Abstract

In this work, we study the crystalline defect induced optical scattering loss inside photonic waveguide. Volume current method is implemented with a close form of dyadic Green’s function derived. More specifically, threading dislocation induced scattering loss inside AlN waveguides in UV–visible spectrum wavelengths are studied since this material is intrinsically accompanied with high densities of dislocations (typically on order of 108–1010cm−2). The results from this study reveal that threading dislocations contribute significant amount of scattering loss when material is not MOCVD grown. Additionally, the scattering loss is strongly dependent on polarization and waveguide geometries: TM modes exhibit higher scattering loss compared with TE modes, and the multimode large core waveguides are more susceptible to threading dislocations compared with single mode waveguides and high-aspect-ratio waveguides. Conclusions from this work can be supported by several recently published investigations on III-N based photonic devices. The model derived from this work can also be easily altered to fit other material systems with other types of crystalline defects.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2018 (5)

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Lu, M. Fanto, H. Choi, P. Thomas, J. Steidle, S. Mouradian, W. Kong, D. Zhu, H. Moon, K. Berggren, J. Kim, M. Soltani, S. Preble, and D. Englund, “Aluminum nitride integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet to visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11147–11160 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5(10), 1279–1282 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

H. Miyake, C. H. Lin, K. Tokoro, and K. Hiramatsu, “Preparation of high-quality AlN on sapphire by high-temperature face-to-face annealing,” J. Cryst. Growth 456, 155–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Near-to-far field transformations for radiative and guided waves,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 395–402 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Gupta, Y. Enatsu, G. Gupta, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “High breakdown voltage p–n diodes on GaN on sapphire by MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(4), 878–882 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3(10), 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Jung and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

V. M. Kaganer and K. K. Sabelfeld, “X-ray Diffraction peaks from correlated dislocations: Monte Carlo study of dislocation screening,” Acta Crystallogr. A 66(6), 703–716 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, and M. N. Armenise, “Fully three-dimensional accurate modeling of scattering loss in optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(4), 285–298 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Bai, M. Dudley, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, and M. A. Khan, “Reduction of threading dislocation densities in AlN/ sapphire epilayers driven by growth mode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051903 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Barwicz and H. A. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Atomic geometry and electronic structure of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(11), 8067–8070 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of yellow luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. L. Mills, “Light scattering by point defects in insulating crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(11), 5864–5867 (1980).
[Crossref]

Aharonovich, I.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amma, S. I.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aoki, M.

T. Ogino and M. Aoki, “Mechanism of yellow luminescence in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 2395–2405 (1980).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arita, M.

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, and M. N. Armenise, “Fully three-dimensional accurate modeling of scattering loss in optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(4), 285–298 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

J. Bai, M. Dudley, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, and M. A. Khan, “Reduction of threading dislocation densities in AlN/ sapphire epilayers driven by growth mode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baidakova, M. V.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baranowski, I.

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. S.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz and H. A. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Berggren, K.

Berhane, A. M.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biskupek, J.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bodrog, Z.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Bruch, A. W.

Carlson, D. R.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, R.

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherkashin, N.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

Chuvilin, A.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
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C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, and M. N. Armenise, “Fully three-dimensional accurate modeling of scattering loss in optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(4), 285–298 (2009).
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D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cole, D. C.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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Dai, D.

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, and M. N. Armenise, “Fully three-dimensional accurate modeling of scattering loss in optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(4), 285–298 (2009).
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DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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Droste, S.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dudley, M.

J. Bai, M. Dudley, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, and M. A. Khan, “Reduction of threading dislocation densities in AlN/ sapphire epilayers driven by growth mode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ebert, J.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Edagawa, K.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Enatsu, Y.

C. Gupta, Y. Enatsu, G. Gupta, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “High breakdown voltage p–n diodes on GaN on sapphire by MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(4), 878–882 (2016).
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Englund, D.

T. J. Lu, M. Fanto, H. Choi, P. Thomas, J. Steidle, S. Mouradian, W. Kong, D. Zhu, H. Moon, K. Berggren, J. Kim, M. Soltani, S. Preble, and D. Englund, “Aluminum nitride integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet to visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11147–11160 (2018).
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A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fanto, M.

Feezell, D.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fiedler, S.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
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Fong, K. Y.

