Abstract

In this paper, we report the fabrication of lithium niobate (LN) microdisk resonators on a pulsed-laser deposited polycrystalline LN film on a silicon substrate rather than commercially provide LN film on insulator. The quality factor of these polycrystalline LN microdisks were measured above $3.4 \times 10^4$ in the 1550-nm band. Second harmonic generation was demonstrated in the fabricated microresonators. Because the properties of homemade LN film can be easily tuned by doping various ions, LN devices on homemade LN film may have more flexible functions and broad applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6963–6973 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Gunter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
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  8. C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. S. Liu, Y. Zheng, and X. Chen, “Cascading second-order nonlinear processes in a lithium niobate-on-insulator microdisk,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3626–3629 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, H. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “High-quality lithium niobate photonic crystal nanocavities,” Optica 4(10), 1251–1258 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. Mckenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. J. a. P. A. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.00957 (2019).
  26. L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).
  27. S. J. Herr, C. S. Werner, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Quasi-phase-matched self-pumped optical parametric oscillation in a micro-resonator,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10813–10819 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. Mao, W. Deng, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Upper temperature limit and multi-channel effects in ellipsoidal lithium-niobate optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15268–15275 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. Li, J. Cui, W. Wang, D. Zheng, L. Jia, S. Saeed, H. Liu, R. Rupp, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “P-type lithium niobate thin films fabricated by nitrogen-doping,” Materials 12(5), 819 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO$_3$3 and LiTaO$_3$3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. R. Toda, K. Minami, and M. Esashi, “Thin-beam bulk micromachining based on RIE and xenon difluoride silicon etching,” Sens. Actuators, A 66(1-3), 268–272 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  34. F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. F. Bo, S. H. Huang, S. K. Ozdemir, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1841–1844 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. D. Nelson and R. Mikulyak, “Refractive indices of congruently melting lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3688–3689 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  37. Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  38. J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. Jiang, R. Luo, H. Liang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Fast response of photorefraction in lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3267–3270 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (6)

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Q.-F. Yang, J. Ling, R. Luo, H. Liang, M. Li, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Vahala, and Q. Lin, “A self-starting bi-chromatic LiNbO$_3$3 soliton microcomb,” Optica 6(9), 1138–1144 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Ni, Z. Hao, J. Zhang, W. Mao, M. Wang, W. Chu, R. Wu, Z. Fang, and L. Qiao, “Broadband quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation in an on-chip monocrystalline lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(17), 173903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Song, “Emerging opportunities for ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 62(7), 74231 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Cui, W. Wang, D. Zheng, L. Jia, S. Saeed, H. Liu, R. Rupp, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “P-type lithium niobate thin films fabricated by nitrogen-doping,” Materials 12(5), 819 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

S. J. Herr, C. S. Werner, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Quasi-phase-matched self-pumped optical parametric oscillation in a micro-resonator,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10813–10819 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Mao, W. Deng, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Upper temperature limit and multi-channel effects in ellipsoidal lithium-niobate optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15268–15275 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, Y. Jia, S. Bonaus, C. S. Werner, S. J. Herr, I. Breunig, K. Buse, and H. Zappe, “Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical frequency conversion in on-chip whispering galleries,” Optica 5(7), 872–875 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, Y. Zheng, and X. Chen, “Cascading second-order nonlinear processes in a lithium niobate-on-insulator microdisk,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3626–3629 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, H. Jiang, and Q. Lin, “High-quality lithium niobate photonic crystal nanocavities,” Optica 4(10), 1251–1258 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, R. Luo, H. Liang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Fast response of photorefraction in lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3267–3270 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO$_3$3 and LiTaO$_3$3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO$_3$3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cai, Y. Wang, and H. Hu, “Low-loss waveguides in a single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3013–3016 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Geiss, S. Saravi, A. Sergeyev, S. Diziain, F. Setzpfandt, F. Schrempel, R. Grange, E.-B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, and T. Pertsch, “Fabrication of nanoscale lithium niobate waveguides for second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2715–2718 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2007 (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Gunter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Toda, K. Minami, and M. Esashi, “Thin-beam bulk micromachining based on RIE and xenon difluoride silicon etching,” Sens. Actuators, A 66(1-3), 268–272 (1998).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

D. Nelson and R. Mikulyak, “Refractive indices of congruently melting lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3688–3689 (1974).
[Crossref]

a. P. A. Lai, K. J.

