Abstract

Two femtosecond methods for imaging moderate liquid-gas sprays in the near-field region of spray nozzles — shadowgraphy and optical Kerr gated (OKG) ballistic imaging — were compared. Most spray structures can be captured using femtosecond shadowgraphy that can freeze the motion of the sprays. Femtosecond OKG ballistic imaging can distinguish finer structures and more-realistic liquid sheets by the filtering of multiple scattered photons. To compensate for the high-spatial-frequency components of the spray structures filtered by OKG ballistic imaging, differential OKG (DOKG) ballistic imaging was demonstrated. For dilute sprays, femtosecond shadowgraphy with a relatively simple experimental setup is recommended. For dense sprays, femtosecond OKG (or DOKG) ballistic imaging is more suitable.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. J. B. Schmidt, Z. D. Schaefer, T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, S. A. Danczyk, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrafast time-gated ballistic-photon imaging and shadowgraphy in optically dense rocket sprays,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B137–B144 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Purwar, H. Wang, M. Tang, S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, J. B. Blaisot, T. Godin, and A. Hideur, “Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33396–33407 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: A review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Zheng, W. Tan, X. Liu, and J. Tong, “Ballistic imaging through an intense scattering medium using a supercontinuum with a roundabout spatial gate,” Opt. Express 25(17), 20431–20436 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Rahm, Z. Falgout, D. Sedarsky, and M. Linne, “Optical sectioning for measurements in transient sprays,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4610–4621 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, and R. R. Alfano, “Kerr - Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18(3), 241–243 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  10. M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot, two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5100–5109 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, “Ballistic imaging of the liquid core for a steady jet in crossflow,” Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6627–6634 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J. B. Blaisot, “Sub-picosecond ballistic imaging of a liquid jet,” Exp. Fluids 52(2), 289–298 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Linne, M. Rahm, and Z. Falgout, “Correlation of Internal Flow and Spray Breakup for a Fuel Injector Used in Ship Engines,” The 8th US National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Instituute, 2013), paper 070HE-0032.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

M. Rahm, Z. Falgout, D. Sedarsky, and M. Linne, “Optical sectioning for measurements in transient sprays,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4610–4621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: A review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J. B. Blaisot, “Sub-picosecond ballistic imaging of a liquid jet,” Exp. Fluids 52(2), 289–298 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1993 (2)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, and R. R. Alfano, “Kerr - Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18(3), 241–243 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Orczyk, M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third‐order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase‐tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histgram,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 29(3), 223–237 (1985).

Alfano, R. R.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, and R. R. Alfano, “Kerr - Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18(3), 241–243 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Berrocal, E.

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blaisot, J. B.

Breisacher, K.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Carter, C.

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G. C.

G. C. Cheng, R. Cohn, C. Johnson, R. R. Davis, and J. A. Muss, “Development of GOX/Kerosene Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. (Aerospace Research Central, 2003), paper 4751.
[Crossref]

Cohn, R.

G. C. Cheng, R. Cohn, C. Johnson, R. R. Davis, and J. A. Muss, “Development of GOX/Kerosene Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. (Aerospace Research Central, 2003), paper 4751.
[Crossref]

Crouse, R. F.

Dai, H.

Danczyk, S. A.

Davis, R. R.

G. C. Cheng, R. Cohn, C. Johnson, R. R. Davis, and J. A. Muss, “Development of GOX/Kerosene Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. (Aerospace Research Central, 2003), paper 4751.
[Crossref]

Duran, S.

S. Duran, J. Porter, and T. E. Parker, “Ballistic Imaging of Sprays at Diesel Relevant Conditions,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Liquid Atomisation and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Heidelberg, Germany, 2–6 Sept. 2012.

Falgout, Z.

M. Rahm, Z. Falgout, D. Sedarsky, and M. Linne, “Optical sectioning for measurements in transient sprays,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4610–4621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Linne, M. Rahm, and Z. Falgout, “Correlation of Internal Flow and Spray Breakup for a Fuel Injector Used in Ship Engines,” The 8th US National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Instituute, 2013), paper 070HE-0032.

Galland, P. A.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Girasole, T.

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J. B. Blaisot, “Sub-picosecond ballistic imaging of a liquid jet,” Exp. Fluids 52(2), 289–298 (2012).
[Crossref]

Godin, T.

Gord, J.

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gord, J. R.

Hall, T.

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hideur, A.

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, and R. R. Alfano, “Kerr - Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18(3), 241–243 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Hou, X.

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Idlahcen, S.

Johnson, C.

G. C. Cheng, R. Cohn, C. Johnson, R. R. Davis, and J. A. Muss, “Development of GOX/Kerosene Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. (Aerospace Research Central, 2003), paper 4751.
[Crossref]

Kapur, J. N.

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histgram,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 29(3), 223–237 (1985).

Latimer, P.

Liang, X.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, and R. R. Alfano, “Kerr - Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18(3), 241–243 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Linne, M.

M. Rahm, Z. Falgout, D. Sedarsky, and M. Linne, “Optical sectioning for measurements in transient sprays,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4610–4621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: A review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot, two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5100–5109 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Linne, M. Rahm, and Z. Falgout, “Correlation of Internal Flow and Spray Breakup for a Fuel Injector Used in Ship Engines,” The 8th US National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Instituute, 2013), paper 070HE-0032.

Linne, M. A.

Liou, L.

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Méès, L.

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J. B. Blaisot, “Sub-picosecond ballistic imaging of a liquid jet,” Exp. Fluids 52(2), 289–298 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T. R.

Muss, J. A.

