Abstract

Perovskite silicon tandem solar cells combine potentially low production costs with the ability to surpass the efficiency limit of silicon single junction solar cells. Optical modeling and optimization are crucial to achieve this ambitious goal in the near future. The optimization should seek to maximize the energy yield based on realistic environmental conditions. This work analyzes the energy yield of perovskite silicon tandem solar cells and modules based on realistic experimental data, with a special focus on the investigation of surface textures at the front and rear side of the solar cell and its implication for reflection as well as parasitic absorption properties. The investigation reveals a 7.3%rel higher energy yield for an encapsulated tandem cell with a textured front side compared with an encapsulated high efficiency single junction solar cell with 24.3% harvesting efficiency for irradiance data of the year 2014 in Freiburg/Germany.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

O. Dupré, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Singular Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(2), 446–458 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(7), 427–436 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Tucher, O. Höhn, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical modeling of structured silicon-based tandem solar cells and module stacks,” Opt. Express 26(18), A761–A768 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

A. Richter, J. Benick, F. Feldmann, A. Fell, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “n-Type Si solar cells with passivating electron contact. Identifying sources for efficiency limitations by wafer thickness and resistivity variation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 96–105 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hörantner and H. J. Snaith, “Predicting and optimising the energy yield of perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells under real world conditions,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(9), 1983–1993 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dirnberger, B. Müller, and C. Reise, “PV module energy rating. Opportunities and limitations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(12), 1754–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Almansouri, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(8S1), 08KD04 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Hornung, G. Peharz, and A. W. Bett, “YieldOpt, a model to predict the power output and energy yield for concentrating photovoltaic modules,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(3), 385–397 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. de Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 13107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, W. Hong, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 797–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

T. M. Klucher, “Evaluation of models to predict insolation on tilted surfaces,” Sol. Energy 23(2), 111–114 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abate, A.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aberle, A. G.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adachi, D.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aernouts, T.

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Ashouri, A.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Albrecht, S.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Almansouri, I.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Almansouri, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(8S1), 08KD04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bach, U.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bailat, J.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

O. Dupré, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Singular Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(2), 446–458 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. de Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 13107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benick, J.

A. Richter, J. Benick, F. Feldmann, A. Fell, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “n-Type Si solar cells with passivating electron contact. Identifying sources for efficiency limitations by wafer thickness and resistivity variation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 96–105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bett, A. J.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bett, A. W.

M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Hornung, G. Peharz, and A. W. Bett, “YieldOpt, a model to predict the power output and energy yield for concentrating photovoltaic modules,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(3), 385–397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhusari, D.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, W. Hong, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 797–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bivour, M.

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M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Konishi, K.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Korte, L.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Krc, J.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lal, N. N.

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

Langenhorst, M.

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

Larrabee, D.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, W. Hong, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 797–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, W. Hong, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 797–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ledinsky, M.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-T.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lehr, J.

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

Lemmer, U.

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

Levi, D. H.

M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(7), 427–436 (2018).
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Li, Y.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lipovšek, B.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Liu, X.-Q.

R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, W. Hong, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 797–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

Löper, P.

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loutzenhiser, P. G.

P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Macco, B.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Manz, H.

P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mastroianni, S.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matsui, T.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maxwell, G. M.

P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K. R.

K. R. McIntosh, J. N. Cotsell, A. W. Norris, N. E. Powell, and B. M. Ketola, “An optical comparison of silicone and EVA encapsulants under various spectra,” in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 269–274.
[Crossref]

McRae, E.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Merckx, T.

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moon, S.-J.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morales-Vilches, A. B.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Mueller, T.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Müller, B.

D. Dirnberger, B. Müller, and C. Reise, “PV module energy rating. Opportunities and limitations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(12), 1754–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, C.

Mundt, L. E.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mundus, M.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakano, K.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ndione, P. F.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ni, H. F.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nicolay, S.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
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Niesen, B.

O. Dupré, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Singular Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(2), 446–458 (2018).
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P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, A. W.

K. R. McIntosh, J. N. Cotsell, A. W. Norris, N. E. Powell, and B. M. Ketola, “An optical comparison of silicone and EVA encapsulants under various spectra,” in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 269–274.
[Crossref]

Paetzold, U. W.

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peharz, G.

