Abstract

Sidewall emission of a micro-scale light emitting diode (micro-LED) improves the light extraction efficiency, but it causes mismatched angular distributions between AlGaInP-based red micro-LED and InGaN-based blue/green counterparts due to material difference. As a result, color shift of RGB micro-LED displays may become visually noticeable. To address this issue, we first analyze the angular distributions of RGB micro-LEDs and obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment. Next, we propose a device structure with top black matrix and taper angle in micro-LEDs, which greatly suppresses the color shift while keeping a reasonably high light extraction efficiency.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III–V epi-layers—A mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(3), 137–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, B. Wei, C. Lee, and H. Lee, “Monolithic red/green/blue micro-LEDs with HBR and DBR structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 262–265 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2013 (2)

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond-a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN light-emitting diode with deep-angled mesa sidewalls for enhanced light emission in the surface-normal direction,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55(2), 523–526 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Harbers, S. J. Bierhuizen, and M. R. Krames, “Performance of high power light emitting diodes in display illumination applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 98–109 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1976 (1)

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

Avrutin, V.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bajcar, R. C.

Bierhuizen, S. J.

G. Harbers, S. J. Bierhuizen, and M. R. Krames, “Performance of high power light emitting diodes in display illumination applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 98–109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bonafede, S.

Bower, C. A.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, B. Wei, C. Lee, and H. Lee, “Monolithic red/green/blue micro-LEDs with HBR and DBR structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 262–265 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, K. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

Chen, Y.

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III–V epi-layers—A mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(3), 137–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chien, H. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

X. H. Wang, W. Y. Fu, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Evaluation of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes of circular geometry,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22311–22319 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. H.

Chong, W. C.

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III–V epi-layers—A mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(3), 137–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. Yu, T. M. Chen, H. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32504–32515 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cok, R.

Daami, A.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: A size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davidson, J. G.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

Dawson, M. D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ding, K.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Dörnen, A.

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
[Crossref]

Edwards, P. R.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fecioru, A.

Fisher, B.

Fu, W. Y.

Fujito, K.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geng, C.

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gomez, D.

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gou, F.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, H. V.

Harbers, G.

G. Harbers, S. J. Bierhuizen, and M. R. Krames, “Performance of high power light emitting diodes in display illumination applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 98–109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hsiang, E. L.

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y. L.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
[Crossref]

Izyumskaya, N.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jeon, C. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN light-emitting diode with deep-angled mesa sidewalls for enhanced light emission in the surface-normal direction,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55(2), 523–526 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond-a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
[Crossref]

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Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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Jin, S. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
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B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
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C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
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Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
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Kim, H. S.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
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J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN light-emitting diode with deep-angled mesa sidewalls for enhanced light emission in the surface-normal direction,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55(2), 523–526 (2008).
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Kwon, B. H.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
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Lai, P. T.

Lan, Y. F.

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
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Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
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H. V. Han, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Lin, W. C. Chong, J. R. Li, K. J. Chen, P. Yu, T. M. Chen, H. M. Chen, K. M. Lau, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based micro LED display technology,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32504–32515 (2015).
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Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
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Lee, C.

G. Chen, B. Wei, C. Lee, and H. Lee, “Monolithic red/green/blue micro-LEDs with HBR and DBR structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 262–265 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

G. Chen, B. Wei, C. Lee, and H. Lee, “Monolithic red/green/blue micro-LEDs with HBR and DBR structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 262–265 (2018).
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Lee, J.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
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J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN light-emitting diode with deep-angled mesa sidewalls for enhanced light emission in the surface-normal direction,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55(2), 523–526 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J. I.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
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Lee, J. S.

J. S. Lee, J. Lee, S. Kim, and H. Jeon, “GaN light-emitting diode with deep-angled mesa sidewalls for enhanced light emission in the surface-normal direction,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 55(2), 523–526 (2008).
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Lee, S. J.

Lee, S. L.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
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Li, J.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, J. R.

Li, J. Z.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
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Li, M. C.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
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L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III–V epi-layers—A mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(3), 137–145 (2018).
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Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
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Licitra, C.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: A size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
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Lin, C. F.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
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Lin, H. Y.

Lin, J. Y.

H. X. Jiang and J. Y. Lin, “Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond-a decade progress review,” Opt. Express 21(S3Suppl 3), A475–A484 (2013).
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S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. C.

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
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Lu, Z. D.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, C. Y.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
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Luo, X.

Marcus, H.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

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H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, and J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2(3), 95–99 (1976).

McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M. A.

Melnik, G. A.

Moore, T.

Morkoç, H.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
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Moser, M.

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
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Nakamura, S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olivier, F.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: A size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ou, F.

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III–V epi-layers—A mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(3), 137–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prevatte, C.

