Abstract

A new plasmonic Mach-Zehnder modulator is demonstrated at a bit rate of 120 Gb/s NRZ-OOK with low peak-to-peak driving voltages of 178 mVpp below the HD-FEC limit. Such record low driving voltage requirements potentially translate into an electrical drive power consumption of 862 aJ/bit. The low drive voltages have been made possible by a new differential Mach-Zehnder modulator electrode design. The differential electrode design is optimized for the balanced driving circuitry and reduces the effectively required driving voltage by a factor of four (Vπ/4). The potential of the transmitter scheme is further demonstrated by a transmission experiment over 500 m of single mode fiber at the C-band with a BER performance below the KP4 FEC limit.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

2018 (7)

J. Verbist, M. Verplaetse, S. A. Srinivasan, J. Van Kerrebrouck, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, T. De Keulenaer, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, and G. Torfs, “Real-Time 100 Gb/s NRZ and EDB Transmission with a GeSi Electro-Absorption Modulator for Short-Reach Optical Interconnects EAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 90−96 (2018).

S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection With an InP-Based Monolithic DFB Laser Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Minkenberg, N. Farrington, A. Zilkie, D. Nelson, C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, J. Byrd, B. Chowdhuri, N. Kucharewski, K. Muth, A. Nagra, G. Rodriguez, D. Rubi, T. Schrans, P. Srinivasan, Y. Wang, C. Yeh, and A. Rickman, “Reimagining Datacenter Topologies With Integrated Silicon Photonics,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(7), B126–B139 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, D. T. Neilson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24190–24239 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “Design Considerations for a 100 Gbit/s SiGe-BiCMOS Power Multiplexer With 2 Vpp Differential Voltage Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(9), 2479–2487 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, M. Ayata, U. Koch, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Leuthold, “Perpendicular Grating Coupler Based on a Blazed Antiback-Reflection Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4663–4669 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From Scaling Disparities to Integrated Parallelism: A Decathlon for a Decade,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(5), 1099–1115 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Kahn and D. A. B. Miller, “Communications expands its space,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 5–8 (2017).

D. A. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 346–396 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobsen, “100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(6), 1174–1179 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kanazawa, H. Yamazaki, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, Y. Muramoto, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “214-Gb/s 4-PAM Operation of Flip-Chip Interconnection EADFB Laser Module,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 418–422 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

2012 (3)

2009 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

Altenhain, L.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection With an InP-Based Monolithic DFB Laser Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Asyngier, T.

Avila, J. D.

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avramopoulos, H.

Ayata, M.

Bach, H.-G.

Baeuerle, B.

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beretta, A.

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigo, S.

Boesser, J.

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bonjour, R.

Brunina, D.

Byrd, J.

Campbell, R. A.

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cangini, G.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

Chen, J.

Chen, X.

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D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
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Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

Dupuy, J.-Y.

Duval, B.

Elder, D. L.

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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Emboras, A.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

Engenhardt, K. M.

Estaran, J. M.

Farrington, N.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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T. Watanabe, M. Ayata, U. Koch, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Leuthold, “Perpendicular Grating Coupler Based on a Blazed Antiback-Reflection Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4663–4669 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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Freude, W.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

Gaiarin, S.

Garrett, K. E.

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grote, N.

Groumas, P.

Haffner, C.

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

Hartmann, W.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heni, W.

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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Hettrich, H.

C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “Design Considerations for a 100 Gbit/s SiGe-BiCMOS Power Multiplexer With 2 Vpp Differential Voltage Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(9), 2479–2487 (2018).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “A 100 Gbit/s 2Vpp Power Multiplexer in SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Directly Driving a Monolithically Integrated Plasmonic MZM in a Silicon Photonics Transmitter,” in 2017 IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (IEEE, 2017), p. 106.

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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Josten, A.

U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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T. Watanabe, M. Ayata, U. Koch, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Leuthold, “Perpendicular Grating Coupler Based on a Blazed Antiback-Reflection Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4663–4669 (2017).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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K. Schuh, E. Lach, and B. Junginger, “100 Gbit/s ETDM transmission system based on electronic multiplexing transmitter and demultiplexing receiver,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2006), p. 1.
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U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Watanabe, M. Ayata, U. Koch, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Leuthold, “Perpendicular Grating Coupler Based on a Blazed Antiback-Reflection Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4663–4669 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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Mardoyan, H.

