Abstract

Two-dimensional arrays of periodic nanostructures are fabricated on bulk tungsten surface within a single step using collinear propagation of two time-delayed femtosecond laser beams with orthogonal polarizations. It is surprisingly found that the geometric profile of the structure unit exhibits a triangle shape in hundred nanometer scales, and its spatial dimension can be modulated by the ambient air pressure ranging from 1 atm to 10−3 Pa. As the ambient air pressure decreases, the obtained surface structures display a large depth covered with nanowires. Physically, the formation of such triangle structures is originated from the transient physical correlations between the two laser-matter interaction processes, and also affected by the heat transfer effects of the surrounding air. In addition, the experimental measurements reveal that the minimum reflectivity of the nanotriangle surface structures is unprecedentedly reduced to as low as ~2.9% especially within the visible-infrared range.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, M. Gedvilas, N. Tarasenko, and G. Račiukaitis, “Structuring of surfaces with gold nanoparticles by using bessel-like beams,” Ann. Phys. 529(12), 1700174 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, and G. Račiukaitis, “Bessel-like beam array generation using round-tip microstructures and their use in the material treatment,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11(3), 352–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Pan, J. Si, T. Chen, C. Li, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic structures on silicon after scanning irradiation with femtosecond laser multi-beams,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

H. Qiao, J. Yang, F. Wang, Y. Yang, and J. Sun, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of large-area two-dimensional metallic photonic crystal structures on tungsten surfaces,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26617–26627 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cong, J. Yang, B. Zhao, and X. Xu, “Fabricating subwavelength dot-matrix surface structures of molybdenum by transient correlated actions of two-color femtosecond laser beams,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5357–5367 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gedvilas, J. Mikšys, and G. Račiukaitis, “Flexible periodical micro-and nano-structuring of a stainless steel surface using dual-wavelength double-pulse picosecond laser irradiation,” RSC Advances 5(92), 75075–75080 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Multifunctional surfaces produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(3), 033103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, and X. Hou, “Femtosecond laser controlled wettability of solid surfaces,” Soft Matter 11(46), 8897–8906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Ibbotson, A. Demetriadou, S. Croxall, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Fan, B. Bai, J. Long, D. Jiang, G. Jin, H. Zhang, and M. Zhong, “Broadband high-performance infrared antireflection nanowires facilely grown on ultrafast laser structured Cu surface,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5988–5994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Tan, K. Yu, J.-Z. Li, H. Fu, and Z.-Q. Zhu, “MoS2@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 064305 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kuladeep, C. Sahoo, and D. N. Rao, “Direct writing of continuous and discontinuous sub-wavelength periodic surface structures on single-crystalline silicon using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 222103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bashir, M. S. Rafique, and W. Husinsky, “Femtosecond laser-induced subwavelength ripples on Al, Si, CaF2 and CR-39,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 275, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Y. Yang, J. Yang, L. Xue, and Y. Guo, “Surface patterning on periodicity of femtosecond laser- induced ripples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, S. Matsubara, L. Xiong, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Solvothermal synthesis of multiple shapes of silver nanoparticles and their SERS properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(26), 9095–9104 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamond-like carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

W.-H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

D. E. Grady, “The spall strength of condensed matter,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids 36(3), 353–384 (1988).
[Crossref]

A Iglic,

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, V. M.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

P. Fan, B. Bai, J. Long, D. Jiang, G. Jin, H. Zhang, and M. Zhong, “Broadband high-performance infrared antireflection nanowires facilely grown on ultrafast laser structured Cu surface,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5988–5994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashir, S.

S. Bashir, M. S. Rafique, and W. Husinsky, “Femtosecond laser-induced subwavelength ripples on Al, Si, CaF2 and CR-39,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 275, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

L. A. Ibbotson, A. Demetriadou, S. Croxall, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brenckle, M. A.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buividas, R.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cai, G.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X.-W.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Celanovic, I.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, and X. Hou, “Femtosecond laser controlled wettability of solid surfaces,” Soft Matter 11(46), 8897–8906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.-D.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

A. Pan, J. Si, T. Chen, C. Li, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic structures on silicon after scanning irradiation with femtosecond laser multi-beams,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

Cong, J.

