Abstract

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex wave, owing to its prospect of increasing communication capacity. Here, a single-layer metasurface is proposed to realize vortex beams with different OAM modes and polarizations carried at two distinctive bands. Both the resonant and geometric (Pancharatnam–Berry) phase cells are adopted to construct this metasurface for generating the desired phase profile, and each type of phase modulation cell can independently control the vortex beam at different frequencies. When a linearly-polarized wave is incident onto our metasurface, the resonant phase cells with spiral phase distribution can achieve OAM beam with topological charge of + 1 at 5.2 GHz. And under illumination of left-handed circular polarized (LHCP) wave, the rotated geometric phase cells assist the metasurface to generate the deflected OAM beam with topological charge of + 2 at 10.5~12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate good performance of the proposed single-layer metasurface at the above two frequency bands.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

X. Luo, “Subwavelength optical engineering with metasurface waves,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1701201 (2018).
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K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2017 (9)

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Ahmed, N.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, B.

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, G. D.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, Q.

Q. Bai, A. Tennant, and B. Allen, “Experimental circular phased array for generating OAM radio beams,” Electron. Lett. 50(20), 1414–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bergman, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bomzon, Z.

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brousseau, C.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Burokur, S. N.

Cai, H.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carozzi, T. D.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. L. N.

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. Y.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, H.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, L. K.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, J.

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, T. W.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, X.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Emile, O.

R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hasman, E.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, M.

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, R.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibragimov, N. H.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Istomin, Y. N.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L. J.

M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jin, J.

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. Jiang, L. Kang, W. Hong, and D. H. Werner, “Highly efficient broadband multiplexed millimeter-wave vortices from metasurface-enabled transmit-arrays of subwavelength thickness,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(6), 064009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khamitova, R.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Pancharatnam--Berry phase in space-variant polarization-state manipulations with subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1424–1426 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, P.

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Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
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W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
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R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
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W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
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J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
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Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
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C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
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J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
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C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
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X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
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Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
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Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
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J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
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C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
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X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
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Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

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R. Niemiec, C. Brousseau, K. Mahdjoubi, O. Emile, and A. Ménard, “Characterization of an OAM flat-plate antenna in the millimeter frequency band,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 13(1), 1011–1014 (2015).

Noor, A.

Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
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Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
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C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
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C. Huang, W. Pan, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Multi-spectral metasurface for different functional control of reflection waves,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23291 (2016).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
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C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
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Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600502 (2017).
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J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
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X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
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Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Ren, H.

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
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Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Tamburini, E. Mari, B. Thide, C. Barbieri, and F. Romanato, “Experimental verification of photon angular momentum and vorticity with radio techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 204102 (2011).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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M. L. N. Chen, L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, “Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(1), 396–400 (2017).
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W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
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Q. Ma, C. B. Shi, G. D. Bai, T. Y. Chen, A. Noor, and T. J. Cui, “Beam-editing coding metasurfaces based on polarization bit and orbital-angular-momentum-mode bit,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700548 (2017).
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S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
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S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
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C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
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Song, Q.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
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C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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F. Tamburini, E. Mari, A. Sponselli, B. Thidé, A. Bianchini, and F. Romanato, “Encoding many channels on the same frequency through radio vorticity: first experimental test,” New J. Phys. 14(3), 033001 (2012).
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W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
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Tur, M.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
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Wan, X.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
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Wang, C.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
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J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
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Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
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X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
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M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
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Y. Meng, J. Yi, S. N. Burokur, L. Kang, H. Zhang, and D. H. Werner, “Phase-modulation based transmitarray convergence lens for vortex wave carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22019–22029 (2018).
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Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. C.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Wu, X.

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, B. Sun, W. Pan, J. Cui, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dynamical beam manipulation based on 2-bit digitally-controlled coding metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42302 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Xi, H. Liu, and L. Li, “Generation and analysis of high-gain orbital angular momentum vortex wave using circular array and parasitic EBG with oblique incidence,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17363 (2017).
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Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. X.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. C.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
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Yu, N.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, F.

H. X. Xu, H. Liu, X. Ling, Y. Sun, and F. Yuan, “Broadband vortex beam generation using multimode Pancharatnam–Berry metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 65(12), 7378–7382 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yulevich, I.

E. Maguid, I. Yulevich, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, M. L. Brongersma, and E. Hasman, “Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array,” Science 352(6290), 1202–1206 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, B.