M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Hornung, G. Peharz, and A. W. Bett, “YieldOpt, a model to predict the power output and energy yield for concentrating photovoltaic modules,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(3), 385–397 (2015).
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Peng, Y.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
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Peters, M.

Pillai, S.

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
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Poortmans, J.

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Powell, N. E.

K. R. McIntosh, J. N. Cotsell, A. W. Norris, N. E. Powell, and B. M. Ketola, “An optical comparison of silicone and EVA encapsulants under various spectra,” in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2010), pp. 269–274.
[Crossref]

Rao, A. M.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rech, B.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Reichel, C.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reise, C.

D. Dirnberger, B. Müller, and C. Reise, “PV module energy rating. Opportunities and limitations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(12), 1754–1770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, S. L.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Richards, B. S.

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

Richter, A.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Richter, J. Benick, F. Feldmann, A. Fell, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “n-Type Si solar cells with passivating electron contact. Identifying sources for efficiency limitations by wafer thickness and resistivity variation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 96–105 (2017).
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Saliba, M.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schermer, J. J.

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schlatmann, R.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Schmager, R.

J. Lehr, M. Langenhorst, R. Schmager, S. Kirner, U. Lemmer, B. S. Richards, C. Case, and U. W. Paetzold, “Energy yield modelling of perovskite/silicon two-terminal tandem PV modules with flat and textured interfaces,” Sustain. Energy Fuels 2(12), 2754–2761 (2018).

Schulze, P. S. C.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Selegue, J.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.-Y.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siefer, G.

M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Hornung, G. Peharz, and A. W. Bett, “YieldOpt, a model to predict the power output and energy yield for concentrating photovoltaic modules,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(3), 385–397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smole, F.

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. de Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 13107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Snaith, H. J.

M. T. Hörantner and H. J. Snaith, “Predicting and optimising the energy yield of perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells under real world conditions,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(9), 1983–1993 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spiccia, L.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stannowski, B.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Steiner, M.

M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Hornung, G. Peharz, and A. W. Bett, “YieldOpt, a model to predict the power output and energy yield for concentrating photovoltaic modules,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(3), 385–397 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strachan, P. A.

P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stuckelberger, M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topic, M.

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Filipič, P. Löper, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, J. Krč, C. Ballif, and M. Topič, “CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) perovskite / silicon tandem solar cells: characterization based optical simulations,” Opt. Express 23(7), A263–A278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. de Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 13107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tress, W. R.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tucher, N.

Ummadisingu, A.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uto, T.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Uzu, H.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

van Eerden, M.

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Veit, C.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Veurman, W.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Werner, J.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wienands, K.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Winkler, K.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Würfel, U.

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, W.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, K.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Young, T.

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yum, J.-H.

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakeeruddin, S. M.

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. van Eerden, M. Jaysankar, A. Hadipour, T. Merckx, J. J. Schermer, T. Aernouts, J. Poortmans, and U. W. Paetzold, “Optical Analysis of Planar Multicrystalline Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(18), 1700151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. L. Ren, Y. Wang, A. M. Rao, E. McRae, J. M. Holden, T. Hager, K. Wang, W.-T. Lee, H. F. Ni, J. Selegue, and P. C. Eklund, “Ellipsometric determination of the optical constants of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(21), 2678–2680 (1991).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (2)

M. T. Hörantner and H. J. Snaith, “Predicting and optimising the energy yield of perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells under real world conditions,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10(9), 1983–1993 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Jošt, E. Köhnen, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Lipovšek, K. Jäger, B. Macco, A. Al-Ashouri, J. Krč, L. Korte, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, M. Topič, B. Stannowski, and S. Albrecht, “Textured interfaces in monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Advanced light management for improved efficiency and energy yield,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 16196 (2018).

