Abstract

Monochromators are a common utility for the spectral calibration of spectrometers. To guarantee traceability of characterization measurements to SI-standards, monochromators used as secondary standards must be properly calibrated. Common calibration procedures are based on the measurement of spectral lines emitted by gas-discharge lamps or lasers. Due to the nature of these light sources, the sampling of calibration points cannot be freely chosen. In this paper we present an approach where an echelle grating wavelength meter (WM) is used to traceably calibrate the emitted center wavelength of a monochromator at almost any sampling interval. In addition, it is possible to calibrate the monochromator outside the sensitive spectral range of the WM used. It is demonstrated how a WM is calibrated and then how it is used to calibrate the monochromator of DLR’s Calibration Home Base (CHB) for imaging spectrometers at DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The same approach is also used for the monochromator, which is intended for the laboratory calibration of the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2016 (2)

DLR Remote Sensing Technology Institute, “The calibration home base for imaging spectrometers,” Journal of large-scale research facilities 2, A82 (2016).
[Crossref]

DLR Remote Sensing Technology Institute, “Airborne imaging spectrometer hyspex,” Journal of large-scale research facilities 2, A93 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, and K. Lenhard, “Calibration of a monochromator using a lambdameter,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 888910 (2013).

2009 (1)

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

W. D. Bare and J. N. Demas, “Monochromator wavelength calibration standards extending into the near-infrared using second- and third-order emission lines from mercury vapor lamps,” J. Fluoresc. 10, 317–324 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1979 (1)

Bachmann, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bare, W. D.

W. D. Bare and J. N. Demas, “Monochromator wavelength calibration standards extending into the near-infrared using second- and third-order emission lines from mercury vapor lamps,” J. Fluoresc. 10, 317–324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Barnett, J. J.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, A.

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, and K. Lenhard, “Calibration of a monochromator using a lambdameter,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 888910 (2013).

Bracken, J. N.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brazile, J.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buddenbaum, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chabrillat, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chlebek, C.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ciddor, P. E.

D’Odorico, P.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Damm, A.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Demas, J. N.

W. D. Bare and J. N. Demas, “Monochromator wavelength calibration standards extending into the near-infrared using second- and third-order emission lines from mercury vapor lamps,” J. Fluoresc. 10, 317–324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Djotni, K.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Doerffer, R.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fischer, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Foerster, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fries, J.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gege, P.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, and K. Lenhard, “Calibration of a monochromator using a lambdameter,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 888910 (2013).

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gray, P. F.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Guanter, L.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Habermeyer, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hammond, G.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hank, T.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haschberger, P.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heiden, U.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hepplewhite, C. L.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hill, J.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hollstein, A.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hostert, P.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hueni, A.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Itten, K. I.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jehle, M.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kneubühler, M.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knight, R. J.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kohler, P.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krasemann, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Küchler, C.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuester, T.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laurent, V.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leitão, P.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lenhard, K.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, and K. Lenhard, “Calibration of a monochromator using a lambdameter,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 888910 (2013).

Locherer, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mauser, W.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mclirath, T. J.

Meuleman, K.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meynart, R.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, J. N.

J. N. Miller, Standards in fluorescence spectrometry (Chapman and Hall, 1981).
[Crossref]

Morris, M. B.

Mueller, A.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mühle, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, R.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohndorf, A.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Palmer, C. W. P.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Popp, C.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rabe, A.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rast, M.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rogass, C.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rossner, G.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Row, F.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sang, B.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schaepman, M. E.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schläpfer, D.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schneider, F. D.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schoetz, P.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schrader, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schwarzer, H.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwarzmaier, T.

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, and K. Lenhard, “Calibration of a monochromator using a lambdameter,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 888910 (2013).

Segl, K.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seidel, F. C.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Staenz, K.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Storch, T.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Straif, C.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strobl, P.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suhr, B.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ulbrich, G.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

van der Linden, S.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vos, L. D.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vreeling, W.

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Watkins, R. E. J.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weyermann, J.

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Whitney, J. G.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wolfenden, R.

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xi, H.