Croxall, S.

L. A. Ibbotson, A. Demetriadou, S. Croxall, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Z.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Aldana, J. R. V.

F. Chen and J. R. V. de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Demetriadou, A.

L. A. Ibbotson, A. Demetriadou, S. Croxall, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, P.

P. Fan, B. Bai, J. Long, D. Jiang, G. Jin, H. Zhang, and M. Zhong, “Broadband high-performance infrared antireflection nanowires facilely grown on ultrafast laser structured Cu surface,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5988–5994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, H.

Y.-H. Tan, K. Yu, J.-Z. Li, H. Fu, and Z.-Q. Zhu, “MoS2@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 064305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Garliauskas, M.

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, M. Gedvilas, N. Tarasenko, and G. Račiukaitis, “Structuring of surfaces with gold nanoparticles by using bessel-like beams,” Ann. Phys. 529(12), 1700174 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, and G. Račiukaitis, “Bessel-like beam array generation using round-tip microstructures and their use in the material treatment,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11(3), 352–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gazaryan, P. Y.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gedvilas, M.

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, M. Gedvilas, N. Tarasenko, and G. Račiukaitis, “Structuring of surfaces with gold nanoparticles by using bessel-like beams,” Ann. Phys. 529(12), 1700174 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Gedvilas, J. Mikšys, and G. Račiukaitis, “Flexible periodical micro-and nano-structuring of a stainless steel surface using dual-wavelength double-pulse picosecond laser irradiation,” RSC Advances 5(92), 75075–75080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geil, R. D.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gil, E. S.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gongadze, E.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, D. E.

D. E. Grady, “The spall strength of condensed matter,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids 36(3), 353–384 (1988).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Multifunctional surfaces produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(3), 033103 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Y. Yang, J. Yang, L. Xue, and Y. Guo, “Surface patterning on periodicity of femtosecond laser- induced ripples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hashida, M.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hayakawa, T.

Y. Yang, S. Matsubara, L. Xiong, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Solvothermal synthesis of multiple shapes of silver nanoparticles and their SERS properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(26), 9095–9104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hess, O.

L. A. Ibbotson, A. Demetriadou, S. Croxall, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höhm, S.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hou, X.

A. Pan, J. Si, T. Chen, C. Li, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic structures on silicon after scanning irradiation with femtosecond laser multi-beams,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, and X. Hou, “Femtosecond laser controlled wettability of solid surfaces,” Soft Matter 11(46), 8897–8906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husinsky, W.

S. Bashir, M. S. Rafique, and W. Husinsky, “Femtosecond laser-induced subwavelength ripples on Al, Si, CaF2 and CR-39,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 275, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ibbotson, L. A.

L. A. Ibbotson, A. Demetriadou, S. Croxall, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8313 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, K. F.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, C.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

P. Fan, B. Bai, J. Long, D. Jiang, G. Jin, H. Zhang, and M. Zhong, “Broadband high-performance infrared antireflection nanowires facilely grown on ultrafast laser structured Cu surface,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5988–5994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

P. Fan, B. Bai, J. Long, D. Jiang, G. Jin, H. Zhang, and M. Zhong, “Broadband high-performance infrared antireflection nanowires facilely grown on ultrafast laser structured Cu surface,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5988–5994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, D. L.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khvostikov, V. P.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Khvostikova, O. A.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kralj-Iglic, V.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuladeep, R.

R. Kuladeep, C. Sahoo, and D. N. Rao, “Direct writing of continuous and discontinuous sub-wavelength periodic surface structures on single-crystalline silicon using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 222103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, M.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

A. Pan, J. Si, T. Chen, C. Li, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic structures on silicon after scanning irradiation with femtosecond laser multi-beams,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-Z.