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
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C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
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Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fredrick, C.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fu, H.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujito, K.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gachet, D.

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gali, A.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

Gunning, B. P.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3(10), 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gupta, C.

C. Gupta, Y. Enatsu, G. Gupta, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “High breakdown voltage p–n diodes on GaN on sapphire by MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(4), 878–882 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gupta, G.

C. Gupta, Y. Enatsu, G. Gupta, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “High breakdown voltage p–n diodes on GaN on sapphire by MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(4), 878–882 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

T. Barwicz and H. A. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lit. Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J.

Heideman, R. G.

Hickstein, D. D.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hiramatsu, K.

H. Miyake, C. H. Lin, K. Tokoro, and K. Hiramatsu, “Preparation of high-quality AlN on sapphire by high-temperature face-to-face annealing,” J. Cryst. Growth 456, 155–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holmes, M. J.

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

J. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Near-to-far field transformations for radiative and guided waves,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 395–402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ikuhara, Y.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ilin, K.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K. Y.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

John, D.

Jung, H.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jung and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaganer, V. M.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. M. Kaganer and K. K. Sabelfeld, “X-ray Diffraction peaks from correlated dislocations: Monte Carlo study of dislocation screening,” Acta Crystallogr. A 66(6), 703–716 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, U.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kako, S.

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

C. Gupta, Y. Enatsu, G. Gupta, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “High breakdown voltage p–n diodes on GaN on sapphire by MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 213(4), 878–882 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

J. Bai, M. Dudley, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, and M. A. Khan, “Reduction of threading dislocation densities in AlN/ sapphire epilayers driven by growth mode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kirchner, C.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kong, W.

Kopp, V. S.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kowligy, A.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

J. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Near-to-far field transformations for radiative and guided waves,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 395–402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lamb, E. S.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, F.

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leinse, A.

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, B.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, K. H.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. H.

H. Miyake, C. H. Lin, K. Tokoro, and K. Hiramatsu, “Preparation of high-quality AlN on sapphire by high-temperature face-to-face annealing,” J. Cryst. Growth 456, 155–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, R.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lind, A.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
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G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
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X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5(10), 1279–1282 (2018).
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Lu, J.

Lu, T. J.

Lu, Z.

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
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V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
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Luo, Y.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
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M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
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H. Miyake, C. H. Lin, K. Tokoro, and K. Hiramatsu, “Preparation of high-quality AlN on sapphire by high-temperature face-to-face annealing,” J. Cryst. Growth 456, 155–159 (2016).
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Mizoguchi, T.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
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Montes, J.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

Montes, J. A.

Moon, H.

Mouradian, S.

Muhammed, M. M.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
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J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Atomic geometry and electronic structure of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(11), 8067–8070 (1994).
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Newbury, N. R.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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Ng, T. K.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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Nikolaev, A. E.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
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T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
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Ooi, B. S.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
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C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
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Pan, C. C.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
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Papp, S. B.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
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C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, V. M. Passaro, and M. N. Armenise, “Fully three-dimensional accurate modeling of scattering loss in optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(4), 285–298 (2009).
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Pernice, W.

Pernice, W. H.

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
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C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W. H. P.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Preble, S.

Prinz, G. M.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Puchtler, T. J.

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Z.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Roqan, I. S.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
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Sabelfeld, K. K.

V. M. Kaganer and K. K. Sabelfeld, “X-ray Diffraction peaks from correlated dislocations: Monte Carlo study of dislocation screening,” Acta Crystallogr. A 66(6), 703–716 (2010).
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S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scholz, F.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

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A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, C.

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakfa, M. K.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Siegel, M.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soltani, M.

Speck, J. S.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stegmaier, M.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steidle, J.

Sun, C.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, W. H.

J. Bai, M. Dudley, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, and M. A. Khan, “Reduction of threading dislocation densities in AlN/ sapphire epilayers driven by growth mode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Surya, J. B.

Tanaka, S.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5(10), 1279–1282 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jung and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 263–271 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3(10), 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thapa, S. B.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thomas, P.

Thonke, K.

S. B. Thapa, C. Kirchner, F. Scholz, G. M. Prinz, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, A. Chuvilin, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, and D. Hofstetter, “Structural and spectroscopic properties of AlN layers grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 383–386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tien, M. C.