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).

a. P. A. Safavi-Naeini, A. H. J.

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. Mckenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. J. a. P. A. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.00957 (2019).

Andrade, N.

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 201(2), 253–283 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arrangoiz-Arriola, P.

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. Mckenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. J. a. P. A. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.00957 (2019).

Atikian, H. A.

Baida, F. I.

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baron, T.

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO$_3$3 and LiTaO$_3$3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bartasyte, A.

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO$_3$3 and LiTaO$_3$3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernal, M. P.

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Mao, W. Deng, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Upper temperature limit and multi-channel effects in ellipsoidal lithium-niobate optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15268–15275 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, S. H. Huang, S. K. Ozdemir, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1841–1844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonaus, S.

Boulet, P.

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO$_3$3 and LiTaO$_3$3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
[Crossref]

Breunig, I.

Burek, M. J.

Buscaino, B.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

Buse, K.

Cai, L.

Calero, V.

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Camacho, R.

J. Moore, J. K. Douglas, I. W. Frank, T. A. Friedmann, R. Camacho, and M. Eichenfield, “Efficient second harmonic generation in lithium niobate on insulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2016) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper STh3P.1.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Y.

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M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I. C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30924–30933 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

J. Lin, Y. Ni, Z. Hao, J. Zhang, W. Mao, M. Wang, W. Chu, R. Wu, Z. Fang, and L. Qiao, “Broadband quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation in an on-chip monocrystalline lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(17), 173903 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO$_3$3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, N.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Cui, W. Wang, D. Zheng, L. Jia, S. Saeed, H. Liu, R. Rupp, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “P-type lithium niobate thin films fabricated by nitrogen-doping,” Materials 12(5), 819 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Werner, C. S.

Winzer, P.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Witmer, J. D.

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. Mckenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. J. a. P. A. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.00957 (2019).

Wolf, R.

Wu, R.

J. Lin, Y. Ni, Z. Hao, J. Zhang, W. Mao, M. Wang, W. Chu, R. Wu, Z. Fang, and L. Qiao, “Broadband quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation in an on-chip monocrystalline lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(17), 173903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

Xu, J.

W. Li, J. Cui, W. Wang, D. Zheng, L. Jia, S. Saeed, H. Liu, R. Rupp, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “P-type lithium niobate thin films fabricated by nitrogen-doping,” Materials 12(5), 819 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Mao, W. Deng, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Upper temperature limit and multi-channel effects in ellipsoidal lithium-niobate optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15268–15275 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, S. H. Huang, S. K. Ozdemir, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1841–1844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO$_3$3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, S. H. Huang, S. K. Ozdemir, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1841–1844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.-F.

Yu, M.

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).

Zappe, H.

Zhang, G.

W. Mao, W. Deng, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Upper temperature limit and multi-channel effects in ellipsoidal lithium-niobate optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15268–15275 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Bo, S. H. Huang, S. K. Ozdemir, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Inverted-wedge silica resonators for controlled and stable coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1841–1844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Lin, Y. Ni, Z. Hao, J. Zhang, W. Mao, M. Wang, W. Chu, R. Wu, Z. Fang, and L. Qiao, “Broadband quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation in an on-chip monocrystalline lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(17), 173903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).

Zheng, D.

W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Cui, W. Wang, D. Zheng, L. Jia, S. Saeed, H. Liu, R. Rupp, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “P-type lithium niobate thin films fabricated by nitrogen-doping,” Materials 12(5), 819 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L.