Y.-H. Tan, K. Yu, J.-Z. Li, H. Fu, and Z.-Q. Zhu, “MoS2@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 064305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, C.

Liang, F.

Long, J.

P. Fan, B. Bai, J. Long, D. Jiang, G. Jin, H. Zhang, and M. Zhong, “Broadband high-performance infrared antireflection nanowires facilely grown on ultrafast laser structured Cu surface,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 5988–5994 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makin, V. S.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marelli, B.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsubara, S.

Y. Yang, S. Matsubara, L. Xiong, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Solvothermal synthesis of multiple shapes of silver nanoparticles and their SERS properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(26), 9095–9104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mazare, A.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, F.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikšys, J.

M. Gedvilas, J. Mikšys, and G. Račiukaitis, “Flexible periodical micro-and nano-structuring of a stainless steel surface using dual-wavelength double-pulse picosecond laser irradiation,” RSC Advances 5(92), 75075–75080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Milošev, I.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitropoulos, A. N.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyaji, G.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamond-like carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamond-like carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mozetic, M.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namba, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ndao, S.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nogami, M.

Y. Yang, S. Matsubara, L. Xiong, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Solvothermal synthesis of multiple shapes of silver nanoparticles and their SERS properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(26), 9095–9104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okamuro, K.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Omenetto, F. G.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, A.

A. Pan, J. Si, T. Chen, C. Li, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic structures on silicon after scanning irradiation with femtosecond laser multi-beams,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pan, L.

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perutkova, Š.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, H.

Raciukaitis, G.

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, M. Gedvilas, N. Tarasenko, and G. Račiukaitis, “Structuring of surfaces with gold nanoparticles by using bessel-like beams,” Ann. Phys. 529(12), 1700174 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, and G. Račiukaitis, “Bessel-like beam array generation using round-tip microstructures and their use in the material treatment,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11(3), 352–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Gedvilas, J. Mikšys, and G. Račiukaitis, “Flexible periodical micro-and nano-structuring of a stainless steel surface using dual-wavelength double-pulse picosecond laser irradiation,” RSC Advances 5(92), 75075–75080 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rafique, M. S.

S. Bashir, M. S. Rafique, and W. Husinsky, “Femtosecond laser-induced subwavelength ripples on Al, Si, CaF2 and CR-39,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 275, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, D. N.

R. Kuladeep, C. Sahoo, and D. N. Rao, “Direct writing of continuous and discontinuous sub-wavelength periodic surface structures on single-crystalline silicon using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 222103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rinnerbauer, V.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sadchikov, N. A.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahoo, C.

R. Kuladeep, C. Sahoo, and D. N. Rao, “Direct writing of continuous and discontinuous sub-wavelength periodic surface structures on single-crystalline silicon using femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(22), 222103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sakabe, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G. C.

W.-H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schmuki, P.

M. Kulkarni, A. Mazare, E. Gongadze, Š. Perutkova, V. Kralj-Iglič, I. Milošev, P. Schmuki, A Iglič, and M. Mozetič, “Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 062002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senkevich, J. J.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, J.

A. Pan, J. Si, T. Chen, C. Li, and X. Hou, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic structures on silicon after scanning irradiation with femtosecond laser multi-beams,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

V. Rinnerbauer, S. Ndao, Y. X. Yeng, J. J. Senkevich, K. F. Jensen, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljačić, I. Celanovic, and R. D. Geil, “Large-area fabrication of high aspect ratio tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature selective emitters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31(1), 011802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sorokina, S. V.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stankevicius, E.

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, M. Gedvilas, N. Tarasenko, and G. Račiukaitis, “Structuring of surfaces with gold nanoparticles by using bessel-like beams,” Ann. Phys. 529(12), 1700174 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, and G. Račiukaitis, “Bessel-like beam array generation using round-tip microstructures and their use in the material treatment,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11(3), 352–356 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Sun, Q.