Melikyan, A.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

Messner, A.

Miller, D. A.

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J. M. Kahn and D. A. B. Miller, “Communications expands its space,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 5–8 (2017).

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C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “Design Considerations for a 100 Gbit/s SiGe-BiCMOS Power Multiplexer With 2 Vpp Differential Voltage Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(9), 2479–2487 (2018).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “A 100 Gbit/s 2Vpp Power Multiplexer in SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Directly Driving a Monolithically Integrated Plasmonic MZM in a Silicon Photonics Transmitter,” in 2017 IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (IEEE, 2017), p. 106.

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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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Tanobe, H.

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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Udalcovs, A.

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Uhl, C.

C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “Design Considerations for a 100 Gbit/s SiGe-BiCMOS Power Multiplexer With 2 Vpp Differential Voltage Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(9), 2479–2487 (2018).
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C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “A 100 Gbit/s 2Vpp Power Multiplexer in SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Directly Driving a Monolithically Integrated Plasmonic MZM in a Silicon Photonics Transmitter,” in 2017 IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (IEEE, 2017), p. 106.

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Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

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Wang, C.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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Winzer, P.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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Wolf, S.

Xie, C.

Yamazaki, H.

Yeh, C.

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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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Zhang, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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Zhang, Z.

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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Zilkie, A.

Zwickel, H.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, E. Dornbierer, J. Boesser, D. Hillerkuss, and J. Leuthold, “Modified Godard timing recovery for non-integer oversampling receivers,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 7(7), 655 (2017).
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Chem. Mater. (1)

D. L. Elder, C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, K. E. Garrett, L. E. Johnson, R. A. Campbell, J. D. Avila, B. H. Robinson, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Effect of rigid bridge-protection units, quadrupolar interactions, and blending in organic electro-optic chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 29(15), 6457–6471 (2017).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Ogiso, J. Ozaki, N. Kashio, N. Kikuchi, H. Tanobe, Y. Ohiso, and M. Kohtoku, “100 Gb/s and 2 V Vπ InP Mach-Zehnder modulator with an n-i-p-n heterostructure,” Electron. Lett. 52(22), 1866–1867 (2016).
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IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, and M. Möller, “Design Considerations for a 100 Gbit/s SiGe-BiCMOS Power Multiplexer With 2 Vpp Differential Voltage Swing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(9), 2479–2487 (2018).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (10)

S. Kanazawa, H. Yamazaki, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Ueda, W. Kobayashi, Y. Muramoto, H. Ishii, and H. Sanjoh, “214-Gb/s 4-PAM Operation of Flip-Chip Interconnection EADFB Laser Module,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 418–422 (2017).
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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J. Verbist, M. Verplaetse, S. A. Srinivasan, J. Van Kerrebrouck, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, T. De Keulenaer, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, and G. Torfs, “Real-Time 100 Gb/s NRZ and EDB Transmission with a GeSi Electro-Absorption Modulator for Short-Reach Optical Interconnects EAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 90−96 (2018).

T. Watanabe, M. Ayata, U. Koch, Y. Fedoryshyn, and J. Leuthold, “Perpendicular Grating Coupler Based on a Blazed Antiback-Reflection Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(21), 4663–4669 (2017).
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P. J. Winzer and D. T. Neilson, “From Scaling Disparities to Integrated Parallelism: A Decathlon for a Decade,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(5), 1099–1115 (2017).
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D. A. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 346–396 (2017).
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S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd Intensity Modulation and Direct Detection With an InP-Based Monolithic DFB Laser Mach–Zehnder Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
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J. M. Estaran, H. Mardoyan, F. Jorge, O. Ozolins, A. Udalcovs, A. Konczykowska, M. Riet, B. Duval, V. Nodjiadjim, J.-Y. Dupuy, X. Pang, U. Westergren, J. Chen, S. Popov, and S. Bigo, “140/180/204-Gbaud OOK Transceiver for Inter- and Intra-Data Center Connectivity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 178–187 (2019).

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobsen, “100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(6), 1174–1179 (2017).
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U. Koch, A. Messner, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Ultra-Compact Terabit Plasmonic Modulator Array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1484–1491 (2019).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 229−233 (2014).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9, 525−528 (2015).

J. M. Kahn and D. A. B. Miller, “Communications expands its space,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 5–8 (2017).