Tokoro, K.

H. Miyake, C. H. Lin, K. Tokoro, and K. Hiramatsu, “Preparation of high-quality AlN on sapphire by high-temperature face-to-face annealing,” J. Cryst. Growth 456, 155–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tokumoto, Y.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toth, M.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Triviño, N. V.

A. M. Berhane, K. Y. Jeong, Z. Bodrog, S. Fiedler, T. Schröder, N. V. Triviño, T. Palacios, A. Gali, M. Toth, D. Englund, and I. Aharonovich, “Bright Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Defects in Gallium Nitride,” Adv. Mater. 29(12), 1605092 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Atomic geometry and electronic structure of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(11), 8067–8070 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verkhovtceva, E. V.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. M.

J. Bai, M. Dudley, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, and M. A. Khan, “Reduction of threading dislocation densities in AlN/ sapphire epilayers driven by growth mode modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051903 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5(10), 1279–1282 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wen, J.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Woolf, A.

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagovkina, M. A.

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5(10), 1279–1282 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Near-to-far field transformations for radiative and guided waves,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 395–402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. H.

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ycas, G. G.

D. D. Hickstein, H. Jung, D. R. Carlson, A. Lind, I. Coddington, K. Srinivasan, G. G. Ycas, D. C. Cole, A. Kowligy, C. Fredrick, S. Droste, E. S. Lamb, N. R. Newbury, H. X. Tang, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation and frequency-comb stabilization using on-chip waveguides with both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(1), 014025 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. Fu, X. Huang, X. Zhang, T. H. Yang, J. A. Montes, I. Baranowski, and Y. Zhao, “Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31758–31773 (2017).
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Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, R.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

Zhu, T.

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, C. L.

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Guo, C. L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3(10), 1126–1131 (2016).
[Crossref]

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X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated High-Q Crystalline AlN Microresonators for Broadband Kerr and Raman Frequency Combs,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1943–1950 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-passivated AlGaN nanowires for enhanced luminescence of ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, C. Yan, G. Zhou, J. Wen, Z. Qin, Q. Zhou, B. Li, R. Zheng, H. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Broadband White-Light Emission from Alumina Nitride Bulk Single Crystals,” ACS Photonics 5(10), 4009–4013 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Puchtler, A. Woolf, T. Zhu, D. Gachet, E. L. Hu, and R. A. Oliver, “Effect of threading dislocations on the quality factor of InGaN/GaN microdisk cavities,” ACS Photonics 2(1), 137–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Near-to-far field transformations for radiative and guided waves,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 395–402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

V. M. Kaganer and K. K. Sabelfeld, “X-ray Diffraction peaks from correlated dislocations: Monte Carlo study of dislocation screening,” Acta Crystallogr. A 66(6), 703–716 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Huang, H. Fu, H. Chen, Z. Lu, I. Baranowski, J. Montes, T. H. Yang, B. P. Gunning, D. Koleske, and Y. Zhao, “Reliability analysis of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well solar cells under thermal stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(23), 233511 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091108 (2014).
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[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Fu, I. Baranowski, X. Huang, H. Chen, Z. Lu, J. Montes, X. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Demonstration of AlN Schottky barrier diodes with blocking voltage over 1 Kv,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38(9), 1286–1289 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. S. Kopp, V. M. Kaganer, M. V. Baidakova, W. V. Lundin, A. E. Nikolaev, E. V. Verkhovtceva, M. A. Yagovkina, and N. Cherkashin, “X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al2O3 (0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(7), 073507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tokumoto, S. I. Amma, N. Shibata, T. Mizoguchi, K. Edagawa, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Ikuhara, “Fabrication of electrically conductive nanowires using high-density dislocations in AlN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 124307 (2009).
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X. Guo, C. L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2016).
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Nano Lett. (2)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Arita, F. Le Roux, M. J. Holmes, S. Kako, and Y. Arakawa, “Ultraclean single photon emission from a GaN quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 2902–2907 (2017).
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H. Jung and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 263–271 (2016).
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C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) TEM cross-section image of AlN WGs. (b)–(d), the dielectric equivalent of threading dislocation for scattering analysis, see main text for detailed description. (e) Typical XRD data of AlN thin film grown on sapphire substrate by MOCVD, the threading dislocation density can be estimated using Eqs. (1) and (2). (f)–(k), the procedures to obtain the threading dislocation induced optical scattering loss, detailed description can be found in main text.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Coordinate system implemented in this study. (b) Threading dislocation scattered power versus sidewall non-ideality scattered power RTD/RSW for TE and TM mode, and the scattered power ratio between TM and TE mode RTM/RTE, when no WG confinement is considered. (c) Far-field power distribution of the scattered field for TE and TM excitation. (d), (e) WG cross-section view of scattered power distribution for TE and TM mode, respectively. (f), (g) Schematic for the dipole arrangement and OB points for TE and TM modes, respectively. (h)–(k) Field intensity versus dipole location for TE and TM dipoles at different observation points.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a). Threading dislocation scattered power versus sidewall non-ideality scattered power RTD/RSW for TE and TM mode, and the scattered power ratio between TM and TE mode RTM/RTE, when WG confinement is implemented. (b) The wavelength dependence of scattered power ratio. (c) Far-field power distribution of TE and TM excitation with WG confinement effect.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The scattered power ratio RTD/RSW for HAR WGs at different aspect ratios.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The loss map for TD induced scattering loss for TE mode excitation. (b) Same plot for TM mode excitation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The ratio between TD induced scattering loss and total loss versus dislocation density for six noteworthy WG designs. (b) The total loss in dB/cm versus dislocation density.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Six notable WG designs and their corresponding geometries.