G. C. Cheng, R. Cohn, C. Johnson, R. R. Davis, and J. A. Muss, “Development of GOX/Kerosene Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. (Aerospace Research Central, 2003), paper 4751.
[Crossref]

Orczyk, M. E.

M. E. Orczyk, M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third‐order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase‐tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Paciaroni, M.

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, “Ballistic imaging of the liquid core for a steady jet in crossflow,” Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6627–6634 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot, two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5100–5109 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, T.

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
[Crossref]

Parker, T. E.

S. Duran, J. Porter, and T. E. Parker, “Ballistic Imaging of Sprays at Diesel Relevant Conditions,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Liquid Atomisation and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Heidelberg, Germany, 2–6 Sept. 2012.

Petterson, P.

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Porter, J.

S. Duran, J. Porter, and T. E. Parker, “Ballistic Imaging of Sprays at Diesel Relevant Conditions,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Liquid Atomisation and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Heidelberg, Germany, 2–6 Sept. 2012.

Prasad, P. N.

M. E. Orczyk, M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third‐order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase‐tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Purwar, H.

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, Z. Falgout, D. Sedarsky, and M. Linne, “Optical sectioning for measurements in transient sprays,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4610–4621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Linne, M. Rahm, and Z. Falgout, “Correlation of Internal Flow and Spray Breakup for a Fuel Injector Used in Ship Engines,” The 8th US National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Instituute, 2013), paper 070HE-0032.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

Rozé, C.

Sahoo, P. K.

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histgram,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 29(3), 223–237 (1985).

Samoc, M.

M. E. Orczyk, M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third‐order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase‐tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schaefer, Z. D.

Schmidt, J. B.

Sedarsky, D.

M. Rahm, Z. Falgout, D. Sedarsky, and M. Linne, “Optical sectioning for measurements in transient sprays,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4610–4621 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Si, J.

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

M. E. Orczyk, M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third‐order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase‐tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tan, W.

Y. Zheng, W. Tan, X. Liu, and J. Tong, “Ballistic imaging through an intense scattering medium using a supercontinuum with a roundabout spatial gate,” Opt. Express 25(17), 20431–20436 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

Tong, J.

Y. Zheng, W. Tan, X. Liu, and J. Tong, “Ballistic imaging through an intense scattering medium using a supercontinuum with a roundabout spatial gate,” Opt. Express 25(17), 20431–20436 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, and R. R. Alfano, “Kerr - Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18(3), 241–243 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

Wong, A. K. C.

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histgram,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 29(3), 223–237 (1985).

Xu, S.

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zelina, J.

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhan, P.

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. (1)

J. N. Kapur, P. K. Sahoo, and A. K. C. Wong, “A new method for gray-level picture thresholding using the entropy of the histgram,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 29(3), 223–237 (1985).

Exp. Fluids (4)

M. Linne, M. Paciaroni, T. Hall, and T. Parker, “Ballistic imaging of the near field in a diesel spray,” Exp. Fluids 40(6), 836–846 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Sedarsky, M. Paciaroni, E. Berrocal, P. Petterson, J. Zelina, J. Gord, and M. Linne, “Model validation image data for breakup of a liquid jet in crossflow part I,” Exp. Fluids 49(2), 391–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, L. Méès, T. Girasole, and J. B. Blaisot, “Sub-picosecond ballistic imaging of a liquid jet,” Exp. Fluids 52(2), 289–298 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Ren, J. Si, W. Tan, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of a differential optical Kerr Gate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 394–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. E. Orczyk, M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third‐order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase‐tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

M. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: A review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

P. A. Galland, X. Liang, L. Wang, K. Breisacher, L. Liou, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Time-resolved optical imaging of jet sprays and droplets in highly scattering medium (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995).

M. Linne, M. Rahm, and Z. Falgout, “Correlation of Internal Flow and Spray Breakup for a Fuel Injector Used in Ship Engines,” The 8th US National Combustion Meeting (Combustion Instituute, 2013), paper 070HE-0032.

S. Duran, J. Porter, and T. E. Parker, “Ballistic Imaging of Sprays at Diesel Relevant Conditions,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Liquid Atomisation and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Heidelberg, Germany, 2–6 Sept. 2012.

G. C. Cheng, R. Cohn, C. Johnson, R. R. Davis, and J. A. Muss, “Development of GOX/Kerosene Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. (Aerospace Research Central, 2003), paper 4751.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Imaging system for simultaneously performing the femtosecond OKG imaging and femtosecond shadow imaging: imaging system of OKG (a) and DOKG (b) — M1, M2, M3: reflector; BS1, BS2: beam splitter; SPF: short-pass filter; λ/2: half-wave plate; ODL: optical delay line; L0, L1, L2: lenses; OKM: optical Kerr medium; RTT: resolution test target; S: scattering medium; P1, P2, P3, P4: polarizers; LPF: long-pass filter; λ/4: quarter-wave plate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Images obtained by different imaging methods through the scattering medium and their MTF and PSF — (a) reference image: shadowgraphy results without scattering medium; (b) shadowgraphy results with scattering medium; (c) OKG imaging with scattering medium; (d) DOKG imaging with scattering medium; and (e) MTF of the imaging system; (f) PSF of the imaging system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Power spectra obtained with (a) reference image; (b) shadowgraphy; (c) OKG imaging; (d) DOKG imaging.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images of liquid-gas spray obtained by different methods of imaging and their partial enlargements: (a) shadowgraphy, (b) OKG imaging, and (c) DOKG imaging. (d) and (e): Picture segmentation results of the enlargements of Figs. 4(a)-I and 4(b)-I.

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