Energy Procedia (2)

A. J. Bett, P. S. C. Schulze, K. Winkler, J. Gasparetto, P. F. Ndione, M. Bivour, A. Hinsch, M. Kohlstädt, S. Lee, S. Mastroianni, L. E. Mundt, M. Mundus, C. Reichel, A. Richter, C. Veit, K. Wienands, U. Würfel, W. Veurman, S. W. Glunz, M. Hermle, and J. C. Goldschmidt, “Low temperature perovskite solar cells with an evaporated TiO 2 compact layer for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells,” Energy Procedia 124, 567–576 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and Light Trapping for Tandem Solar Cells on Silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(6), 1380–1386 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. C. Holman, M. Filipič, A. Descoeudres, S. de Wolf, F. Smole, M. Topič, and C. Ballif, “Infrared light management in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction and rear-passivated solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 13107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Y. Jiang, I. Almansouri, S. Huang, T. Young, Y. Li, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, Y.-B. Cheng, M. A. Green, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical analysis of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(24), 5679–5689 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2)

O. Dupré, B. Niesen, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Field Performance versus Standard Test Condition Efficiency of Tandem Solar Cells and the Singular Case of Perovskites/Silicon Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(2), 446–458 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex Refractive Index Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films Determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Almansouri, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Ultimate efficiency limit of single-junction perovskite and dual-junction perovskite/silicon two-terminal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(8S1), 08KD04 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Energy (1)

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. Löper, S.-J. Moon, S. M. de Nicolas, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, S. Nicolay, J. Bailat, J.-H. Yum, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Organic-inorganic halide perovskite/crystalline silicon four-terminal tandem solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(3), 1619–1629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. A. Green, Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. Hohl-Ebinger, and A. W. Y. Ho-Baillie, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(7), 427–436 (2018).
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M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Hornung, G. Peharz, and A. W. Bett, “YieldOpt, a model to predict the power output and energy yield for concentrating photovoltaic modules,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(3), 385–397 (2015).
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R. R. King, D. Bhusari, A. Boca, D. Larrabee, X.-Q. Liu, W. Hong, C. M. Fetzer, D. C. Law, and N. H. Karam, “Band gap-voltage offset and energy production in next-generation multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 797–812 (2011).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
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Science (1)

M. Saliba, T. Matsui, K. Domanski, J.-Y. Seo, A. Ummadisingu, S. M. Zakeeruddin, J.-P. Correa-Baena, W. R. Tress, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Grätzel, “Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance,” Science 354(6309), 206–209 (2016).
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P. G. Loutzenhiser, H. Manz, C. Felsmann, P. A. Strachan, T. Frank, and G. M. Maxwell, “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation,” Sol. Energy 81(2), 254–267 (2007).
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A. Richter, J. Benick, F. Feldmann, A. Fell, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “n-Type Si solar cells with passivating electron contact. Identifying sources for efficiency limitations by wafer thickness and resistivity variation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 173, 96–105 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketches of the perovskite silicon tandem solar cells and module stacks investigated in this work. a) Thin film stack of the perovskite top solar cell with refractive indices for a wavelength of 600 nm. b) Tandem cell with planar front side and random pyramid texture at the rear side as well as c) textured front side and planar rear side. d-f) similar configurations as described before, without MgF2 anti-reflective coating but with module encapsulation and ARC at the module front side.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sketch summarizing the simulation procedure applied for the yield analysis of perovskite silicon tandem solar cells in this work.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical loss analysis of the two perovskite silicon tandem module stacks with planar front (left) and textured front (right). The texture reduces the front side reflectance considerably. Parasitic absorption in the Spiro-OMeTAD and the ITO layers is for both cases a relevant effect, even more pronounced in the case with front side texture.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured IV-characteristic of a silicon [30] (left) and a perovskite [31] single junction solar cell (right). Compared to the measured values are the fit curves of a two diode model for each of the cells. Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Distribution of the hourly global irradiance for Freiburg from February 2014 until January 2015. The dashed line indicates the APE of the AM1.5g spectrum [26]. (b) Distribution of the power conversion efficiency for a perovskite silicon tandem module with front side textured solar cells.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Relative current mismatch between perovskite top and silicon bottom cell with respect to the global incident power, for the module with the front side textured solar cells. (b) Annual incident energy for different output power ratios between the module with front side textured tandem cells and the one with single junction silicon cells.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized thicknesses [nm] of the perovskite layer for different bandgaps, solar cell and module stack configuration

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorbed or reflected photocurrent density [mA/cm2]

Tables Icon

Table 3 Energy yield and performance ratio for module stacks with different solar cells

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I diffusetilt = I skydiffusetilt + I groundreflected
I groundreflected = 1 2 I globalhorizontal Albedo(1cos(β))
APE= I(λ)dλ q hc I(λ)λdλ
RCM= J top J bot J top + J bot

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