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. (1)

P. Gege, J. Fries, P. Haschberger, P. Schoetz, H. Schwarzer, P. Strobl, B. Suhr, G. Ulbrich, and W. Vreeling, “Calibration facility for airborne imaging spectrometers,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. & Remote. Sens. 64, 387–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

W. D. Bare and J. N. Demas, “Monochromator wavelength calibration standards extending into the near-infrared using second- and third-order emission lines from mercury vapor lamps,” J. Fluoresc. 10, 317–324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Journal of large-scale research facilities (2)

DLR Remote Sensing Technology Institute, “The calibration home base for imaging spectrometers,” Journal of large-scale research facilities 2, A82 (2016).
[Crossref]

DLR Remote Sensing Technology Institute, “Airborne imaging spectrometer hyspex,” Journal of large-scale research facilities 2, A93 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. L. Hepplewhite, J. J. Barnett, K. Djotni, J. G. Whitney, J. N. Bracken, R. Wolfenden, F. Row, C. W. P. Palmer, R. E. J. Watkins, R. J. Knight, P. F. Gray, and G. Hammond, “Hirdls monochromator calibration equipment,” Proc. SPIE 5152, 205 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Schwarzmaier, A. Baumgartner, P. Gege, and K. Lenhard, “Calibration of a monochromator using a lambdameter,” Proc. SPIE 8889, 888910 (2013).

Remote. Sens. (1)

L. Guanter, H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Foerster, C. Rogass, S. Chabrillat, T. Kuester, A. Hollstein, G. Rossner, C. Chlebek, C. Straif, S. Fischer, S. Schrader, T. Storch, U. Heiden, A. Mueller, M. Bachmann, H. Mühle, R. Müller, M. Habermeyer, A. Ohndorf, J. Hill, H. Buddenbaum, P. Hostert, S. van der Linden, P. Leitão, A. Rabe, R. Doerffer, H. Krasemann, H. Xi, W. Mauser, T. Hank, M. Locherer, M. Rast, K. Staenz, and B. Sang, “The enmap spaceborne imaging spectroscopy mission for earth observation,” Remote. Sens. 7, 8830–8857 (2015).
[Crossref]

Remote. Sens. Environ. (1)

M. E. Schaepman, M. Jehle, A. Hueni, P. D’Odorico, A. Damm, J. Weyermann, F. D. Schneider, V. Laurent, C. Popp, F. C. Seidel, K. Lenhard, P. Gege, C. Küchler, J. Brazile, P. Kohler, L. D. Vos, K. Meuleman, R. Meynart, D. Schläpfer, M. Kneubühler, and K. I. Itten, “Advanced radiometry measurements and earth science applications with the airborne prism experiment (apex),” Remote. Sens. Environ. 158, 207–219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

GWU-Lasertechnik, GWU LambdaScan-usb Technical Manual (George Washington University, 2009), version 3.22 ed..