Pyo, B.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, Y. D.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Queisser, I.

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
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Radauscher, E.

Raymond, B.

Rotzoll, R.

Scholz, F.

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suh, M. C.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, B. T.

Tan, G.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, J. H. Lee, S. C. Lin, R. Zhu, S. H. Choi, and S. T. Wu, “Analysis and optimization on the angular color shift of RGB OLED displays,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33629–33642 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, W.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tarn Tair, F. G.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Templier, F.

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: A size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Trindade, A. J.

Tripathy, S.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. Y.

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. T.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tseng, W. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wang, S. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. H.

Watson, I. M.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.

G. Chen, B. Wei, C. Lee, and H. Lee, “Monolithic red/green/blue micro-LEDs with HBR and DBR structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(3), 262–265 (2018).
[Crossref]

Winterhoff, R.

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. M.

Z. Liu, W. C. Chong, K. M. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based LED micro-displays for wearable applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 148, 98–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini‐LED and micro‐LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27, 1–15 (2019), doi:.
[Crossref]

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, J. H. Lee, S. C. Lin, R. Zhu, S. H. Choi, and S. T. Wu, “Analysis and optimization on the angular color shift of RGB OLED displays,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33629–33642 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, Y. C. Peng, Y. L. Hsieh, C. Y. Luo, S. C. Wang, C. C. Yu, and C. F. Lin, “Light-output enhancement in a nitride-based light-emitting diode with 22° undercut sidewalls,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(1), 19–21 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, F. Ou, W. C. Chong, Y. Chen, and Q. Li, “Wafer-scale monolithic hybrid integration of Si-based IC and III–V epi-layers—A mass manufacturable approach for active matrix micro-LED micro-displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 26(3), 137–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (202¯1¯InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631–633 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Olivier, A. Daami, C. Licitra, and F. Templier, “Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger non-radiative recombination in GaN based LEDs: A size effect study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022104 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Moser, R. Winterhoff, C. Geng, I. Queisser, F. Scholz, and A. Dörnen, “Refractive index of (AlxGa1−x)0.5In0.5P grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(2), 235–237 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Qi, H. Liang, D. Wang, Z. D. Lu, W. Tang, and K. M. Lau, “Comparison of blue and green InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101903 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (Basel) (1)

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Crystals (Basel) (1)

F. Gou, E. L. Hsiang, G. Tan, Y. F. Lan, C. Y. Tsai, and S. T. Wu, “Tripling the optical efficiency of color-converted micro-LED displays with funnel-tube array,” Crystals (Basel) 9(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Electron Devi. (1)

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and fabrication of AlGaInP-based flip-chip micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM image of RGB micro-LEDs arrays after transfer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured emission spectra of (a) red, (b) green, and (c) blue micro-LEDs at different viewing angles. Red and black dashed lines indicate the central wavelength and FWHM at each viewing angle.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured and simulated far-field radiation patterns of RGB micro-LEDs. Dots are experimental data and lines are simulation results.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated total, top, and sidewall emissions of (a) red, (b) green, and (c) blue micro-LEDs at different viewing angles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Top view of micro-LED chip with a point-like source located at (x, y). (b, c) Side views of light emission from the point source with emission angle θi: (a) θi < θc: top emission; (c) θi > 90°−θc: sidewall emissions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 10 reference colors in CIE1976 color space, with D65 white point and RGB micro-LEDs primary colors.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated color triangle of the RGB micro-LED display system and the CIE coordinates of 10 reference colors from 0° to 80° viewing angle. The arrows indicate the color shift as viewing angle changes.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 RGB spectra of our and Osram’s micro-LEDs.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 RGB micro-LED display with top black matrix.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Light intensity enhancement ratio normalized to bare RGB micro-LEDs (90° taper angle and without black matrix) as taper angle α changes.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Simulated color shifts of 10 reference colors from 0° to 80° viewing angle for RGB micro-LED display with top black matrix and 120° taper angle.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Simulated color shifts of the first 18 colors in Macbeth ColorChecker from 0° to 80° viewing angle for RGB micro-LED display with top black matrix and 120° taper angle.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Simulated radiation patterns of (a) red, (b) green, and (c) blue micro-LEDs with top black matrix and 120° taper angle at different viewing angle θ and azimuthal angle φ.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical parameters of commonly used AlGaInP-based red micro-LED and InGaN-based blue and green micro-LEDs adopted in simulations.

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Table 2 Simulated and calculated sidewall emission ratio for a RGB micro-LED display with different chip size.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ c = sin 1 ( n air n ).
η= Ω 4π ,
Ω= 0 2π dϕ 0 θ c sinθdθ .
η n = 1 2 e 2nαd R s n θ n1 θ n sinθdθ .

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