE: half the round-trip noise of F1, round-trip noise, forward and backward one-way noise of F2 (Λ-counting).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measurement of three sets of TWU and three sets of TWB by combining the four data sets: ANC, RT, OWB, OWF (Λ-counting).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Phase evolution of the bi-directional LTW observables: TWBs and TWNF, (b) phase noise power spectral densities(PSD) of the roundtrip noise on F2 and the residual phase noise by bi-directional LTW method. Note that three PSDs corresponding to TWB1, TWB2 and TWB3 are overlaid on each other.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Modified Allan deviation(MDEV) of 3 bi-directional LTW observables TWB1, TWB2, TWB3, as well as TWNF (Λ-counting).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fractional frequency stabilities of TWB1 in terms of overlapping Allan deviation (ADEV) and modified Allan deviation (MDEV) with Π-type counter and Λ-type counter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Long-term fractional frequency instabilities and (b) phase evolution of a uni-directional and a bi-directional two-way scheme(Λ-counting).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Accuracy of the frequency comparisons using the hybrid architecture

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ ϕ TWU 1 = ϕ ANC ϕ RT / 2 ϕ TWU 2 = ϕ ANC ϕ OWB . ϕ TWU 3 = ϕ ANC ϕ OWF
{ ϕ TWB 1 = ϕ OWB ϕ RT / 2 ϕ TWB 2 = ϕ OWF ϕ RT / 2 . ϕ TWB 3 = ( ϕ OWB ϕ OWF ) / 2
ϕ TWNF = ( ϕ OWB + ϕ OWF ϕ RT ) / 2 .
ϕ = ϕ laser + ϕ RF + ϕ inter + ϕ fiber .
{ ϕ ANC ( t ) = ϕ inter-ANC ( t ) + 1 2 ϕ RT-F 1 ( t ) ϕ RT ( t ) = ϕ inter-RT ( t ) + ϕ RT-F 2 ( t ) ϕ OWB ( t ) = ϕ inter-OWB ( t ) + ϕ backward-F 2 ( t ) ϕ OWF ( t ) = ϕ inter-OWF ( t ) + ϕ forward-F 2 ( t τ ) .
{ ϕ TWU 1 ( t ) = ϕ inter-TWU 1 ( t ) + 1 2 ϕ RT-F 1 ( t ) 1 2 ϕ RT-F 2 ( t ) ϕ TWU 2 ( t ) = ϕ inter-TWU 2 ( t ) + 1 2 ϕ RT-F 1 ( t ) 1 2 ϕ backward-F 2 ( t ) . ϕ TWU 3 ( t ) = ϕ inter-TWU 3 ( t ) + 1 2 ϕ RT-F 1 ( t ) ϕ forward-F 2 ( t τ )
{ ϕ TWB 1 ( t ) = ϕ inter-TWB 1 ( t ) + 1 2 ϕ backward-F 2 ( t ) 1 2 ϕ RT-F 2 ( t ) ϕ TWB 2 ( t ) = ϕ inter-TWB 2 ( t ) + 1 2 ϕ forward-F 2 ( t τ ) 1 2 ϕ RT-F 2 ( t ) . ϕ TWB 3 ( t ) = ϕ inter-TWB 3 ( t ) + 1 2 [ ϕ backward-F 2 ( t ) ϕ forward-F 2 ( t τ ) ]
ϕ inter = 2 π ν γ Δ T δ L .
{ ϕ inter-RT = 2 π ν γ Δ T 2 L BC ϕ inter-OWB = 2 π ν γ Δ T ( 2 L BC + L OA L OB ) . ϕ inter-OWF = 2 π ν γ Δ T ( L OB L OA )
{ ϕ inter-TWB 1 = 2 π ν γ Δ T ( L BC + L OA L OB ) ϕ inter-TWB 2 = 2 π ν γ Δ T ( L BC L OA + L OB ) . ϕ inter-TWB 3 = 2 π ν γ Δ T ( L BC + L OA L OB )
ϕ inter-TWNF = 0 .

Metrics