J. N. Miller, Standards in fluorescence spectrometry (Chapman and Hall, 1981).
[Crossref]

A. Kramida, Yu. Ralchenko, J. Reader, and NIST ASD Team, “Nist atomic spectra database ver. 5.5.6,” https://physics.nist.gov/asd (2018). Accessed: 2018-10-12.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Working principle of an echelle grating wavelength meter. Collimated light is diffracted by an echelle grating. Most of the energy is distributed to high diffraction orders which are imaged on a line detector array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example of a measurement of monochromatic light with a wavelength of approximately 500 nm. a) Image acquired by a line detector array. The numbers next to the peaks are indicating the diffraction orders. b) Close up of peak four (diffraction order 43) with a fitted generalized Gaussian distribution function to determine the peak’s center position. Light of 500 nm diffracted with order 43 results in a synthetic wavelength of 21 500 nm. The small deviation of the peak center shows that the actual wavelength is a bit smaller.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic drawing of a monochromator setup. The emitted light from a monochromator is coupled into a multi-mode fiber. Since the light has a certain bandwidth with changing wavelength over the exit port, a mode scrambler is used here to mix the modes in the fiber to create a uniform output spectrum. A fiber to fiber (F to F) coupler provides a modular interface to which a wavelength meter is connected. For the calibration measurements higher diffraction order suppressing filters are not placed in the optical path.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measurement with monochromator wavelength set to approximately 2600 nm. The values next to the peaks are indicating the wavelength meter diffraction orders, the monochromator diffraction orders and the emitted monochromator wavelengths in nm. The light of different wavelengths overlaps at several peaks. At one peak all wavelengths overlap. We refer to this peak as super peak.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Setup for wavelength meter calibration update measurements. A spectral bandpass filter is placed between a gas-discharge lamp and the multi-mode fiber leading to the WM. A fiber connector is symbolized by the white box attached to the fiber. The filter suppresses all emission lines but one. The components are packed together as closely as possible to guarantee overfilling of the fiber’s numerical aperture.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Residuals between fitted calibration polynomial and reference wavelengths. The uncertainties, which are dominated by the uncertainties of the environmental parameters, are negligible compared to the deviations. Note: These are the residuals for the synthetic wavelengths, not for the actually measured wavelengths.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Result of the stability assessment by repeated neon discharge lamp measurements. Dots denote the results of the evaluation approach presented in this paper, whereas the dashed lines are the derived uncertainty. Crosses represent the outcome of the software supplied with the instrument with the solid line as the uncertainty specified by the manufacturer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Residuals of monochromator calibration (blue) and validation measurements utilizing the former calibration (orange) for all three gratings. A sinusoidal pattern can be seen in the calibration measurements, caused by the worm gear of the grating turret. The pattern vanished completely in the validation measurements.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the wavelength meter LambdaScan-usb [10]. Note: The specifications for accuracy, source linewidth requirement and resolution only apply when the software supplied with the instrument is used, not for the approach stated in section 4.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Wavelengths in vacuum and air of the neon and mercury emission lines used for calibration. The vacuum wavelengths [12] are corrected for the refractive index of air [13]. The neon lamps were used on four different days with different environmental parameters, where at Δt = 0 d we performed the calibration measurements and on the three other days the repeatability tests. The given uncertainties for the wavelengths in air originate in the uncertainties of the environmental parameters.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Specifications of the three installed gratings and the corresponding measurement parameters. λmin, λmax and Δλ are the start, the end and the step width of the measurements, respectively.

Equations (32)

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o λ = d ( sin ( θ ) + sin ( ϕ ) ) ,
λ S = λ o E , o E ,
λ min E λ λ max E ,
λ min S λ S λ max S ,
λ = λ i + 1 S λ i S , i = 1 , , n 1 ,
Γ ( z ) = A exp ( ( | z x | α ) β )
λ i S = f ( x i )
λ = 1 n 1 i = 1 n 1 ( λ i + 1 S λ i S )
o i E = round ( λ i S / λ )
λ ¯ = 1 n i = 1 n λ i S / o i E .
u ( λ i ) = u ( λ i S ) / o i E
λ j M = λ M ( o M = 1 ) o j M j = 1 , , m .
λ min M λ j M λ max M
λ i S / o i E λ j M .
λ 1 M < λ max S λ min S .
o i E , p = round ( λ i S λ ) .
λ i p ( o M = 1 ) = λ i S o i E , p .
I = arg min i | λ i p λ | ,
λ 1 M = λ I p .
e ( λ ) < 0.5 λ min M o I E , o I E = λ I S λ I M .
o j M = 1 , , round ( λ 1 M max ( λ min E , λ min M ) ) .
R i j = | λ i S λ I S | λ j M .
J i = arg min j | R i j round ( R i j ) | ,
λ 1 M = 1 n i = 1 n λ i S round ( λ i S / λ J i M ) o J i M
λ k l S , ref = λ k ref o k l E , k = 1 , , N ref , l = 1 , , N k ref , S ,
λ k l S , ref = λ k ref o k l E ,
o k l E = round ( λ k l S , / λ k ref ) .
u ( λ k l S , ref ) = u ( λ k ref ) o k l E
c calib = arg min c k = 1 N ref l = 1 N k ref , S ( f c ( x k l ) λ k ref o k l E ) 2 ,
c 0 updated = c 0 calib 1 n i = 1 n ( λ i S λ ref , air o i E )
λ air = λ vac n air ( T , p , h , x c ) ,
u ( λ ) λ = 5 10 6 ; ( k = 1 ) .

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