Nature (1)

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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Opt. Express (7)

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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J. Cho, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer, “Analysis of soft-decision FEC on non-AWGN channels,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7915–7928 (2012).
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P. J. Winzer, D. T. Neilson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(18), 24190–24239 (2018).
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W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
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C. Hoessbacher, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Hettrich, Y. Salamin, W. Heni, C. Haffner, C. Kaiser, R. Schmid, D. L. Elder, D. Hillerkuss, M. Möller, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic modulator with >170 GHz bandwidth demonstrated at 100 GBd NRZ,” Opt. Express 25(3), 1762–1768 (2017).
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Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder Modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off Keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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M. Ayata, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, M. Zahner, U. Koch, Y. Salamin, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic modulator in a single metal layer,” Science 358(6363), 630–632 (2017).
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B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, C. Haffner, T. Watanabe, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “Driver-Less Sub 1 V pp Operation of a Plasmonic-Organic Hybrid Modulator at 100 GBd NRZ,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper M2I.1.

B. Baeuerle, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher, U. Koch, A. Josten, T. Watanabe, C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, D. Elder, L. Dalton, M. Möller, and J. Leuthold, “Dual-drive Plasmonic Transmitter with Co-designed Driver Electronics Operated at 120 GBd On-off Keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper M2F.3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Dual-drive plasmonic transmitter. A power multiplexer (PMUX) generates the electrical differential signal (UDrive, Drive) which is connected via S̅SS̅ electrodes with the plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). Colorized scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures show the two plasmonic phase shifters, which are incorporated in the MZM structure operated in push-pull mode. Light is coupled via grating couplers (GC) to the chip and silicon photonic (SiP) waveguides direct the light to the plasmonic phase shifters. An additional thermo-optic phase shifter (PS) allows for adaption of the MZM’s operation point. (1) Cross section of the plasmonic MZM, which is covered by the organic electro-optic (OEO) material.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental Setup. The intensity modulated transmitter comprises an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) connected to a power multiplexer (PMUX) with a differential output for electrical signal generation and a plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) fed by a tunable laser source (TLS). The optical signal is amplified by an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The transmission channel comprises standard single mode fibers (SMFs) of up to 500 m in length. The direct detection receiver comprises a variable optical attenuator (VOA), a photodiode (PD), and a real-time oscilloscope (RTO). The offline digital signal processing (DSP) includes normalization, timing recovery, T-spaced feed forward equalization (FFE), and bit-to-error ratio (BER) calculation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental setup to measure the electro-optic (EO) frequency response of the modulator. Heterodyne beating of two lasers (f1 and f2) in a photo diode (PD) generates the electrical drive signal. (b) Normalized electro-optic-electric (EOE) and electro-optic (EO) frequency responses The EOE response of the full link comprises all electrical and optical components (black, square). The electrical back-to-back (Elect. BTB) frequency response comprises the electrical driver (red circles). The EOE frequency response of the plasmonic modulator is given by triangular green markers. The EOE frequency responses have been estimated by a feed-forward equalizer (FFE). The EO bandwidth has been measured with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and the results are depicted as green crosses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental results for 120 Gb/s NRZ-OOK signals. Bit error ratio (BER) as a function of received optical power for back-to-back (BTB) (square, black), for 100 m transmission (circle, red), and for 500 m transmission (triangle, green). As a reference the FEC limits at 3.8 × 10−3 and 2.4 × 10−4 (dashed grey) are shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Complexity analysis of the feedforward equalizer (FFE) for 120 Gb/s NRZ-OOK signals. Bit-to-error ratio (BER) as a function of filter taps of a T-spaced FFE for back-to-back (BTB) (square, black), 100 m transmission (circle, red), and 500 m transmission (triangle, green). As a reference the FEC limits at 3.8 × 10−3 and 2.4 × 10−4 (dashed grey) are shown. (b) Bit error ratio (BER) as a function of the peak-to-peak drive voltage for optical back-to-back (BTB) measurements of 120 Gb/s NRZ-OOK signals. The given peak-to-peak drive voltage is measured single ended at a 50 Ω termination at the maximum eye opening. As reference the FEC limits at 3.8 × 10- 3 and 2.4 × 10−4 (dashed grey) are shown.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Analysis of signal integrity for different DSP complexities and transmission distances with a mean peak-to-peak drive voltage of 450 mVpp.

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