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Table 2 Typical dislocation density for AlN thin film grown by different methods

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N S = β S 2 4.35 | b S | 2
N E = β E 2 4.35 | b E | 2
J ( r )=iωΔε( r ) E ( r )
G ¯ 21 ( r c , r c ' ) e i k 1+,0   ·( r c r c ' ) k 1zc,0 2 [ C ¯ M A TE M 2 TE + C ¯ Np A TM M 2 TM ] e i( k 1zc,0 k 2zc,0 ) d 1   4π( z c z c ' ) k 1 | k s0 | 2 k 2zc,0
G ¯ 23 ( r c , r c ' ) e i k 3,0   ·( r c r c ' ) k 3zc,0 2 [ C ¯ M B TE M 2 TE + C ¯ Nm B TM M 2 TM ] e i( k 3zc,0 k 2zc,0 ) d 2   4π( z c z c ' ) k 3 | k s0 | 2 k 2zc,0
A TE =[ e i( k 1zc,0 k 2zc,0 ) z c ' + e i k 2zc,0 ( z c ' +2 d 2 )+i k 1zc,0 z c ' R ^ 23 TE ] T ^ 21 TE
A TM =[ e i( k 1zc,0 k 2zc,0 ) z c ' + e i k 2zc,0 ( z c ' +2 d 2 )+i k 1zc,0 z c ' R ^ 23 TM ] T ^ 21 TM
B TE =[ e i( k 3zc,0 k 2zc,0 ) z c ' + e i k 2zc,0 ( z c ' +2 d 1 )i k 3zc,0 z c ' R ^ 21 TE ] T ^ 23 TE
B TM =[ e i( k 3zc,0 k 2zc,0 ) z c ' + e i k 2zc,0 ( z c ' +2 d 1 )i k 3zc,0 z c ' R ^ 21 TM ] T ^ 23 TM
C ¯ Np =[ k n+ ×( k s × z c )/ k n ][ k m ×( k s × z c )/ k m ] 
C ¯ Nm =[ k n ×( k s × z c )/ k n ][ k m+ ×( k s × z c )/ k m ] 
C ¯ M =( k s × z c )( k s × z c )
M 2 TE = [ 1 R 23 TE R 21 TE e 2i k 2zc ( d 2 d 1 ) ] 1
M 2 TM = [ 1 R 23 TM R 21 TM e 2i k 2zc ( d 2 d 1 ) ] 1
E ( r c )=iωμ G ¯ ( r c , r c ' )· J ( r c ' )d V
P= S · r dA
R ˜ ( Ω ) 2 σ 2 L c 1+ L c 2 Ω 2
P rad L = 0 2π 0 π ( S · r ) R ˜ ( β k 0 n cladd r · z ) r 2 sinθdθdϕ
σ 2 =D.D.×W× 10 11

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