Tan, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Tan, K. Yu, J.-Z. Li, H. Fu, and Z.-Q. Zhu, “MoS2@ZnO nano-heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalysis and field emission properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(6), 064305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, J.

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarasenko, N.

E. Stankevičius, M. Garliauskas, M. Gedvilas, N. Tarasenko, and G. Račiukaitis, “Structuring of surfaces with gold nanoparticles by using bessel-like beams,” Ann. Phys. 529(12), 1700174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tokita, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsioris, K.

S. Kim, B. Marelli, M. A. Brenckle, A. N. Mitropoulos, E. S. Gil, K. Tsioris, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “All-water-based electron-beam lithography using silk as a resist,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 306–310 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallée, R.

Van Duyne, R. P.

W.-H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, A. S.

V. M. Andreev, A. S. Vlasov, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, P. Y. Gazaryan, S. V. Sorokina, and N. A. Sadchikov, “Solar thermophotovoltaic converters based on tungsten emitters,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 129(3), 298–303 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Multifunctional surfaces produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(3), 033103 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Wang, H.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Y. Shen, J. Tao, H. Tao, S. Chen, L. Pan, and T. Wang, “Nanostructures in superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V hierarchical surfaces control wetting state transitions,” Soft Matter 11(19), 3806–3811 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

L. Wang, Q.-D. Chen, X.-W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H.-B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, L.

Y. Yang, S. Matsubara, L. Xiong, T. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, “Solvothermal synthesis of multiple shapes of silver nanoparticles and their SERS properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(26), 9095–9104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, X. Xiao, F. Ren, W. Wu, Z. Dai, G. Cai, S. Zhang, J. Zhou, F. Mei, and C. Jiang, “Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 239 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Xue, L.

Y. Yang, J. Yang, L. Xue, and Y. Guo, “Surface patterning on periodicity of femtosecond laser- induced ripples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, Q.

J. Yong, F. Chen, Q. Yang, and X. Hou, “Femtosecond laser controlled wettability of solid surfaces,” Soft Matter 11(46), 8897–8906 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.-H.

W.-H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

H. Qiao, J. Yang, F. Wang, Y. Yang, and J. Sun, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of large-area two-dimensional metallic photonic crystal structures on tungsten surfaces,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26617–26627 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, J. Yang, L. Xue, and Y. Guo, “Surface patterning on periodicity of femtosecond laser- induced ripples,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141101 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experiment for the direct fabrication of 2D nanotriangle structure arrays on tungsten surface under a vacuum environment, where two collinear time-delayed (1.2 ps) femtosecond laser beams with orthogonal polarizations are generated from a birefringent optical crystal YVO4, and a cylindrical lens is employed for the laser focusing. The double-headed arrows represent the direction of the linear polarization of femtosecond laser pulses. θ = 45° denotes the angle between the optical axis of the birefringent crystal and the polarization direction of the incident laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of the 2D nanotriangle structure arrays on tungsten surface directly fabricated by two collinear time-delayed femtosecond laser beams of orthogonal polarization. (a), (b) and (c) represent situations under different air pressures of 1 atm, 103 Pa and 10−3 Pa, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM image of large-area 2D nanotriangle structure arrays on tungsten surface fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses under air pressure of 10−3 Pa.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of the examined region (red line along X direction) on the sample surface covered with arrays of triangle structures; (b) Measured cross-sectional profiles for the surface structures obtained under several different air pressures, where d and D denote the depth of the individual groove and the intersection point of three grooves, respectively; (c) Measured dependence of the depth D on the ambient air pressure; (d) Measured dependence of the depth d on the ambient air pressure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured reflection spectra of tungsten surfaces with different conditions, where the black line represents the polished surface without the laser treatments, the red and blue lines for the triangle surface structures obtained under the pressure of 1 atm and 10−3 Pa, respectively. The pink curve shows the reflectivity reduction ratio of the structured surface produced under 10−3 Pa to the polished surface.

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