C. Huang, C. Zhang, J. Yang, B. Sun, B. Zhao, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface for Multifunctional Control of Electromagnetic Wave,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700485 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Guo, X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “High-Efficiency and Wide-Angle Beam Steering Based on Catenary Optical Fields in Ultrathin Metalens,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800592 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jin, M. Pu, Y. Wang, X. Li, X. Ma, J. Luo, Z. Zhao, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Multi-channel vortex beam generation by simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation with two-dimensional metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(2), 1600201 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Li, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, J. Jin, Y. Wang, P. Gao, and X. Luo, “Catenary nanostructures as compact Bessel beam generators,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20524 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1(9), e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, S.

Y. Chen, S. Zheng, Y. Li, X. Hui, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “A flat-lensed spiral phase plate based on phase-shifting surface for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 15, 1156–1158 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow reflectivity spiral phase plate for generation of millimeter-wave OAM beam,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Chen, Y. Hu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Multiplexed millimeter wave communication with dual orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10148 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

S. Yu, L. Li, G. Shi, C. Zhu, and Y. Shi, “Generating multiple orbital angular momentum vortex beams using a metasurface in radio frequency domain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, Q. Song, L. Yan, W. Zhang, P. C. Wu, L. K. Chin, H. Cai, D. P. Tsai, Z. X. Shen, T. W. Deng, S. K. Ting, Y. Gu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, Z. C. Yang, R. Huang, A.-Q. Liu, and N. Zheludev, “A flat lens with tunable phase gradient by using random access reconfigurable metamaterial,” Adv. Mater. 27(32), 4739–4743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

Y. Guo, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, J. Yang, X. Wu, J. Song, M. Pu, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Reconfigurable Metasurface Cloak for Dynamical Electromagnetic Illusions,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1718–1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic model of the vortex metasurface and (b) geometry of its meta-atom.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The reflection characteristics of the meta-atom at different situations. (a) The magnitude of the eight I-shaped topological patterns under LP incidence. Inset shows the reflection phase can almost cover 0° to −315° at 5.2 GHz. (b) The magnitude and phase of the I-shaped structure with topological pattern 1 for different rotation angles of the PB phase cell. (c) The magnitude of the cross-polarization components for the PB phase cells under LHCP incidence, while the rotation angle is changed from 0° to 150°. Inset shows the reflection phase can cover 0° to −360°. (d) The magnitude and phase of the PB phase cell with the rotation angle of 60° for the different I-shaped topological patterns.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phase distribution and the calculation process for OAM generator at two separated bands. (a)The calculation process and phase distribution of our metasurface for generating + 1 mode OAM beam at f1 (5.2GHz) under y-polarized incidence. (b) The calculation process and phase distribution of our metasurface for generating + 2 mode OAM beam at f2 (10.5GHz) under LHCP incidence.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation results of the proposed vortex metasurface at two frequency bands. (a) Far-field pattern and (b) near-field phase distribution in the xoy plane of the vortex metasurface under normal incidence of the LP horn at f1 (5.2GHz). (d) Far-field pattern and (e) near-field phase distribution in the xoy plane of the vortex metasurface illuminated by LHCP plane wave at f2 (10.5GHz).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Purity of OAM modes generated at (a) 5.2GHz and (b) 10.5GHz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Far-field patterns of the vortex metasurface illuminated by LHCP wave at 10.5~12GHz. (a) Cross-polarized component and (b) Co-polarized component. The incident LHCP wave is transformed into RHCP outgoing wave, and all the generated vortex beams are deflected from the normal when the observation direction is along -z axis. (c) Phase information pattern. The topological charge of l = + 2 can be distinguished from the phase profile, when the observation direction is set along the deflection direction.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Photography of the fabricated vortex metasurface. (b-f) Measured and simulated far-field radiation patterns of the vortex metasurface. (b) Co-polarized component under LP incidence at 5.2 GHz. (c, d) Cross-and co-polarized components under LHCP incidence at 10.5GHz and (e, f) Cross-and co-polarized components under LHCP incidence at 12GHz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured magnitude and phase distributions by near-field planar scanning technique (a) Near-field planar scanning setup and the standard measuring probe. (b) Measured magnitude distributions of the vortex beams at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz. (c) Measured phase distributions of the vortex beams at 5.2GHz and 10.5GHz.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structure parameters of the eight I-shape topological patterns.

Equations (2)

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φ ( x , y ) = l arc tan ( y x )
ϕ f ( x , y ) = 2 π λ ( x 2 + y 2 + r f 2 r f )

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