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).

Zheng, Y.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, R.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Bo, J. Wang, J. Cui, S. K. Ozdemir, Y. Kong, G. Zhang, J. Xu, and L. Yang, “Lithium-niobate-silica hybrid whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Adv. Mater. 27(48), 8075–8081 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Bartasyte, S. Margueron, T. Baron, S. Oliveri, and P. Boulet, “Toward high-quality epitaxial LiNbO$_3$3 and LiTaO$_3$3 thin films for acoustic and optical applications,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(8), 1600998 (2017).
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W. Li, J. Cui, W. Wang, D. Zheng, L. Jia, S. Saeed, H. Liu, R. Rupp, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “P-type lithium niobate thin films fabricated by nitrogen-doping,” Materials 12(5), 819 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Cui, D. Zheng, W. Wang, S. Wang, S. Song, H. Liu, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Fabrication and characteristics of heavily Fe-doped LiNbO$_3$3/Si heterojunction,” Materials 12(17), 2659 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Gunter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
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Nature (2)

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I. C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30924–30933 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Zhu, Z. Hao, F. Bo, X. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Thermo-optic effects in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21869–21879 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6963–6973 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, B. Stern, M. Lipson, and M. Lončar, “Nanophotonic lithium niobate electro-optic modulators,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1547–1555 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. J. Herr, C. S. Werner, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Quasi-phase-matched self-pumped optical parametric oscillation in a micro-resonator,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10813–10819 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Mao, W. Deng, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Upper temperature limit and multi-channel effects in ellipsoidal lithium-niobate optical parametric oscillators,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15268–15275 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24531–24539 (2017).
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Opt. Mater. (1)

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Optica (4)

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Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 623–628 (2017).
[Crossref]

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J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO$_3$3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(1), 014002 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Lin, Y. Ni, Z. Hao, J. Zhang, W. Mao, M. Wang, W. Chu, R. Wu, Z. Fang, and L. Qiao, “Broadband quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation in an on-chip monocrystalline lithium niobate microdisk resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(17), 173903 (2019).
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[Crossref]

Z. Hao, L. Zhang, A. Gao, W. Mao, X. Lyu, X. Gao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Periodically poled lithium niobate whispering gallery mode microcavities on a chip,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 61(11), 114211 (2018).
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W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. Mckenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. J. a. P. A. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.00957 (2019).

L. Shao, M. Yu, S. Maity, N. Sinclair, L. Zheng, C. Chia, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Wang, M. Zhang, and K. J. a. P. A. Lai, “Microwave-to-optical conversion using lithium niobate thin-film acoustic resonators,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.08593 (2019).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the fabrication process of polycrystalline LN microdisks. The green, red and gray parts indicate LN, photoresist (PR) and Si, respectively. (1) Deposition of LN film on Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). (2) Ultra-violet lithography to make a PR pad. (3) PR developing. (4) Ar$^+$ plasma etching to remove unprotected LN film. (5) Wiping out residual PR by acetone. (6) XeF$_2$ dry etching to form a silicon pillar.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the deposited LN film on Si substrate. (a) Atomic force microscope image showing the surface roughness. (b) X-ray diffraction spectrum. (c) The piezo-electric force image of the LN film. (d) The relative phases of the optical axis of LN film along the yellow line in Fig. 2(c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Characterization of the polycrystalline LN microdisk on a silicon chip. (a) Optical microimage. (b, c) Scanning electron images showing the tilt and side views of the LN microdisk, respectively. (d) Transmission spectrum indicating a quality factor of 3.4$\times$10$^4$. (e) Broad-band transmission spectrum showing the free spectrum range.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Second harmonic generation in fabricate polycrystalline LN microdisk resonators. (a) SHG signal with a pump at 1539.4 nm. (b) The dependence of SHG conversion efficiencies to pump power indicating a 2.1$\times$10$^{-10}$ mW$^{-1}$ normalized conversion efficiency.

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